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FOUNDED   ay    JAMES    I.OEB,    LL.D. 

t  T.    E,    PAGE,  C.H.,  LITT.D. 

E.  CAPPS,  PH.D..  LL.D.         W.  H.  D.  ROUSE,  Lrrr.D. 









BOOKS  v.- VII. 






Printed  in  Great  Britain 


Introduction  page 

\'arro's  Life  and  Works       .          .          .  .       vii 

Varro's  Grammatical  Works          .          ,  .      viii 

\'arro's  De  Lingua  Latina     .           .           .  ,         ix 

The  Manuscripts  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina  .       xii 

The  Laurentian  Manuscript  F     .  ,       xv 

The  Orthography  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina  x\ii 

The  Editions  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina  .  xxvii 

Bibliography       .....  .xxxiii 

Our  Text  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina         .  xliii 
The  Critical  Apparatus         ....     xliv 

The  Translation  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina  xlv 

The  Notes  to  the  Translation       .  ,     xlvi 

S}Tnbols  and  Abbre\iations          .          .  .    xlix 

De  Lingu.\  Latina,  Te.\t  and  Translation 

BookV 2 

BookVL 172 

Book  VII 266 



Marcxs  Terentius  ^'ARRO  was  born  in  116  B.C., 
probably  at  Reate  in  the  Sabine  country,  where  his 
family,  which  was  of  equestrian  rank,  possessed  large 
estates.  He  was  a  student  under  L.  Aelius  Stilo 
Praeconinus,  a  scholar  of  the  equestrian  order,  widely 
versed  in  Greek  and  Latin  literature  and  especially 
interested  in  the  history  and  antiquities  of  the  Roman 
people.  He  studied  philosophy  at  Athens,  with  Anti- 
ochus  of  Ascalon.  With  his  tastes  thus  formed  for 
scholarship,  he  none  the  less  took  part  in  public  life, 
and  was  in  the  campaign  against  the  rebel  Sertorius 
in  Spain,  in  76.  He  was  an  officer  with  Pompey  in  the 
war  with  the  Cilician  pirates  in  67,  and  presumably 
also  in  Pompey 's  campaign  against  Mithradates.  In 
the  Ci\il  War  he  was  on  Pompey 's  side,  first  in  Spain 
and  then  in  Epirus  and  Thessaly. 

He  was  pardoned  by  Caesar,  and  lived  quietly  at 
Rome,  being  appointed  librarian  of  the  great  collec- 
tion of  Greek  and  Latin  books  which  Caesar  planned 
to  make.  After  Caesar's  assassination,  he  was  pro- 
scribed by  Antony,  and  his  ^illa  at  Casinum,  with 
his  personal  library,  was  destroyed.  But  he  himself 
escaped  death  by  the  devotion  of  friends,  who  con- 
cealed him,  and  he  secured  the  protection  of  Octavian, 



He  lived  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  peace  and  quiet, 
devoted  to  his  ^^Titings,  and  died  in  27  B.C.,  in  his 
eighty-ninth  year. 

Throughout  his  life  he  wrote  assiduously.  His 
works  number  seventy-four,  amounting  to  about  six 
hundred  and  twenty  books  ;  they  cover  virtually  all 
fields  of  human  thought :  agriculture,  grammar,  the 
history  and  antiquities  of  Rome,  geography,  law, 
rhetoric,  philosophy,  mathematics  and  astronomy, 
education,  the  history  of  literature  and  the  drama, 
satires,  poems,  orations,  letters. 

Of  all  these  only  one,  his  De  Re  Rustica  or  Treatise 
on  Agriculture,  in  three  books,  has  reached  us  complete. 
His  De  Lingua  Latino  or  On  the  Latin  Language,  in 
twenty-five  books,  has  come  down  to  us  as  a  torso  ; 
only  Books  V.  to  X.  are  extant,  and  there  are  serious 
gaps  in  these.  The  other  works  are  represented  by 
scattered  fragments  only. 


The  grammatical  works  of  Varro,  so  far  as  we  know 
them,  were  the  following  : 

De  Lingua  Latina,  in  twenty-five  books,  a  fuller 
account  of  which  is  given  below. 

De  Antiquitate  Li  tier  arum,  in  two  books,  addressed 
to  the  tragic  poet  L.  Accius,  who  died  about  86  b.c.  ; 
it  was  therefore  one  of  Varro 's  earliest  writings. 

De  Origine  Linguae  Latinae,  in  three  books,  ad- 
dressed to  Pompey. 

Uipl  XapaKT'jpcov,  in  at  least  three  books,  on  the 
formation  of  words. 

Quaestiones    Plautinae,    in    five    books,   containing 


interpretations  of  rare  words  found  in  the  comedies 
of  Plautus. 

De  Similitudine  Verhorum,  in  three  books,  on  re- 
gularity in  forms  and  words. 

De  Utilitate  Sermonis,  in  at  least  four  books,  in 
which  he  dealt  with  the  principle  of  anomaly  or 

De  Sermone  Latino,  in  five  books  or  more,  addressed 
to  Marcellus,  which  treats  of  orthography  and  the 
metres  of  poetry. 

Disciplinae,  an  encyclopaedia  on  the  Uberal  arts, 
in  nine  books,  of  which  the  first  dealt  with  Grammatica. 

The  extant  fragments  of  these  works,  apart  from 
those  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina,  may  be  found  in  the 
Goetz  and  Schoell  edition  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina, 
pages  199-242  ;  in  the  collection  of  Wilmanns,  pages 
170-223  ;  and  in  that  of  Funaioli,  pages  179-371  (see 
the  Bibliography). 


\  arro's  treatise  On  the  Latin  Language  was  a  work 
in  twenty-five  books,  composed  in  47  to  45  B.C.,  and 
pubhshed  before  the  death  of  Cicero  in  43. 

The  first  book  was  an  introduction,  containing  at 
the  outset  a  dedication  of  the  entire  work  to  Cicero. 
The  remainder  seems  to  have  been  divided  into  four 
sections  of  six  books  each,  each  section  being  by  its 
subject  matter  further  divisible  into  two  halves  of 
three  books  each. 

Books  Il.-Vn.  dealt  with  the  impositio  vocabulorum, 
or  how  words  were  originated  and  applied  to  things 


and  ideas.  Of  this  portion,  Books  1 1. -IV.  were  prob- 
ably an  earlier  smaller  work  entitled  De  Etymologia 
or  the  like  ;  it  was  separately  dedicated  to  one 
Septumius  or  Septimius,  who  had  at  some  time, 
which  we  cannot  now  identify,  served  V^arro  as 
quaestor.  Book  II.  presented  the  arguments  which 
were  advanced  against  Etymology  as  a  branch  of 
learning  ;  Book  III.  presented  those  in  its  favour  as  a 
branch  of  learning,  and  useful  ;  Book  IV.  discussed 
its  nature. 

Books  v.- VI I.  start  with  a  new  dedication  to  Cicero. 
They  treat  of  the  origin  of  words,  the  sources  from 
which  they  come,  and  the  manner  in  which  new  words 
develop.  Book  V.  is  devoted  to  words  which  are  the 
names  of  places,  and  to  the  objects  which  are  in  the 
places  under  discussion  ;  VI.  treats  words  denoting 
time-ideas,  and  those  which  contain  some  time-idea, 
notably  verbs  ;  VII.  explains  rare  and  difficult  words 
which  are  met  in  the  writings  of  the  poets. 

Books  VIII. -XIII.  dealt  with  derivation  of  words 
from  other  words,  including  stem-derivation,  de- 
clension of  nouns,  and  conjugation  of  verbs.  The  first 
three  treated  especially  the  conflict  between  the 
principle  of  Anomaly,  or  Irregularity,  based  on  con- 
suetudo  '  popular  usage,'  and  that  of  Analogy,  or 
Regularity  of  a  proportional  character,  based  on  ratio 
'  relation  '  of  form  to  form.  VIII.  gives  the  arguments 
against  the  existence  of  Analogy,  IX.  those  in  favour 
of  its  existence,  X.  Varro's  own  solution  of  the  con- 
flicting views,  with  his  decision  in  favour  of  its  exi- 
stence. XI. -XIII.  discussed  Analogy  in  derivation,  in 
the  wide  sense  given  above  :  probably  XI.  dealt  with 
nouns  of  place  and  associated  terms,  XII.  with  time- 
ideas,  notably  verbs,  XIII.  wdth  poetic  words. 


Books  XIV.-XIX.  treated  of  syntax.  Books  XX,- 
XXV.  seem  to  have  continued  the  same  theme, 
but  probably  with  special  attention  to  stylistic  and 
rhetorical  embellishments. 

Of  these  twenty-five  books,  we  have  to-day,  apart 
from  a  few  brief  fragments,  only  Books  V.  to  X.,  and 
in  these  there  are  several  extensive  gaps  where  the 
manuscript  tradition  fails. 

The  fragments  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina,  that  is, 
those  quotations  or  paraphrases  in  other  authors  which 
do  not  correspond  to  the  extant  text  of  Books  \\-X., 
are  not  numerous  nor  long.  The  most  considerable 
of  them  are  passages  in  the  Nodes  Atticae  of  Aulus 
Gellius  ii.  25  and  x\i.  8.  They  may  be  found  in  the 
edition  of  Goetz  and  Schoell,  pages  3,  lid,  192-198, 
and  in  the  collections  of  Wilmanns  and  FunaioU  (see 
the  Bibliography). 

It  is  hardly  possible  to  discuss  here  even  summarily 
\'arro's  linguistic  theories,  the  sources  upon  which  he 
drew,  and  his  degree  of  independence  of  thought  and 
procedure.  He  owed  much  to  his  teacher  Aelius 
Stilo,  to  whom  he  refers  frequently,  and  he  draws 
hea\'ily  upon  Greek  predecessors,  of  course,  but  his 
practice  has  much  to  commend  it  :  he  followed  neither 
the  Anomalists  nor  the  Analogists  to  the  extreme  of 
their  theories,  and  he  preferred  to  derive  Latin  words 
from  Latin  sources,  rather  than  to  refer  practically 
all  to  Greek  origins.  On  such  topics  reference  may 
be  made  to  the  works  of  Barwick,  Kowalski,  Dam, 
Dahlmann,  Kriegshammer,  and  Frederik  Muller,  and 
to  the  articles  of  Wolfflin  in  the  eighth  volume  of  the 
Archil'  fiir  lateinische  Lexikographie,  all  listed  in  our 



The  text  of  the  extant  books  of  the  De  Liiigua 
Latina  is  believed  by  most  scholars  to  rest  on  the 
manuscript  here  first  listed,  from  which  (except  for  our 
No.  4)  all  other  known  manuscripts  have  been  copied, 
directly  or  indirectly. 

1.  Codex  Laurentianus  li.  10,  folios  2  to  SA>,  parch- 
ment, written  in  Langobardic  characters  in  the 
eleventh  century,  and  now  in  the  Laurentian  Library 
at  Florence.     It  is  known  as  F. 

F  was  examined  by  Petrus  Victorius  and  lacobus 
Diacetius  in  1521  (see  the  next  paragraph)  ;  by 
Hieronymus  Lagomarsini  in  1740  ;  by  Heinrich  Keil 
in  1851  ;  by  Adolf  Groth  in  1877  ;  by  Georg  Schoell 
in  19O6.  Little  doubt  can  remain  as  to  its  actual 

2.  In  1521,  Petrus  Victorius  and  lacobus  Diacetius 
collated  F  with  a  copy  of  the  editio  princeps  of  the 
De  Lingua  Latina,  in  which  they  entered  the  difFerences 
which  they  observed.  Their  copy  is  preserved  in 
Munich,  and  despite  demonstrable  errors  in  other 
portions,  it  has  the  value  of  a  manuscript  for  v.  119  to 
vi.  61,  where  a  quaternion  has  since  their  time  been 
lost  in  F.  For  this  portion,  their  recorded  readings 
are  known  as  Fv  ;  and  the  readings  of  the  editio 
princeps,  where  they  have  recorded  no  variation,  are 
known  as  (Fv). 

3.  The  Fragmentum  Cassinense  (called  a\so  Excerptum 
and  Epitome),  one  folio  of  Codex  Cassinensis  361, 
parchment,  containing  v.  41  Capitolium  dictum  to  the 
end  of  V.   56  ;    of  the   eleventh  century.      It  was 


probably  copied  direct  from  F  soon  after  F  was 
written,  but  may  possibly  have  been  copied  from  the 
archetype  of  F.  It  is  still  at  Monte  Cassino,  and  was 
transcribed  by  Keil  in  1848.  It  was  pubhshed  in 
facsimile  as  an  appendix  to  Sexti  lulii  Frontini  de 
aquaeductu  Urbis  Romae,  a  phototyped  reproduction 
of  the  entire  manuscript,  Monte  Cassino,  1930. 

4.  The  grammarian  Priscian,  who  flourished  about 
A.D.  500,  transcribed  into  his  De  Figuris  Numerorum 
Varro's  passage  on  coined  money,  beginning  \\ith 
tnulta,  last  word  of  v.  168,  and  ending  with  Nummi 
denarii  decuma  libella,  at  the  beginning  of  v.  IT^. 
The  passage  is  given  in  H.  Keil's  Grammatici  Latini 
iii.  410-411.  There  are  many  manuscripts,  the  oldest 
and  most  important  being  Codex  Parisinus  7496,  of 
the  ninth  century. 

5.  Codex  Laurentianus  U.  5,  written  at  Florence  in 
1427,  where  it  still  remains  ;  it  was  examined  by  Keil. 
It  is  known  &&  f. 

6.  Codex  Havniensis,  of  the  fifteenth  centur}' ;  on 
paper,  small  quarto,  108  folia  ;  now  at  Copenhagen. 
It  was  examined  by  B.  G.  Niebuhr  for  Koeler,  and  his 
records  came  into  the  hands  of  L.  Spengel.  It  is 
known  as  H. 

7.  Codex  Gothanus,  parchment,  of  the  sixteenth 
century,  now  at  Gotha  ;  it  was  examined  by  Regel  for 
K.  O.  Mueller,  who  published  its  important  variants 
in  his  edition,  pages  270-298.     It  is  knoA\Ti  as  G. 

8.  Codex  Parisinus  7489,  paper,  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  now  at  Paris  ;  this  and  the  next  two  were 
examined  by  Donndorf  for  L.  Spengel,  who  gives 
their  different  readings  in  his  edition,  pages  661-718. 
It  is  known  as  a. 

9.  Codex  Parisinus   6142,  paper,  of  the   fifteenth 


century ;  it  goes  only  to  viii.  7  declinarentur.     It  is 
known  as  6, 

10.  Codex  Parisinus  7535,  paper,  of  the  sixteenth 
century  ;  it  contains  only  v.  1-122,  ending  with  dictae. 
It  is  known  as  c. 

11.  Codex  Vindohonensis  Ixiii.,  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  at  Vienna ;  it  was  examined  by  L,  Spengel 
in  1835,  and  its  important  variants  are  recorded  in 
the  apparatus  of  A.  Spengel's  edition.  It  is  known 
as  F. 

12.  Codex  Basiliensis  F  iv.  13,  at  Basel;  examined 
by  L.  Spengel  in  1838.     It  is  known  as  p. 

13.  Codex  Guelferbytanus  896,  of  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, at  Wolfenbiittel ;  examined  by  Schneidewin  for 
K.  O.  Mueller,  and  afterwards  by  L.  Spengel.  It  is 
known  as  M. 

14.  Codex  B,  probably  of  the  fifteenth  century,  now 
not  identifiable  ;  its  variants  were  noted  by  Petrus 
Victorius  in  a  copy  of  the  Editio  Gryphiana,  and 
either  it  or  a  very  similar  manuscript  was  used 
by  Antonius  Augustinus  in  preparing  the  so-called 
Editio  Vulgata. 

These  are  the  manuscripts  to  which  reference  is 
made  in  our  critical  notes  ;  there  are  many  others, 
some  of  greater  authority  than  those  placed  at  the 
end  of  our  list,  but  their  readings  are  mostly  not 
available.  In  any  case,  as  F  alone  has  prime  value, 
the  variants  of  other  than  the  first  four  in  our  list  can 
be  only  the  attempted  improvements  made  by  their 
copyists,  and  have  accordingly  the  same  value  as 
that  which  attaches  to  the  emendations  of  editors 
of  printed  editions. 

Fuller  information  with  regard  to  the  manuscripts 
may  be  found  in  the  following  : 


Leonhard  Spengel,  edition  of  the  De  Lingua  Latino 

(1826),  pages  v-xviii. 
K.  O,  Mueller,  edition  (1833),  pages  xli-xxxi. 
Andreas  Spengel,  edition  (1885),  pages  ii-xxviii. 
GiuHo  Antonibon,  Supplemento  di  Lezioni  Varianti  at 

libri  de  lingua  Latina  (1899)>  pages  10-23. 
G.  Goetz  et  F.  Schoell,  edition  (19 10),  pages  xi-xxxv. 


Manuscript  F  contains  all  the  extant  continuous 
text  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina,  except  v.  119  trua  quod 
to  \i.  61  dicendofinit  ;  this  was  contained  in  the  second 
quaternion,  now  lost,  but  still  in  place  when  the  other 
manuscripts  were  copied  from  it,  and  when  Victorius 
and  Diacetius  collated  it  in  1521 .  There  are  a  number 
of  important  lacunae,  apart  from  omitted  lines  or 
single  words  ;  these  are  due  to  losses  in  its  archetype. 

Leonhard  Spengel,"  from  the  notations  in  the 
manuscript  and  the  amount  of  text  between  the 
gaps,  calculated  that  the  archetype  of  F  consisted 
of  16  quaternions,  with  these  losses  : 

Quaternion  4  lacked  fohos  4  and  5,  the  gap  after 

V.  162. 
Quaternion  7  lacked  folio  2,  the  end  of  vi.  and  the 

beginning  of  \'ii.,  and  foUo  7,  the  gap  after  vii.  23. 
Quaternion  1 1  was  missing  entire,  the  end  of  \-iii.  and 

the  beginning  of  ix. 
Quaternion  15  lacked  folios  1  to  3,  the  gap  after  x.  23, 

and  foHos  6  to  8,  the  gap  after  x.  34. 

The  amount  of  text  lost  at  each  point  can  be  cal- 

"  tyber  die  Kritik  der  Varronischen  Biicher  de  Lingua 
Latina,  pp.  5-12. 

VOL.  1  6  XV 


culated  from  the  fact  that  one  folio  of  the  archetype 
held  about  50  lines  of  our  text. 

There  is  a  serious  transposition  in  F,  in  the  text  of 
Book  V.  In  §  23,  near  the  end,  after  qui  ad  humum, 
there  follows  ut  Sabini,  now  in  §  32,  and  so  on  to  Septi- 
montium,  now  in  §  41  ;  then  comes  demisstor,  now  in 
§  23  after  humum,  and  so  on  to  ah  hominibus,  now  in 
§  32,  after  which  comes  nominatum  of  §  41.  Mueller," 
who  identified  the  transposition  and  restored  the  text 
to  its  true  order  in  his  edition,  showed  that  the  altera- 
tion was  due  to  the  wrong  folding  of  folios  4  and  5  in 
the  first  quaternion  of  an  archetype  of  F  ;  though 
this  was  not  the  immediate  archetype  of  F,  since  the 
amount  of  text  on  each  page  was  different. 

This  transposition  is  now  always  rectified  in  our 
printed  texts  ;  but  there  is  probably  another  in  the 
later  part  of  Book  V.,  which  has  not  been  remedied 
because  the  breaks  do  not  fall  inside  the  sentences, 
thus  making  the  text  unintelligible.  The  sequence 
of  topics  indicates  that  v.  115-128  should  stand  be- 
tween V.  140  and  v.  141  ^" ;  there  is  then  the  division 
by  topics  : 

General  Heading    v.  105 

De  Fictu  V.  105-112 

De  Vestitu  v.  113-114,  129-133 

De  Instrumento  v.  134-140,  115-128,  141-183 

"  In  the  preface  to  his  edition,  pp.  xvii-xviii.  The  dis- 
order in  the  text  had  previously  been  noticed  by  G.  Buchanan, 
Turnebus,  and  Scaliger,  and  discussed  by  L.  Spengel,  Emen- 
dationum  Varronianarum  Specimen  I,  pp.  17-19. 

*  L.  Spengel,  Emendationum  Varronianarum  Specimen  I, 
pp.  13-19,  identified  this  transposition,  but  considered  the 
transpositions  to  be  much  more  complicated,  with  the  follow- 
ing order:  §§105-114,  §§  129-140,  §  128,  §§166-168,  §§118- 
127,  §§  115-117,  §§  141-165,  §  169  on. 


Then  also  vi.  4-9  and  vi.  io  may  have  changed 
places,  but  I  have  not  introduced  this  into  the 
present  text  ;  I  have  however  adopted  the  transfer 
of  X.  18  from  its  manuscript  position  after  x.  20,  to 
the  position  before  x.  19>  which  the  continuity  of  the 
thought  clearly  demands. 

The  text  of  F  is  unfortunately  very  corrupt,  and 
while  there  are  corrections  both  by  the  first  hand  and 
by  a  second  hand,  it  is  not  always  certain  that  the 
corrections  are  to  be  justified. 


The  orthography  of  F  contains  not  merely  many 
corrupted  spelhngs  which  must  be  corrected,  but 
also  many  variant  spelhngs  which  are  within  the 
range  of  recognized  Latin  orthography,  and  these 
must  mostly  be  retained  in  any  edition.  For  there 
are  many  points  on  which  we  are  uncertain  of  \'arro's 
own  practice,  and  he  even  speaks  of  certain  per- 
missible variations  :  if  we  were  to  standardize  his 
orthography,  we  should  do  constant  violence  to  the 
best  manuscript  tradition,  %vithout  any  assurance 
that  we  were  in  all  respects  restoring  Varro's  own 
spelling.  Moreover,  as  this  work  is  on  language, 
Varro  has  intentionally  varied  some  spellings  to  suit 
his  etymological  argument  ;  any  extensive  normal- 
ization might,  and  probably  would,  do  him  injustice 
in  some  passages.  Further,  Varro  quotes  from  earlier 
authors  who  used  an  older  orthography  ;  we  do  not 
know  whether  Varro,  in  quoting  from  them,  tried  to 


use  their  original  orthography,  or  merely  used  the 
orthography  which  was  his  own  habitual  practice. 

I  have  therefore  retained  for  the  most  part  the 
spellings  of  F,  or  of  the  best  authorities  when  F  fails, 
replacing  only  a  few  of  the  more  misleading  spellings 
by  the  familiar  ones,  and  allowing  other  variations 
to  remain.  These  variations  mostly  fall  within  the 
following  categories  : 

1 .  EI  :  Varro  wrote  EI  for  the  long  vowel  I  in  the 
nom.  pi,  of  Decl.  II  (ix.  80)  ;  but  he  was  probably  not 
consistent  in  writing  EI  everywhere.  The  manuscript 
testifies  to  its  use  in  the  following  :  plebei  (gen.  ;  cf. 
plebis  vi.  Ql,  in  a  quotation)  v.  40,  81,  158,  vi.  87  ; 
eidem  (nom.  sing.)  vii.  17  (eadem  F),  x.  10  ;  scirpeis  vii. 
44  ;  Terentiei  (nom.),  vireis  Terentieis  (masc),  Teren- 
tieis  (fem.)  viii.  36  ;  infeineiteis  viii.  50  (changed  to 
injiniteis  in  our  text,  c/l  {in)finitam  viii.  52)  ;  i{e)is 
viii.  51  (his  F),  ix,  5  ;  iei  (nom.)  ix.  2,  35  ;  hei  re(e}i 
Jer(re)ei  de{e)i  viii.  70  ;  hinnulei  ix.  28  ;  utrei  (nom. 
pi.)  ix.  Q5  (uire.I.  F  ;  cf.  utri  ix,  65)  ;  (B)a(e}biei, 
B{a)ebieis  x.  50  (alongside  Caelii,  Celiis). 

2.  AE  and  E  :  Varro,  as  a  countryman,  may  in 
some  words  have  used  E  where  residents  of  the  city  of 
Rome  used  AE  {cf.  v.  97)  ;  but  the  standard  ortho- 
graphy has  been  introduced  in  our  text,  except  that 
E  has  been  retained  in  seculum  and  sepio  (and  its 
compounds  :  v.  141,  150,  157,  162,  vii.  7,  13),  which 
always  appear  in  this  form. 

3.  OE  and  U  :  The  writing  OE  is  kept  where  it 
appears  in  the  manuscript  or  is  supported  by  the 
context  :  moerus  and  derivatives  v.  50,  141  bis,  143, 
vi.  87  ;  moenere,  moenitius  v.  141  ;  Poenicum  v.  113, 
viii.  65  bis  ;  poeniendo  v.  177.  OE  in  other  words  is 
the  standard  orthography. 


4.  VO  UO  and  VU  UU  :  Varro  certainly  wTote 
only  VO  or  UO,  but  the  manuscript  rarely  shows 
\'0  or  UO  in  inflectional  syllables.  The  examples 
are  novom  ix.  20  (corrected  from  nouiim  in  F)  ;  nomina- 
tuom  ix.  95,  X.  30  (both  -iiuom  F)  ;  obliquom  x.  50  ; 
loquontur  vi.  1,  ix.  85  ;  sequontur  x.  71  ;  cUvos  v.  158  ; 
perhaps  amburvom  v.  127  {impurro  Fv).  In  initial 
syllables  \0  is  almost  regular  :  volt  \i.  47,  etc.  ; 
volpes  V.  101  ;  valgus  v.  58,  etc.,  but  vulgo  \-iii.  66  ; 
Volcanus  v.  70y  etc. ;  vohillis  ix.  33.  Examples  of  the 
opposite  practice  are  aequum  vi,  71  ;  duum  x.  11  ; 
antiquus  \\.  68  ;  sequuntiir  viii.  25  ;  confluunt  x.  50. 
Our  text  preserves  the  manuscript  readings. 

5.  UV  before  a  vowel  :  Varro  probablv  \^Tote  U  and 
not  \I\  before  a  vowel,  except  initially,  where  his 
practice  may  have  been  the  other  way.  The  examples 
are  :  Pacuhis  v.  60,  vi.  6  (catulus  {Fv)),  94,  vii.  18,  76, 
and  Pacuvius  v.  17,  24,  vii.  59  ;  gen.  Pacui  v.  7,  vi.  6, 
vii.  22  ;  Pacuuim  vii.  87,  88,  91,  102  ;  compltiium, 
impluium  v.  161,  and  pluvia  v.  161,  compluvium  v.  125  ; 
simpuium  v.  124  bis  {simpulum  codd.)  ;  cf,  panuvellium 
V.  114.  Initially  :  uvidus  v.  24  ;  uvae,  uvore  v.  104  ; 
uvidum  V.  109- 

6.  U  and  I  :  \'arro  shows  in  medial  svllables  a 
variation  between  U  and  I,  before  P  or  B  or  F  or  M 
plus  a  vowel.  The  orthography  of  the  manuscript 
has  been  retained  in  our  text,  though  it  is  likely 
that  Varro  regularly  used  U  in  these  types  : 

The  superlative  and  similar  words  :  albissumum 
viii.  75  ;  frugalissumus  viu.  77  ;  c{a)esi{s)sumus  \-iii. 
76  ;  intumus  v.  154  ;  maritumae  v.  113  ;  melissumum 
viii.  76  ;  optumum  vii.  51  ;  pauperrumus  viii.  77  ; 
proxuma  etc.  v.  36,  93,  ix.  115,  x.  4,  26  ;  septuma  etc. 
ix.  30,  x.  46  ter  ;    Septumio  v.  1,  vii.  109  ;    superrumo 



vii.  51  ;  decuma  vi.  54.  Cf.  proximo  optima  maxima 
V.  102,  minimum  vii.  101,  and  many  in  viii.  75-78. 

Compounds  of  -fex  and  derivatives  :  pontufex  v,  83, 
pontufices  v.  83  (F^  for  pontijices)  ;  artufices  ix.  12  ; 
sacrujiciis  v.  98,  124«.  C/l  pontijices  v.  23,  vi.  54,  etc.  ; 
artifex  v.  93,  ix.  Ill,  etc.  ;  sacrijicium  vii.  88,  etc. 

Miscellaneous  words  :  monumentum  v.  148,  but 
monimentum  etc,  v.  41,  vi.  49  bis  ;  mancupis  v.  40,  but 
mancipium  etc.  v,  163,  vi.  74,  85  ;  quadrupes  v.  34, 
but  quadripedem  etc.  vii.  39  bis,  quadriplex  etc.  x.  46 
etc.,  quadripertita  etc.  v.  12  etc. 

7.  LUBET  and  LIBET  :  Varro  probably  wrote 
lubet,  lubido,  etc.,  but  the  orthography  varies,  and  the 
manuscript  tradition  is  kept  in  our  text  :  Inhere 
lubendo  vi.  47,  lubenter  vii.  89,  lubitum  ix.  34,  lubidine 
X.  56  ;  and  libido  vi.  47,  x.  60,  libidinosus  Libentina 
Libitina  vi.  47,  libidine  x.  61. 

8.  H  :  Whether  ^"arro  used  the  initial  H  according 
to  the  standard  practice  at  Rome,  is  uncertain.  In 
the  country  it  was  likely  to  be  dropped  in  pronuncia- 
tion ;  and  the  manuscript  shows  variation  in  its  use. 
We  have  restored  the  H  in  our  text  according  to  the 
usual  orthography,  except  that  irpices,  v.  136  bis,  has 
been  left  because  of  the  attendant  text.  Examples 
of  its  omission  are  Arpocrates  v.  57  ;  Ypsicrates  v.  88  ; 
aedus  ircus  v.  97  ;  olus  olera  v.  108,  x.  50  ;  olitorium 
V.  146  ;  olitores  vi.  20  ;  ortis  v.  103,  ortorum  v.  146  bis, 
orti  vi.  20  ;  aruspex  vii.  88.  These  are  normalized  in 
our  text,  along  with  certain  other  related  spellings  : 
sepulchrum  vii.  24  is  made  to  conform  to  the  usual 
sepulcrum,  and  the  almost  invariable  nichil  and 
nichili  have  been  changed  to  nihil  and  nihili. 

9.  X  and  CS  :  There  are  traces  of  a  WTiting  CS  for 
X,  which  has  in  these  instances  been  kept  in  the  text  : 



arcs  vii.  44  (ares  F)  ;   acsitiosae  (ac  sitiose  F),  acsitiosa 
(ac  sitio  a-  F)  vi.  66  ;  dues  (duces  F)  x.  57. 

10.  Doubled  Consonants  :  Varro's  practice  in  this 
matter  is  uncertain,  in  some  words.  F  regularly 
has  littera  (only  Uteris  v.  3  has  one  T),  but  obliterata 
(ix.  16,  -atae  ix.  21,  -avii  v.  52),  and  these  spelUngs 
are  kept  in  our  text.  Communis  has  been  made 
regular,  though  F  usually  has  one  M  ;  casus  is  in- 
variable, except  for  de  cassu  in  cassum  viii.  39,  which 
has  been  retained  as  probably  coming  from  Varro 
himself.  lupiter,  \nih  one  P,  is  retained,  because 
invariable  in  F  ;  the  only  exception  is  luppitri  viii.  33 
(iuppiti  F),  which  has  also  been  kept.  Numo  xi.  61, 
for  nummo,  has  been  kept  as  perhaps  an  archaic 
spelUng.  Decusis  ix.  81  has  for  the  same  reason  been 
kept  in  the  citation  from  Lucilius.  In  a  few  words 
the  normal  orthography  has  been  introduced  in  the 
text  :  grallator  vii.  69  bis  for  gralator,  grabaiis  viii.  32 
for  grabattis.  For  combinations  resulting  from  pre- 
fixes see  the  next  paragraph. 

11.  Consonants  of  Prefixes  :  Varro's  usage  here 
is  quite  uncertain,  whether  he  kept  the  unassimilated 
consonants  in  the  compounds.  Apparently  in  some 
groups  he  made  the  assimilations,  in  others  he  did  not. 
The  evidence  is  as  follows,  the  variant  orthography 
being  retained  in  our  text  : 

Ad-c-  :  always  ace-,  except  possibly  adcensos  vii. 
58  (F'^,  for  acensos  F^). 

Ad-f-  :   always  aff-,  except  adfuerit  \\.  40. 

Ad-l-  :  always  all-,  except  adlocutum  vi.  57,  adlucet 
vi.  79,  adlatis  (ablatis  F)  ix.  21. 

Ad-m-  :  always  adm-,  except  ammonendum  v.  6, 
amministrat  vi.  78,  amminicula  \\\.  2,  amminister  \u.  34 
(F^,  for  adm-  F^). 


Ads-  :  regularly  ass-,  but  also  adserere  vi.  64, 
adsiet  vi.  92,  adsimus  vii.  99»  adsequi  viii.  8,  x.  9?  <id- 
signijicare  often  (always  except  assignificant  vii.  80), 
adsumi  viii.  69,  adsumat  ix.  42,  adsumere  x.  58. 

Ad-sc-,  ad-sp-,  ad-st-  :  always  with  loss  of  the  D, 
as  in  ascendere,  ascribere,  ascriptos  (vii.  57),  ascriptivi 
(vii.  56),  aspicere,  aspectus,  astayis. 

Ad-t- :  always  att-,  except  adtrihuta  v.  48,  and 
possibly  adtinuit  (F^,  but  att-  F^)  ix.  59- 

Con-l-,  con-b-,  con-m-,  con-r-:  always  coll-,  comb-, 
comm-,  corr-. 

Con-p-  :   always  comp-,  except  conpernis  ix.  10. 

Ex-f-  :    always  eff-,  except  exfluit  v.  29- 

Ex-s-  :  exsolveret  v.  176,  exsuperet  vi.  50,  but 
exuperantum  vii.  18  (normalized  in  our  text  to 

Ex-sc-  :   exculpserant  v.  143. 

Ex-sp-  :  always  expecto  etc.  vi,  82,  x.  40,  etc. 

Ex-sq-  :  regularly  EsquiUis  ;  but  Exquilias  v.  25, 
Exquiliis  v.  159  (^^)j  normalized  to  Esq-  in  our  text. 

Ex-st :  extat  v.  3,  vi.  78  ;  but  exsiat  v.  3,  normalized 
to  extat  in  our  text. 

In-l-  :  usually  ill-,  but  inlicium  vi.  88  bis,  QS  (illici- 
tum  F),  94,  95,  inliceret  vi.  90,  inliciatur  vi.  9*  ;  the 
variation  is  kept  in  our  text: 

In-m-  :  always  imm-,  except  in  {in}mutatis  vi.  38, 
where  the  restored  addition  is  unassimilated  to  indi- 
cate the  negative  prefix  and  not  the  local  in. 

In-p-  :  always  imp-,  except  inpos  v.  4  bis  (once 
ineos  F),  inpotem  v.  4  {inpotentem  F),  inplorat  vi.  68. 

Ob-c-,  ob-f-,  ob-p-  :  always  occ-,  off-,  opp-. 

Ob-t-  :  always  opt-,  as  in  optineo  etc.  vii.  17,  91» 
X.  19,  optemperare  ix.  6. 

Per-l-  :  pellexit  vi.  94,  hut  perlucent  v.  140. 


Sub-c-,  suh-f-,  sub-p-  :  always  succ-,  suff-,  supp-, 
except  subcidit  v.  116. 

Subs-  and  subs-  +  consonant :  regularly  sus-  +  con- 
sonant, except  subscribunt  vii.  107. 

Sub-t- :  only  in  suptilius  x.  40. 

Trans-l-  :  in  tralatum  \\.  11,  vii.  23,  103,  x.  71  ; 
tralatido  vi.  oo  (tranlatio  Fv)  and  translaticio  v.  32, 
vi.  64  (translatio  F,  tranlatio  Fv),  translatims  vi.  78. 

Trans-v-  :  in  travolat  v.  118,  and  transversus  vii.  81, 
X.  22,  23,  43. 

Trans-d-  :  in  traducere. 

12.  DE  and  DI :  The  manuscript  has  been  followed 
in  the  orthography  of  the  following  :  direcio  vii.  15, 
dirigi  viii.  26,  derecti  x.  22  bis,  deriguntur  derectorum 
X.  22,  derecta  directis  x.  43,  directas  x.  44,  derigitur 
X.  74  ;  deiunctum  x.  45,  deiunctae  x.  47. 

13.  Second  Declension  :  Nom.  sing,  and  ace.  sing, 
in  -uom  and  -uum,  see  5. 

Gen.  sing,  of  nouns  in  -ius  :  Varro  used  the  form 
ending  in  a  single  I  (cf.  viii.  36),  and  a  few  such  forms 
stand  in  the  manuscript  :  Mud  v.  5  (inuti  F)  ;  Poem 
v.  7,  vi.  6,  vii.  22 ;  Mani  vi.  90 ;  Quinti  vi.  92,  Ephesi 
viii.  22  (ephesis  F),  Plauti  et  Mard  \iii.  36,  dispendi 
ix.  54  (quoted,  metrical  ;  alongside  dispendii  ix.  54). 
The  gen.  in  II  is  much  commoner  ;  both  forms  are 
kept  in  our  text. 

Nom.  pi.,  \\Titten  by  Varro  with  EI  {cf.  ix.  80)  ; 
examples  are  given  in  1,  above. 

Gen.  pi.  :  The  older  forai  in  -um  for  certain  words 
(denarium,  centumvirum,  etc.)  is  upheld  viii.  71, 
ix.  82,  85,  and  occurs  occasionally  elsewhere  : 
Velabrum  v.  44,  Querquetulanum  v.  49,  Sabinum  v. 
74,  etc. 

Dat.-abl.  pi.,  written  by  Varro  with  EIS  {cf.  ix.  80) ; 


examples  are  given  in  1,  above,  but  the  manuscript 
regularly  has  IS. 

Dat.-abl.  pi.  of  nouns  ending  in  -ius,  -ia,  -ium,  are 
almost  always  written  IIS  ;  there  are  a  few  for  which 
the  manuscript  has  IS,  which  we  have  normalized  to 
IIS  :  Gabis  v.  33,  (Es)quilis  v.  50,  kostis  v.  98,  Publicis 
v.  158,  Faleris  v.  162,  praeverbis  vi.  82  (cf.  praeverbiis 
vi.  38  bis),  mysteris  vii.  34  (cf.  mysteriis  vii.  19)?  miliaris 
ix.  85  (militaris  F). 

Deus  shows  the  follo>vdng  variations  :  Nom.  pi. 
de(e)i  viii.  70,  dei  v.  57,  58  bis,  66,  71,  vii.  36,  ix.  59, 
dii  V.  58,  144,  vii.  16  ;  dat.-abl.  pi.  deis  v.  122,  vii.  45, 
diis  v.  69,  71,  182,  vi.  24,  34,  vii.  34. 

14.  Third  Declension  :  The  abl.  sing,  varies 
between  E  and  I  :  supellectile  viii.  30,  32,  ix.  46,  and 
supelleciili  ix.  20  {-lis  F)  ;  cf.  also  vesperi  (uespert-  F) 
and  vespere  ix.  73. 

Nom.  pi.,  where  ending  in  IS  in  the  manuscript,  is 
altered  to  ES ;  the  examples  are  mediocris  v.  5 ;  partis 
V.  21,  56;  ambonis  v.  115;  urbis  v.  143;  aedis  v.  160; 
compluris  vi.  15 ;  Novendialis  vi.  26  ;  auris  vi.  83  ;  dis- 
parilis  viii.  67;  lentisix.  34;  07nnis  ix.  81;  dissimilis 
ix.  92. 

Gen.  pi.  in  UM  and  IUM,  see  viii.  67.  In  view 
of  dentum  viii.  67,  expressly  championed  by  Varro, 
Veientum  v.  30  {uenientum  F),  caelestum  vi.  53,  Quiritum 
vi.  68  have  been  kept  in  our  text. 

Ace.  pi.  in  ES  and  IS,  see  viii.  67.  Varro's  dis- 
tribution of  the  two  endings  seems  to  have  been 
purely  empirical  and  arbitrary,  and  the  manuscript 
readings  have  been  retained  in  our  text. 

15.  Fourth  Declension  :  Gen.  sing.  :  Gellius, 
Nodes  Atticae  iv.  16.  1,  tells  us  that  Varro  always  used 
UIS  in  this  form.     Nonius  Marcellus  483-494  M.  cites 


eleven  such  forms  from  Varro,  but  also  sumpti.  The 
De  Lingua  Latina  gives  the  following  partial  examples 
of  this  ending  :  usuis  ix.  -i  {suis  F),  x.  73  {usui  F),  casuis 
X.  50  (casuum  F),  x.  62  (casus  his  F).  Examples  of 
this  form  ending  in  US  are  kept  in  our  text  :  fructus 
V.  34,  134,  senatus  v.  87,  exercitus  v.  88,  panus  v.  105, 
domus  V.  162,  census  v.  181,  motus  vi.  3,  sonitus  vi.  67 
bis,  sensus  vi.  80,  usus  viii.  28,  30  bis,  casus  ix.  76, 
manus  ix.  80. 

Gen.  pi. :  For  the  variation  between  UUM  and 
UOM  see  4,  above.  The  form  with  one  U  is  found 
in  tribum  v.  5G,  ortum  v.  66,  manum  vi.  64  {nianu  F), 
magistratum  viii.  83  {-his  F),  declinatum  x.  54  ;  these 
have  been  normalized  in  our  text  to  UUM  (except 
manum,  in  an  archaic  formula).  Note  the  following 
forms  in  the  manuscript  :  cornuum  v.  117,  declinatuum 
vi.  36  {-tiuuvi  Fv),  x.  31,  32,  54,  sensuum  \\.  80  ;  tribuum 
vi.  86 ;  fructuum  ix.  27  ;  casuum  ix.  77,  x.  14,23,  manuum 
ix.  80,  nominatuom  (-iiuom  F)  ix.  95,  x.  30,  nomina- 
tuum  X.  19- 

16.  Heteroclites  :  There  are  the  following  :  gen. 
sing,  plebei  v.  40,  81, 158,  vi.  87,  and  plebis  vi.  91 ;  nom. 
sing,  elephans  and  ace.  pi.  elephantos  vii.  39  ;  abl.  sing. 
Titano  \ii.  16  ;  abl.  pi.  vasis  v.  121,  poematis  Wi.  2,  36, 
\1ii.  14,  and  poematibus  vii.  34. 

17.  Greek  Forms  :  There  are  the  following  :  ace. 
sing,  analogian  ix.  1,  26,  33,  34,  45,  49,  76,  79,  105, 
113,  114,  but  also  analogiam  ix.  90,  100,  110,  x.  2,  and 
analogia{m)  ix.  95,  111.  Ace.  sing.  Aethiopa  viii.  38 
{etkiopam  F).  Nom.  pi.  Aeolis  v.  25,  101,  102,  175, 
Athcficiis  viii.  35. 

18.  Forms  of  IS  axd  IDEM  :  The  forms  in  the 
manuscript  are  kept  in  our  text  ;  there  are  the  follow- 
ing to  be  noted  : 


Nona.  sing.  masc.  :    idem  often  ;    also  eidem  vii.  17 

(eadem  F),  x.  10. 

Nom.  pi.  :  a  V.  26,  ix.  2  ;  iei  ix.  2,  35  ;  idem  ix.  19- 
Dat.-abl.  pi.  :    eis  vi.  18,  vii.  102,  ix.  4,  x.  8  ;   ieis 

viii.  51  {his  F,  but  assured  by  context),  ix.  5  ;  is  vii.  5 

(rfw  F) ;  iisdem  vi.  38  ;  isdem  vii.  8  (hisdem  F),  viii.  35 

few  (hisdem  F). 

19.  QUOM  and  CUM  etc.  :  Varro  wrote  quom, 
quor,  quoius,  quoi,  and  not  cum,  cur,  cuius,  cui,  though 
the  latter  spellings  are  much  commoner  in  the  manu- 
scripts, the  readings  of  which  are  kept  in  our  text. 
Quo7}i  is  not  infrequent,  being  found  vi.  42,  56,  vii.  4, 
105,  viii.  1,  X.  6,  and  in  other  passages  where  slight 
emendation  is  necessary.  Quor  is  found  only  cor- 
rected to  cur,  viii.  68,  71,  and  hidden  under  quorum 
corrected  to  qtiod,  viii.  78.  Quoius  is  written  viii.  44, 
ix.  43,  X.  3,  and  in  other  passages  where  emendation 
is  necessary.  Quoi  nowhere  appears,  unless  it  should 
be  read  for  qui  vi.  72,  and  quoique  for  quoque  ix.  34, 
adopted  in  our  text. 

Both  qui  and  quo  are  used  for  the  abl.  sing,  of  the 
relative,  and  quis  and  quibus  for  the  dat.-abl.  pi.,  and 
similar  forms  for  quidam.  In  quo  is  used  with  a  plural 
antecedent  of  any  gender  :  v.  108,  vi.  2,  55,  82,  vii.  26, 
viii.  83,  ix.  1,  x.  8,  41. 

20.  ALTER  and  NEUTER  :  Gen.  alii  ix.  67  is 
found  as  well  as  aUerius  ix.  91  ;  neutri  ix.  62,  neutra{e) 
X.  73,  as  well  as  neutrius  ix.  1  ;  dat.  fem.  aliae  x.  15. 

21.  Contracted  Perfects  :  Only  the  contracted 
perfects  are  found,  such  as  appellarunt  v.  22  etc., 
declinarit  v.  7,  aherraro  v.  13,  appellassent  ix.  69,  curasse 
vii.  38,  consuerunt  consuessent  ix.  68,  consuerit  ix.  14  bis ; 
exceptions,  novissent  vi.  60,  auspicaverit  vi.  86  (quoted), 
nuncupavero  vii.  8  (quoted),  vitaverunt  x.  9- 



Similarly,  the  Y  is  omitted  after  I,  as  in  praeterii 
ix.  7,  prodterunt  v.  13,  expediero  vili.  24,  etc.  ;  excep- 
tion, quivero  v.  5  (F^,  for  quiero  F^). 

22.  PONO  in  Perfect  :  The  text  always  has  posui 
and  its  forms,  except  twice,  which  we  have  standard- 
ized :  imposiverunt  viii.  8,  imposierint  ix.  34. 

23.  Gerundives  :  \'arro  used  the  old  form  of  the 
gerundive  and  gerund  with  UND  in  the  third  and 
fourth  conjugations,  but  the  forms  have  mostly  been 
replaced  by  those  with  END.  The  remaining  ex- 
amples of  the  older  form  are  Jerundo  v,  104^,  Jerundum 
vi.  29,J^aciundo  vii.  9«  quaerundae  vii.  35,  reprehendundi 
ix.  12,  reprehendu7idus  ix.  93. 

24.  \'ERSUS  :  The  older  forms  vorto,  vorti,  vorsus 
are  not  found  in  the  manuscript.  The  adverbial 
compounds  of  versus  have  (with  one  exception)  been 
retained  in  our  text  as  they  appear  in  the  manuscript  : 
susus  versus  v.  158.  susum  versus  ix.  Q5;  deorsum,  s^usum 
V.  161  ;  rursus  vi.  46,  49,  ix.  86  ;  deosum  versus  ix.  86  ; 
prosus  and  rusus  (rosus  F)  x.  52. 


There  are  the  follo\Wng  printed  editions  of  the  De 
Lingua  Latina,  some  of  which  appeared  in  numerous 
reprintings  : 

1.  Editio  princeps,  edited  by  Pomponius  Laetus  ; 
without  statement  of  place  and  date,  but  probably 
printed  at  Rome  by  Georgius  Lauer,  1471.  It  rests 
upon  a  manuscript  similar  to  M. 

A  second  printing,  also  without  place  and  date,  but 
probably   printed   at  Venice  by   Franc.   Renner  de 


Hailbrun,  liTi,  was  used  by  Victorius  and  Diacetius 
in  recording  the  readings  of  F,  and  this  copy  was  used 
by  L.  Spengel  for  his  readings  of  F  and  of  Laetus  ;  as 
compared  with  the  l^Tl  printing,  it  shows  a  number 
of  misprints. 

2.  Editio  vetustissima,  edited  by  Angelus  Tifernas 
with  but  shght  variation  from  the  edition  of  Laetus  ; 
probably  printed  at  Rome  by  Georgius  Sachsel  de 
Reichenhal,  1474. 

3.  Editio  Rholandelli,  edited  by  Franciscus  Rholan- 
dellus  Trivisanus  ;  printed  at  Venice,  1475.  It  shows 
improvement  over  the  edition  of  Laetus,  by  the 
introduction  of  readings  from  relatively  good  manu- 

4.  Editio  Veneta,  similar  to  the  preceding,  but  in 
the  same  volume  with  Nonius  Marcellus  and  Festus  ; 
first  printed  in  1483,  and  reprinted  in  1492  by  Nicolaus 
de  Ferraris  de  Pralormo  (L.  Spengel's  Editio  Veneta 
I),  and  in  1498  by  Magister  Antonius  de  Gusago 
(Spengel's  Veneta  II). 

A  Venice  edition  of  1474,  printed  by  loh,  de  Colonia 
and  loh.  Manthem  de  Gherretzen,  was  used  by  Goetz 
and  Schoell  and  cited  as  Ed.  Ven.  in  their  edition. 

5.  Editio  Baptistae  Pii,  edited  by  Baptista  Pius,  an 
eclectic  text  based  on  previous  editions,  but  with 
some  independent  emendations  ;  printed  at  Milan 
by  Leonardus  Pachel,  1510. 

6.  Editio  Aldina,  edited  by  Aldus  Manutius  after 
the  edition  of  Pius,  but  with  some  changes  through 
his  own  emendations  and  in  accordance  with  manu- 
script testimony,  possibly  including  that  of -F ;  printed 
at  Venice  by  Aldus,  1513.  The  volume  includes  the 
Cornucopia  Perotti,  the  De  Lingua  Latina,  Festus,  and 
Nonius  Marcellus  ;    it  was  reprinted  at  Venice  by 


Aldus  in  1517  and  1527,  and  at  Basel  and  Paris  several 
times,  up  to  1536.  The  1527  printing  shows  some 
improvements  (see  7). 

7.  Editio  Par'mensis,  edited  by  Michael  Bentinus, 
and  essentially  following  the  Aldine  of  1527,  for  which 
Bentinus  collated  a  number  of  manuscripts  and  used 
their  readings  ;  it  includes  also  the  Castigationes  or 
Corrections  of  Bentinus,  a  series  of  critical  and  ex- 
planatory comments.  It  was  printed  at  Paris  by 
Cohnaeus,  1529^ 

8.  Editio  Gryphiana,  similar  to  the  preceding, 
including  the  Castigationes  of  Bentinus,  and  the  frag- 
ments of  the  Origines  of  M.  Porcius  Cato  ;  for  its 
preparation,  Petrus  Victorius  had  transcribed  the 
readings  of  B  as  far  as  ix.  74.  It  was  published  at 
Lyons  by  Sebastian  Gryphius,  1535. 

9.  Editio  Vulgata,  edited  by  Antonius  Augustinus, 
with  the  readings  of  B  (received  from  Petrus  Vic- 
torius) and  the  help  of  Angelus  Colotius,  Octavius 
Pantagathus,  and  Gabriel  Faernus  ;  it  was  printed  at 
Rome  by  Vine.  Luchinus  in  1554  and  again  by  Antonius 
Bladus  in  1557. 

The  text  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina  has  been  re- 
garded as  greatly  corrupted  in  this  edition,  since 
Augustinus  based  it  on  a  poor  manuscript,  introduced 
a  great  number  of  his  own  emendations,  and 
attempted  a  standardization  of  the  orthography, 
notably  in  \\Titing  quom  and  the  like,  and  in  using  EI 
for  long  I  in  endings  (e.g.,  dat.-abl.  pi.  heis  lihreis,  ace. 
pi.  simileis,  gen.  sing,  vocandei).  Despite  his  errors, 
he  has  made  a  number  of  valuable  emendations,  as  will 
be  seen  from  the  citations  in  our  apparatus  criticus. 

The  text  of  this  edition  was  rather  closely  followed 
by  all  editors  except  Vertranius  and  Scioppius,  and 


Scaliger  in  his  emendations,  until  the  edition  of  Leon- 
hard  Spengel  in  1826, 

10.  Editio  Vertranii,  edited  by  M.  Vertranius 
Maurus,  following  the  edition  of  Augustinus,  but 
discarding  the  spellings  of  the  type  quom  and  the  use 
of  EI  for  long  I,  and  making  a  large  number  of  his 
own  conjectural  emendations  ;  printed  at  Lyons  by 
Gryphii  Heredes,  1563. 

1 1 .  Coniectanea  in  M.  Terentium  Varronem  de  Lingua 
Latina,  by  Josephus  Scaliger  ;  not  an  edition,  but 
deserving  a  place  here,  as  it  contains  numerous  textual 
criticisms  as  well  as  other  commentary  ;  written  in 
1564,  and  published  at  Paris  in  1565.  Both  these 
Coniectanea  and  an  Appendix  ad  Coniectanea  (the 
original  date  of  which  I  cannot  determine)  are  pi'inted 
with  many  later  editions  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina. 

12.  Editio  Turnebi,  edited  by  Adrianus  Turnebus, 
who  used  a  manuscript  very  similar  to  p  and  made 
numerous  emendations  ;  printed  at  Paris  by  A. 
Wechelus,  1566  (Turnebus  died  1565). 

13.  Opera  quae  supersunt,  with  Scaliger 's  Coniectanea, 
printed  at  Paris  by  Henr.  Stephanus,  156^. 

14.  Edition  of  Dionysius  Gothofredus,  containing 
only  an  occasional  independent  alteration  ;  in  Auc- 
tores  Linguae  Latinae  in  unum  corpus  redacti,  printed  at 
Geneva  by  Guilelmus  Leimarius,  1585. 

15.  Edition,  with  the  notes  of  Ausonius  Popma  ; 
printed  at  Leiden  ex  officina  Plantiniana,  1601. 

16.  Editio  Gaspari  Scioppii,  edited  by  Gaspar  Sciop- 
pius,  who  relied  on  data  of  Gabriel  Faernus  and  on 
collations  of  Vatican  manuscripts  by  Fulvius  Ursinus  ; 
it  contains  many  valuable  textual  suggestions,  though 
perhaps  most  of  them  belong  to  Ursinus  rather  than 
to  Scioppius  (who  expressly  gives  credit  to  Faernus, 


Turnebus,  and  Ursinus).  It  was  printed  at  Ingolstad 
in  1602  ;  reprinted  in  1605. 

1 7.  Editio  Bipontina,  in  two  volumes,  the  second  con- 
taining a  selection  of  the  notes  of  Augustinus,  Turne- 
bus, Scaliger,  and  Popma  ;  issued  at  Bipontium 
(Zweibriicken  in  Bavaria),  1788. 

18.  M.  Terenti  Varronis  de  Lingua  Latina  libri  qui 
supersunt,  edited  by  Leonhard  Spengel  of  Munich  ; 
the  first  scientific  edition,  resting  on  readings  of  F 
(but  only  as  represented  by  Fv),  H,  B,  a,  h,  c,  and  a 
comparison  of  all,  or  almost  all,  the  previous  editions. 
It  was  printed  in  Berlin  bv  Duncker  und  Humbloth, 

19-  M.  Terenti  Varronis  de  Lingua  Latina  librorum 
quae  supersunt,  edited  by  Karl  Ottfried  Mueller,  who 
added  the  readings  of  G  to  his  critical  apparatus. 
Mueller  has  the  merit  of  setting  the  paragraphs  of 
V.  23-41  in  their  proper  order,  and  of  placing  brief  but 
valuable  explanatory  material  in  his  notes,  in  addition 
to  textual  criticism.  This  edition  was  printed  at 
Leipzig  by  Weidmann,  1833. 

20.  M.  T.  Varronis  librorum  de  Lingua  Latina  quae 
supersunt,  reprinted  after  Mueller's  edition  with  a 
very  few  textual  changes  by  A.  Egger  ;  issued  at 
Paris  by  Bourgeois-Maze,  1837. 

21.  Varron  de  la  Langue  Latine,  a  translation  into 
French  by  Huot,  accompanied  by  Mueller's  text ;  in 
the  Collection  des  Auteurs  Latins  avec  la  traduction  en 

frangais,  directed  by  Xisard,  printed  at  Paris  by 
Firmin  Didot  Freres  and  issued  by  Dubochet  et 
Cie.,  1845. 

22.  Libri  di  M.  Terenzio  Varrone  intomo  alia  lingua 
latina,  edited  and  translated  with  notes  by  Pietro 
Canal  ;    in  the  Biblioteca  degli  Scrittori  Latini  with 


translation  and  notes  ;  printed  at  Venice  by  Gius. 
Antonelli,  18-t6-1854.  It  was  reprinted  in  1874,  with 
addition  of  the  fragments,  to  which  notes  were 
attached  by  Fed.  Brunetti. 

This  edition  is  httle  known,  and  deserves  more 
attention  than  it  has  received,  although  Canal  was 
very  free  with  his  emendation  of  the  text  ;  but  he 
used  a  number  of  additional  manuscripts  which  are  in 
the  libraries  of  Italy. 

23.  M.  Terenti  Varronis  de  Lingua  Latina  libri,  edited 
by  Andreas  Spengel  after  the  death  of  his  father 
Leonhard,  who  had  been  working  on  a  second  edition 
for  nearly  fifty  years  when  he  died  ;  printed  at  Berlin 
by  Weidmann,  1885. 

This  edition  is  notable  because  of  the  abundant 
critical  apparatus. 

24.  M.  Terenti  Varronis  de  Lingua  Latina  quae 
supersunt,  edited  by  Georg  Goetz  and  Friedrich 
Schoell  ;  printed  at  Leipzig  by  Teubner,  IQIO. 

This  edition  is  very  conservative,  many  corrupt 
passages  being  marked  with  a  dagger  and  left  in  the 
text,  while  excellent  emendations  for  the  same  are 
relegated  to  the  apparatus  criticus  or  to  the  Annota- 
tiones  at  the  end  of  the  volume  ;  but  it  has  great  value 
for  its  citation  of  abundant  testimonia  and  its  elabor- 
ate indexes. 

Two  errors  of  earlier  editors  may  be  mentioned  at 
this  point.  Since  \'arro  in  v.  1  speaks  of  having  sent 
three  previous  books  to  Septumius,  our  Book  V.  was 
thought  to  be  Book  IV. ;  and  it  was  not  until  Spengel's 
edition  of  1826  that  the  proper  numbering  came  into 
use.  Further,  Varro's  remark  in  viii.  1  on  the  subject 
matter  caused  the  early  editors  to  think  that  they  had 


De  Lingua  Latina  Libri  Tres  (our  v.-vii.),  and  De 
Atialogia  Libri  Tres  (our  viii.-x.)  ;  Augustinus  in  the 
\'ulgate  was  the  first  to  realize  that  the  six  books 
were  parts  of  one  and  the  same  work,  the  De  Lingua 

It  is  convenient  to  list  here,  together,  the  special 
treatments  of  the  passage  on  the  city  of  Rome,  v. 
41-56,  which  is  given  by  the  Fragmentum  Cassinense  : 

H.  Keil,  Rkeinisches  Museum  \i.  142-li5  (1848). 

L.  Spengel,  Uber  die  Kritik  der  varronischen  BUcker 
de  Lingua  Latina  ;  in  Abhandl.  d.  k.  buyer.  Ak.  d.  Wiss. 
7,  4.7-54  (1854). 

B.  ten  Brink,  M.  Terentii  Varronis  Locus  de  Urbe 
Roma  ;  Traiecti  ad  Rhenum,  apud  C.  Van  der  Post 
Juniorem,  1855. 

H.  Jordan,  Topograpkie  der  Stadt  Rom  im  Altertkum 
u.  599-603  (Berlin,  1871). 


A  bibliography  of  editions,  books,  and  articles,  for 
the  period  1471-1897,  is  given  by  Antonibon,  Supple- 
mento  di  Lezioni  Varianti,  pages  179-187  ;  but  there 
are  many  misprints,  and  many  omissions  of  items. 
Bibliographical  Usts  ^^^ll  be  found  in  the  foUoNnng  : 

Bibliotheca  Philologica  Classica,  supplement  to  Philo- 

Dix  annees  de pkilologie  classique  1914-1934,  i.  428-429, 

edited  by  J.  Marouzeau  (1927). 
L' Annee philologique  i.  for  1924-1926  ;  ii.  for  1927,  etc., 

edited  by  J.  Marouzeau  (1928  fF.). 

VOL.  I  c  2  xxxiii 


Critical  summaries  of  the  literature  will  be  found 
as  follows  : 
1826-1858  :    Philologus  xiii.  684-751   (1858),   by    L. 

1858-1868  :  Philologus  xxvii.  286-331  (1868),  by  A. 

1867-1876  :    Philologus   xl.    649-651    (1881),   merely 

1877-1890  :  Bursians  Jahresberichte  uber  den  Fortschritt 

der  klassischen  Philologie  Ixviii.    121-122  (1892), 

by  G.  Goetz. 
I89I-I90I  ;  Bursians  Jrb.  cxiii.   116-128  (1901),  by 

P.  Wessner. 
1901-1907  :  Bursians  Jrb.  cxxxix.  85-89  (1908),  by 

R.  Kriegshammer. 
1901-1920  :  Bursians  Jrb.  clxxxviii.  52-69  (1921),  by 

P.  Wessner. 
I92I-I925  :  Bursians  Jrb.   cexxxi.  35-38  (1931),  by 

F.  Lammert. 

For  the  period  before  the  edition  of  L.  Spengel 
in  1826,  it  is  unnecessary  to  do  other  than  refer  to 
the  list  of  editions  ;  for  other  writings  on  Varro  were 
few,  and  they  are  mostly  lacking  in  importance, 
apart  from  being  inaccessible  to-day.  The  following 
selected  list  includes  most  of  the  literature  since  1826, 
which  has  importance  for  the  De  Lingua  Latina,  either 
for  the  text  and  its  interpretation,  or  for  Varro 's  style, 
sources,  and  method  ;  but  treatises  dealing  with  his 
influence  on  later  authors  have  mostly  been  omitted 
from  the  Hst  : 

Antonibon,  Giulio  :  Contributo  agli  studi  sui  libri  de 
Lingua  Latina  ;  Rivista  di  Filologia  xvii.  177-221 


Antonibon,    G.  :    De    Codice   Varroniano  Mutinensi ; 

Philologus  xlviii.  185  (1889). 
Antonibon,   G.  :    Supplemento   di  Lezioni  Varianti  at 

lihri   De    Lingiia    Latino  de    M.    Ter.    Varrone ; 

Bassano,  1899. 

Barw"ick,  K.  :  Remmius  Paldmon  ufid  die  romische  Ars 

grammatica  ;  Leipzig,    1922    {Philologus,    Suppl. 

XV.  2). 
Bednara,  Ernst :  Archiv  fur  lateiniscke  Lexikographie 

xiv.  593  (1906). 
Bergk,    Th.  :    Quaestiones  Lucretianae  ;    Index   Lec- 

tionum  in  Acad.  Marburg.  184'6-1847. 
Bergk,  Th.  :  De  Carminum  Saliarium  Reliquiis  ;  Index 

Lectionum  in  Acad.  Marburg.  1847-184-8. 
Bergk,  Th.  :  Quaestiones  Ennianae  ;   Index  Scholarum 

in  Univ.  Hal.  1860. 
Bergk,  Th.  :   Varroniana  ;   Index  Scholarum  in  Univ. 

Hal.  1863. 
Bergk,  Th.  :  De  Paelignorum  Sermofie  ;    Index  Scho- 
larum in  Univ.  Hal.  1864. 
Bergk,  Th.  :  Zeitschrift  fiir  die  Altertumsivissenschaft 

ix.  231  (1851),  xiv.  138-14-0  (1856). 
Bergk,  Th.  :  Philologus  xiv.  186,  389-390  (1859),  xxx. 

682  (1870),  xxxii.  567  (1873),  xxxiii.  281,  301-302, 

311  (1874). 
Bergk,    Th.  :     Jahrhiicher    fur    classische    Philologie 

Ixxxiii.  317,  320-321,  333-334,  633-637  (1861); 

ci.  829-832,  841  (1870). 
Bergk,  Th.  :  Rheinisches  Museum  xx.  291  (1865). 
Bergk,    Th.  :     Kleine  Philologische  Schriften  (Halle, 

1884)  ;  passim,  reprinting  most  of  the  articles 

Usted  above. 
Birt,  Th.  :  Rheinisches  Museum  Uv.  50  (1899). 


Birt,  Th.  :  Philologus  Ixxxiii.  40-41  (1928). 

Boissier,  Gaston  :  Etude  siir  la  vie  et  les  ouvrages  de 

M.  T.  Varron  ;  Paris,  1861,  2nd  ed.  1875. 
Boot,  J.  C.  G.  :  M?iemosyne  xxii.  409-412  (1894). 
Brakmann,  C.  :  Mnemosyne  Ix.  1-19  (1932). 
ten  Brink,  B.  :    M.  Terentii   Varronis  Locus  de  Urhe 

Roma  ;  Traiecti  ad  Rhenum,  1855. 
Brinkmann,   A.  :    Simpuvium — simpulum  ;   Arckiv  fur 

lateinische  Lexikographie  xv.  139-143  (1908). 
Buecheler,  F.  :  Rhemisches  Museum  xxvii.  475  (1872). 
Buecheler,   F.  :    Archiv  fiir  lateinische  Lexikographie 

ii.  119,619-624(1885). 

Christ,    Wilhelm  :    Philologus   xvi.    450-464    (1860), 

xvii.  59-63  (1861). 
Christ,  Wilhelm  :  Archiv  fur  lateinische  Lexikographie 

ii.  619-624  (1885). 

Dahlmann,  Hellfried  :  Varro  und  die  hellenistische 
Sprachtheorie  ;  Berlin,  1932  {Forschungen  zur 
Mass.  Phil.  v.). 

Dahlmann,  Hellfried  :  M.  Terentius  Varro,  article  in 
Pauly-Wissowa's  Real-Encyc.  d.  class.  Altertums- 
wiss.  Suppl.  vol.  vi.  1172-1277  (1935). 

Dam,  R.  J.  :  De  Analogia,  observationes  in  Varronem 
grammaticainque  Romanorum  ;  Campis,  1930. 

Ellis,  Robinson  :  Journal  of  Philology  ^\yi.  38,  178-179 

ElHs,  Robinson  :  Hermathena  xi.  353-363  (1901). 

Fay,  Edwin  W.  :     Varroniana  ;    American  Journal  of 

Philology  XXXV.  149-162,  245-267  (1914). 
Foat,  W.  G.  :  Classical  Review  xxix.  79  (1915). 
Fraccaro,  Plinio  :  Studi  Varroniani  ;  Padova,  1907. 


Funaioli,  Hyginus  :  Grammaticae  Romanae  Fragmenta  ; 
Leipzig,  1907. 

Galdi,  M.  :    Rivista  Indo-Greco-Italica  xi.  3-4,  21-22 

Georges,  K.  E.  :  Philologus  xxxiii.  226  (1874). 
Goetz,   Georg  :    Berliner  Pkilologiscke  JVockenschrift, 

1886,  779-783. 
Goetz,     Georg  :      Quaestiones     Varronianae ;     Index 

Scholarum,  in  Univ.  lenensi,  1886-1887. 
Goetz,  Georg  :  Aelius  Stilo,  article  in  Pauly-Wissowa's 

Real-Enc.  d.  cl.   Altrv.  i.  532-533  (1894),  Suppl. 

vol.  i.  15  (1903). 
Goetz,  Georg  :  Gottingische  Gelehrte  Anzeigen,  1908, 

Goetz,    Georg  :    Ztir    Wilrdigung   der  grammatischen 

Arbeiten  Varros  ;   Ahhandl.  der  kon.  sacks.  Gesell- 

schaft  d.  Wiss.  xxvii.  3,  67-89  (1909). 
Goetz,   Georg  :    Berliner  Pkilologiscke  Wockensckrift, 

1910,  1367-1368. 
Groth,  Adolfus  :  De  M.   Terenti  Varronis  de  Lingua 

Latina  lihrorum  codice  Florentino  ;    Argentorati, 


Haupt,  Moritz  :    Hermes  i.  401-403  (1866),  iii.  147- 

148  (1869),  iv.  332-334  (1870). 
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ii.  192-195,  iii.  355-357,  477. 
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fiir  rvissenschaftliche  Kritik,  1827,  1513-1527. 


WTien  a  text  is  to  be  confronted  by  a  translation, 
that  text  must  be  presented  in  an  intelligible  wording, 



with  emendations  of  corrupt  passages  and  the  filling 
up  of  the  gaps.  It  happens  that  while  some  of  the 
corrupt  passages  in  this  work  are  quite  desperate, 
many  can  be  restored,  and  many  gaps  can  be  filled, 
with  some  degree  of  confidence,  since  Festus,  Nonius 
Marcellus,  and  others  have  quoted  practically  ver- 
batim from  Varro  ;  with  the  aid  of  their  testimonia, 
many  obscure  passages  can  be  restored  to  clarity. 
This  has  been  the  procedure  in  the  present  volumes  ; 
if  any  departures  from  the  manuscript  authority 
seem  violent,  they  are  required  as  a  basis  for  a  transla- 
tion. Yet  the  present  text  is  throughout  as  conserva- 
tive as  is  consistent  with  the  situation. 

The  text  has  in  fact  been  so  arranged  as  to  show, 
with  least  machinery,  its  relation  to  the  best  tradition. 
With  the  use  of  italics  and  of  pointed  brackets,  and  the 
aid  of  the  critical  apparatus,  any  reader  may  see  for 
himself  exactly  what  stands  in  the  manuscript.  The 
use  of  symbols  and  the  like  is  explained  on  pages 


The  critical  apparatus  is  intended  to  show  how  the 
text  is  derived  from  the  best  manuscript  tradition, 
namely  F,  or  where  F  fails,  then  Ft;  or  other  good 

In  each  item,  there  is  given  first  the  name  of  the 
scholar  making  the  emendation  which  is  in  the  text, 
after  which  the  reading  of  F  is  given.  It  is  therefore 
not  necessary  to  name  F  except  in  a  few  places  where 
there  might  be  confusion  ;  if  the  reading  is  not  that 
of  F,  then  the  manuscript  is  specified.  Where  the 
emendation  of  a  scholar  has  been  anticipated  by  a 


copyist  of  some  manuscript,  the  reference  to  this 
manuscript  is  commonly  given.  If  several  successive 
emendations  have  been  necessary  to  reach  the  best 
reading,  the  intermediate  stages  are  given  in  reverse 
order,  working  back  to  the  manuscript.  For  ease  of 
typography,  manuscript  abbre\iations  are  mostly 
presented  in  expanded  form. 

The  reader  may  therefore  evaluate  the  text  which 
is  here  presented  ;  but  the  present  editor  has  made  no 
attempt  to  present  the  almost  countless  emendations 
which  have  been  made  by  scholars  and  which  have 
not  been  adopted  here. 


The  translation  of  the  De  Lingua  Latina  presents 
problems  which  are  hardly  to  be  found  in  any  other 
of  the  works  translated  for  the  Loeb  Classical  Librarv. 
For  the  constant  (and  ine\-itable)  interpretations  of 
one  Latin  word  by  another,  which  Varro  had  to 
present  in  order  to  expound  its  origin,  requires 
the  translator  to  keep  the  Latin  words  in  the 
translation,  glossed  ^\^th  an  English  equivalent.  In 
this  way  only  can  the  translation  be  made  intellig- 

Because  of  the  technical  nature  of  the  subject  it 
has  been  necessan,-  to  follow  the  Latin  with  some 
degree  of  closeness,  or  the  points  made  by  Varro  will 
be  lost.  If  the  translation  is  at  times  difficult  to 
understand,  it  is  because  most  of  us  are  not  accus- 
tomed to  dealing  with  matters  of  technical  linguistics; 
and  even  though  \'arro  lacks  the  method  of  modern 



scholars  in  the  subject,  he  has  his  own  technique  and 
must  be  followed  in  his  own  way. 

The  numerous  metrical  citations  which  Varro  gives 
from  Latin  authors  are  translated  in  the  same  metre, 
though  sometimes  the  translation  is  slightly  shorter 
or  longer  than  the  Latin. 

There  are  only  two  translations  of  the  De  Lingua 
Latino  into  a  modern  language  :  that  of  Huot  into 
French,  a  mere  paraphrase  which  often  omits  whole 
sentences,  and  that  of  Canal  into  Italian  (Nos.  20  and 
21  in  our  list  of  Editions).  There  is  no  translation 
into  German,  nor  any  into  English  before  the  present 


The  notes  are  planned  to  give  all  needed  help  to 
the  understanding  of  a  difficult  subject  matter  ;  they 
cover  matters  of  technical  linguistics,  historical  and 
geographical  references,  points  of  pubUc  and  private 
life.  They  explain  briefly  any  unusual  word-forms 
and  syntactical  uses,  and  label  as  incorrect  all  false 
etymologies  (of  which  there  are  many),  either  ex- 
plicitly or  by  indicating  the  correct  etymology.  They 
state  the  sources  of  quotations  from  other  authors 
and  works,  giving  references  to  a  standard  collection 
of  fragments  if  the  entire  work  is  not  extant.  They 
name  the  metres  of  metrical  quotations,  if  the  metre 
is  other  than  dactylic,  or  iambic,  or  trochaic. 

The  fragments  of  Greek  and  Latin  authors  are 
cited  in  the  notes  according  to  the  following  scheme  : 

Festus  (and  the  excerpts  of  Paulus  Diaconus),  by 


page  and  line,  edition  of  K.  O.  Mueller,  Leipzig, 

Grammatici  Latini,  by  volume,  page,  and  line,  edition 

of  H.  Keil,  Leipzig,  1855-1880. 
Nonius    Marcellus,    by   page   and   Une,    edition    of 

J.   Mercier,    1589  ;    2nd   ed.,    1614 ;    reprinted 


For  the  following  authors  : 
Accius  :  see  Ribbeck  and  Warmington,   below. 
Ennius  :  see  Vahlen  and  Warmington,  below. 
LuciUus  :  C.  Lucilii  Carmhnim  Reliquiae,  ed.  F.  Marx, 

2  vols.,  Leipzig,  190Jr-1905.       * 
Naevius :  see  Ribbeck,  Warmington,  Baehrens,  Morel, 

Pacu\ius  :  see  Ribbeck  and  Warmington,  below. 
Plautus,  fragments  :  edition  of  F.  Ritschl,  Leipzig, 

1894  ;    the   same   numbering  in  G.   Goetz  and 

F.  Schoell,  Leipzig,  1901. 

vonAmim,  J. :  Stoicorum  Veterum  Reliquiae  ;  Leipzig, 

Baehrens,  Emil  :    Fragmenta  Poetarum  Romanorum ; 

Leipzig,  1886. 
Bremer,   F.   P.  :    lurisprudentiae  Antehadrianae  quae 

supersunt ;  Leipzig,  189&-1901. 
Bruns,  Georg  :  Pontes  luris  Romani  Antiqui  ;  re\-ised 

by    Th.    Mommsen  ;     7th    ed.,   re\ised    by    O. 

Gradenwitz,  Tubingen,  1909- 
Buettner,  Richard  :  Porcius  Licinus  und  der  litterarische 

Kreis  des  Q.  Lutatius  Catulus  ;  Leipzig,  1893. 
Funaioli,    Hyginus  :     Grammaticae    Romanae    Frag- 
menta ;  Leipzig,  1907. 
Hultsch,  Friedrich  :  Polyhii  Historiae ',  Berlin,  1867- 




Huschke,  P.  E.  :  lurisprudentiae  Anteiustinianae  Reli- 
quiae ;  6th  ed.j  revised  by  E.  Seckel  and  B. 
Kuebler,  Leipzig,  1908. 

Jordan,  Heinrich  :  M.  Catonis  praeter  librum  de  re 
rustica  quae  extant  ;  Leipzig,  1860. 

Kaibel,  G.  :  Comicorurn  Graecorum  Fragmenta,  vol.  i. 
Part  I  ;  Berlin,  1899- 

Maurenbrecher,  Bertold  :  Carminum  Saliarium  reli- 
quiae ;  Jahrbiicher  fiir  classische  Philologie,  Suppl., 
vol.  xxi.  313-352  (1894). 

Morel,  Willy  :  Fragmenta  Poetarum  Latinorum  ;  Leip- 
zig, 1927. 

Mueller,  Karl,  and  Theodor  Mueller :  Fragmenta 
Historicorum  Graecorum  ;  Paris,  1841-1870. 

Nauck,  August  :  Aristophanis  Bysantii  Grammatici 
Alexandrini  Fragmenta  ;  Halle,  1848. 

Peter,  Hermann  :  Historicorum  Romanorum  Frag- 
menta ;  Leipzig,  1883. 

Preibisch,  Paul  :  Fragmenta  Librorum  Pontijiciorum  ; 
Tilsit,  1878. 

Regell,  Paul :  Fragmenta  Auguralia  ;  Gymn.  Hirsch- 
berg,  1882. 

Ribbeck,  Otto  :  Scaenicae  Romanorum  Poesis  Frag- 
menta :  vol.  i.,  Tragicoruvi  Romanorum  Fragmenta, 
3rd  ed.,  Leipzig,  1897  ;  vol.  ii.,  Comicorurn 
Romanorum  Fragmenta,  3rd  ed.,  Leipzig,  1898 
(occasional  references  to  the  2nd  ed.). 

Rose,  Valentin  :  Aristotelis  qui  ferehantur  librorum 
fragmenta  ;  Leipzig,  1886. 

Rowoldt,  Walther :  Librorum  Pontijiciorum  Romanorum 
de  Caerimoniis Sacrijiciorum  Reliquiae ',  Halle,  1906. 

Schneider,  Otto  :  Callimachea  ;  Leipzig,  1870. 

Schoell,  Rudolph :  Legis  Duodecim  Tabularum  Re- 
liquiae ;  Leipzig,  1866. 



Usener,  Hermann  :  Epicurea  ;  Leipzig,  1887. 

Vahlen,  J. :  Ennianae  Poesis  Reliquiae,2nd  ed., Leipzig, 
1903  (the  3rd  ed.,  1928,  is  an  unchanged  reprint). 

Warmington,  E.  H.  :  Remains  of  Old  Latin,  in  the 
Loeb  Classical  Library ;  vol.  i.  (Ennius,Caecilius), 
1935;  vol.  ii.  (Li\^us  Andronicus,  Naevius, 
Pacuvius,  Accius),  1936  ;  Cambridge  (Mass.)  and 


Letters  and  words  not  in  the  manuscript,  but  added 
in  the  text,  are  set  in  <  >,  except  as  noted  below. 

Letters  changed  from  the  manuscript  reading  are 
printed  in  italics. 

Some  obvious  additions,  and  the  follo^\•ing  changes, 
are  sometimes  not  further  explained  by  critical  notes  : 

ae  with  italic  a,  for  manuscript  e. 
oe,  Mith  italic  o,  for  manuscript  ae  or  e. 
itaUc  b  and  v,  for  manuscript  u  and  b. 
italicy  and  pk,  for  manuscript  ph  and_/. 
italic  i  and  y,  for  manuscript  y  and  i. 
itaUc  h,  for  an  h  omitted  in  the  manuscript. 

The  manuscripts  are  referred  to  as  follows  ;  read- 
ings without  specification  of  the  manuscript  are 
from  F  : 

F=Laurentianus  li.  10  ;  No.  1  in  our  Ust. 

F^  or  nji,  the  original  writer  of  F,  or  the  first 

jp2  or  m^,  the  corrector  of  F,  or  the  second  hand. 
Ft- =  readings  from   the  lost  quaternion  of  F,  as 
recorded  by  Victorius  ;  our  No.  2. 



Frag.  Cass.  =  Cassinensis  361  ;  our  No.  3. 
f=  Laurentianus  li.  5  ;  our  No.  5. 
H=Havniensis  ;  our  No.  6. 
G  =  Gothanus  ;  our  No.  7. 

a  =  Parisinus  7489  ;  our  No.  8. 

6  =  Parisinus  6142  ;  our  No.  9- 

c  =  Parisinus  7535  ;  our  No.  10. 
F=  Vindobonensis  Ixiii.  ;  our  No.  11. 

jD  =  Basiliensis  F  iv.  13  ;  our  No.  12. 
3I=Guelferbytanus  896  ;  our  No.  13. 
fi  =  that  used  by  Augustinus  ;  our  No.  14. 

The  following  abbreviations  are  used  for  editors 
and  editions  (others  are  referred  to  by  their  full 
names)  : 

Lae^M*  =  editio  princeps  of  Pomponius  Laetus. 
Rhol.  =  Rholandellus,  whose   first  edition  was  in 

P«a  =  Baptista  Pius,  edition  of  1510. 
.t^MOf.  =  Antonius  Augustinus,  editor  of  the  Vul- 
gate edition  1554,  reprinted  1557. 
&JO/J.  =  Gaspar    Scioppius,    edition    of    1602,    re- 
printed 1605. 
L.  .S/).  =  Leonhard  Spengel,  edition  of  1826  (and 
Mue.  =  Karl  Ottfried  Mueller,  edition  of  1833. 
.:/.  5/).  =  Andreas    Spengel,   edition    of   1885    (and 
GS.  =  G.  Goetz  and  F.  Schoell,  edition  of  1910. 



De  Disciplina  Originum  Verborum  ad 



I.  1.  QuEMADMODUM  vocabula  essent  imposita  rebus 
in  lingua  Latina,  sex  libris  exponere  institui.  De 
his  tris  ante  hunc  feci  quos  Septumio  misi  :  in  quibus 
est  de  disciplina,  quam  vocant  JriyxoAoyiKryv^ :  quae 
contra  ea<m>2  dicerentur,  volumine  primo,  quae  pro 
ea,  secundo,  quae  de  ea,  tertio.  In  his  ad  te  scribam, 
a  quibus  rebus  vocabula  imposita  sint  in  lingua 
Latina,  et  ea  quae  sunt  in  consuetudine  apud  <popu- 
lum  et  ea  quae  inveniuntur  apud)'  poetas. 

2.  CuTwi  unius  cuiusque  verbi  naturae  sint  duae, 
a  qua  re  et  in  qua  re  vocabulum  sit  impositum  (itaque 

§  1.  1  For  ethimologicen.  "  Rhol.,  for  ea.  '  Added 
by  A.  Sp. 

§2.     ^  Rhol.,    for   cm. 

§1.  "Books  II. -VII.;  Book  I.  was  introductory. 
"  Books  II. -IV.  "  Quaestor  to  Varro,  c/.  vii.  109  ;  but 
when  or  where  is  not  known.  Possibly  he  was  the  writer 
on  architecture  mentioned  by  Vitruvius,  de  Arch.  vii.  praef. 
1 4,  and  even  the  composer  of  the  Libri  Observationum  men- 



On  the  Science  of  the  Origin  of  Words, 
addressed  to  cicero 

book  iv  ends  here,  and  here  begins 

L  1.  In  what  way  names  were  applied  to  things 
in  Latin,  I  have  undertaken  to  expound,  in  six  books." 
Of  these,  I  have  already  composed  three  *  before  this 
one,  and  have  addressed  them  to  Septumius  "  ;  in 
them  I  treat  of  the  branch  of  learning  which  is  called 
Etymology-.  The  considerations  which  might  be  raised 
against  it,  I  have  put  in  the  first  book  ;  those  adduced 
in  its  favour,  in  the  second ;  those  merely  describing 
it,  in  the  third.  In  the  following  books,  addressed 
to  you,**  I  shall  discuss  the  problem  from  what  things 
names  were  applied  in  Latin,  both  those  which  are 
habitual  \vith  the  ordinary  folk,  and  those  which  are 
found  in  the  poets. 

2.     Inasmuch   as   each   and  every  word  has   two 
innate  features,  from  what  thing  and  to  what  thing 

tioned  by  Quintilian,  Inst.  Orat.  iv.  1.  19.  ''  Cicero,  to 
whom  \'arro  addresses  the  balance  of  the  work.  Books 
V.-XXV.,  written  apparently  in  47—46  b.c. 



a  qua  re  sit  pertinacia  cum  requi(ri>tur,2  ostenditur* 
esse  a  perten<den>do*  ;  in  qua  re  sit  impositum 
dicitur  cum  demonstratur,  in  quo  non  debet  pertendi 
et  pertendit,  pertinaciam  esse,  quod  in  quo  oporteat 
manere,  si  in  eo  perstet,  perseverantia  sit),  priorem 
illam  partem,  ubi  cur  et  unde  sint  verba  scrutantur, 
Groeci  vocant  eTv/zoAoyiav,*  illam  alteram  vrep^i)  ar]- 
//atvo/xevwi'.  De  quibus  duabus  rebus  in  his  libris 
promiscue  dicam,  sed  exilius  de  posteriore. 

3.  Quae  ideo  sunt  obscuriora,  quod  neque  omnis 
impositio  verborum  extat,^  quod  vetustas  quasdam 
delevit,  nee  quae  extat  sine  mendo  omnis  imposita, 
nee  quae  recte  est  imposita,  cuncta  manet  (multa 
enim  verba  li<t>teris  commutatis  sunt  interpolata), 
neque  omnis  origo  est  nostrae  linguae  e  vei*naculis 
verbis,  et  multa  verba  aliud  nunc  ostendunt,  aliud 
ante  significabant,  ut  hostis  :  nam  turn  eo  verbo 
dicebant  peregrinum  qui  suis  legibus  uteretur,  nunc 
dicunt  eum  quem  tum  dicebant  perduellem. 

4.  In  quo  genere  verborum  aut  casu  erit  illustrius 
unde  videri  possit  origo,  inde  repetam.  Ita  fieri 
oportere  apparet,  quod  recto  casu  quom^  dicimus 
inpos,*  obscurius  est  esse  a  potentia  qua(m>*  cum 

*  OS.,  for  sequitur.  '  For  hostenditur.  *  Rhol.,  for 
pertendo.         *  For  ethimologiam. 

§  3.     ^  For  exstat. 

§  4.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  quem.  ^  p,  Laetns,  for  ineos. 
'  For  qua. 

§  2.     "  Properly  an  abstract  formed  from  pertinax,  itself  a 
compound  ottenax  '  tenacious,'  derived  from  tenere  '  to  hold.' 
§  3.     «  Cf  vii.  49. 
§  4.     "  Not  from  potentia  ;  but  both  from  radical  pot-. 



the  name  is  applied  (therefore,  when  the  question  is 
raised  from  what  thing  pertinacia  '  obstinacy  '  is,"  it 
is  shown  to  be  from  pertendere  '  to  persist  '  :  to  what 
thing  it  is  applied,  is  told  when  it  is  explained  that  it 
is  pertinacia  '  obstinacy  '  in  a  matter  in  which  there 
ought  not  to  be  persistence  but  there  is,  because  it 
is  perseverantia  '  steadfastness  '  if  a  person  persists  in 
that  in  which  he  ought  to  hold  firm),  that  former 
part,  where  they  examine  why  and  whence  words  are, 
the  Greeks  call  Etymology,  that  other  part  they  call 
Semantics.  Of  these  two  matters  I  shall  speak  in  the 
following  books,  not  keeping  them  apart,  but  gi\ing 
less  attention  to  the  second. 

3.  These  relations  are  often  rather  obscure  for  the 
following  reasons  :  Not  every  word  that  has  been 
applied,  still  exists,  because  lapse  of  time  has  blotted 
out  some.  Not  every  word  that  is  in  use,  has  been 
applied  without  inaccuracy  of  some  kind,  nor  does 
every  word  which  has  been  applied  correctly  remain 
as  it  originally  was  ;  for  many  words  are  disguised  by 
change  of  the  letters.  There  are  some  whose  origin 
is  not  from  native  words  of  our  own  language.  Many 
words  indicate  one  thing  now,  but  formerly  meant 
something  else,  as  is  the  case  with  hostis  '  enemy  '  : 
for  in  olden  times  by  this  word  they  meant  a  foreigner 
from  a  country  independent  of  Roman  laws,  but  now 
they  give  the  name  to  him  whom  they  then  called 
perduellis  '  enemy.'  "■ 

4.  I  shall  take  as  starting-point  of  my  discussion 
that  derivative  or  case-form  of  the  words  in  which  the 
origin  can  be  more  clearly  seen.  It  is  evident  that  we 
ought  to  operate  in  this  way,  because  when  we  say 
inpos  '  lacking  power  '  in  the  nominative,  it  is  less 
clear  that  it  is  from  potentia  <*  '  power  '  than  when  we 



dicimus  inpotem*  ;  et  eo  obscurius  fit,  si  dicas  pos 
quam*  inpos  :  videtur  enim  pos  significare  potius 
pontem  quam  potentem. 

5.  Vetustas  pauca  non  depravat,  multa  tollit. 
Quem  puerum  vidisti  formosum,  hunc  vides  defor- 
mem  in  senecta.  Tertium  seculum  non  videt  eum 
hominem  quem  vidit  primum.  Quare  ilia  quae  iam 
maioribus  nostris  ademit  oblivio,  fugitiva  secuta 
sedulitas  Muci^  et  Bruti  retrahere  nequit.  Non,  si 
non  potuero  indagare,  eo  ero  tardior,  sed  velocior 
ideo,  si  quivero.  Non  mediocres*  enim  tenebrae  in 
silva  ubi  haec  captanda  neque  eo  quo  pervenire 
volumus  semitae  tritae,  neque  non  in  tramitibus 
quaedam  obiecta^  quae  euntem  retinere  possent. 

6.  Quorum  verborum  novorum  ac  veterum  dis- 
cordia  omnis  in  consuetudine  com(m>uni,  quot  modis^ 
commutatio  sit  facta  qui  animadverterit,  facilius 
scrutari  origines  patietur  verborum  :  reperiet  enim 
esse  commutata,  ut  in  superioribus  libris  ostendi, 
maxime  propter  bis  quaternas  causas.  Litterarum 
enim  fit  demptione  aut  additione  et  propter  earum 
tra(ie)ctionem2  aut  commutationem,  item  syllabarum 
produetione  (aut  correptione,  denique  adiectione  aut 

*  Aug.,  for  inpotentem.         *  Aug.,  with  B,  for  postquam. 

§  5.     ^  For  muti.         "  For  mediocris.         ^  For  oblecta. 
§  6.     ^  After    modis,    Fr.    Fritzsche    deleted    litterarum. 
^  Scaliger  and  Popma,for  tractationem. 

*  Avoided  in  practice,  in  favour  of  dissyllabic  potis.  "  Be- 
cause the  nasal  was  almost  or  quite  lost  before  s  ;  cf.  the 
regular  inscriptional  spelling  cosol=  consul. 

§  5.  «P.  Mucius  Scaevola  and  M.  Junius  Brutus,  distin- 
guished jurists  and  writers  on  law  in  the  period  150-130  b.c. 
Mucius,  as  pontifex  maximus,  seems  to  have  collected  and 


say  inpotem  in  the  accusative  ;  and  it  becomes  the 
more  obscure,  if  you  say  pos  ^  '  ha\-lng  power  '  rather 
than  inpos  ;  for  pos  "  seems  to  mean  rather  pons 
'  bridge  '  \han  potens  '  powerful.' 

5.  There  are  few  things  which  lapse  of  time  does 
not  distort,  there  are  many  which  it  removes.  Whom 
you  saw  beautiful  as  a  boy,  him  you  see  unsightly  in 
his  old  age.  The  third  generation  does  not  see  a 
person  such  as  the  first  generation  saw  him.  TTiere- 
fore  those  that  oblivion  has  taken  away  even  from  our 
ancestors,  the  painstaking  of  Mucius  and  Brutus," 
though  it  has  pursued  the  runaways,  cannot  bring 
back.  As  for  me,  even  if  I  cannot  track  them  down, 
I  shall  not  be  the  slower  for  this,  but  even  for  this  I 
shall  be  the  s\^-ifter  in  the  chase,  if  I  can.  For  there 
is  no  slight  darkness  in  the  wood  where  these  things 
are  to  be  caught,  and  there  are  no  trodden  paths  to 
the  place  which  we  ^^•ish  to  attain,  nor  do  there  fail 
to  be  obstacles  in  the  paths,  which  could  hold  back 
the  hunter  on  his  way. 

6.  Now  he  who  has  observed  in  how  many  ways 
the  changing  has  taken  place  in  those  words,  new  and 
old,  in  which  there  is  any  and  every  manner  of  varia- 
tion in  popular  usage,  will  find  the  examination  of  the 
origin  of  the  words  an  easier  task  ;  for  he  \^'ill  find 
that  words  have  been  changed,  as  I  have  shown  in  the 
preceding  books,  essentially  on  account  of  two  sets  of 
four  causes.  For  the  alterations  come  about  by  the 
loss  or  the  addition  of  single  letters  and  on  account  of 
the  transposition  or  the  change  of  them,  and  likcAvise 
by  the  lengthening  or  the  shortening  of  syllables,  and 
their  addition  or  loss  :  since  I  have  adequately  shown 

published  the  Annales  Pontificum,  and  to  have  put  an  end  to 
the  further  writing  of  them  by  the  pontifex  maximus. 



detrectione)'  ;  quae  quoniam  in  superioribus  libris* 
cuiusmodi  essent  exemplis  satis  demonstravi,  hie 
ammonendum  esse  modo  putavi. 

7.  Nunc  singulorum  verborum  origines  expediam, 
quorum  quattuor  explanandi  gradus.  Infimus^  quo 
populus  etiam  venit  :  quis  enim  non  videt  unde 
ar(g>e<n>b'fodinae='  et  viocurus  ?  Secundus  quo 
grammatica  escendit'  antiqua,  quae  ostendit,  quem- 
admodum  quodque  poeta  finxerit  verbum,  quod 
confinxerit,  quod  declinarit  ;    hie  Pacui  : 

Rudentum  sibilus, 

hie  : 

IncMrvicervicum*  pecus, 
hie  : 

Clamide  clupeat  b<r)acchium.* 

8.  Tertius  gradus,  quo  philosophia  ascendens  per- 
venit  atque  ea  quae  in  consuetudine  communi  essent 
aperire  coepit,i  ut  a  quo  dictum  esset  oppidum,  vicus, 
via.  Quartus,  ubi  est  adj/tum^  et  initia  regis  :  quo 
si  non  perveniam  (ad>*  scientiam,  at*  opinionem 
aucupabor,  quod  etiam  in  salute  nostra  nonnunquam 
fflcit^  cum  aegrotamus  medicus. 

'  Added  by  Kent,  after  Scaliger,  Mve.,  OS.  ;  cf.  Quintilian, 
Inst.  Orat.  i.  6.  32.         *  After  libris,  Aug.  deleted  qui. 

§  7.  ^  After  infimus,  Sciop.  deleted  in.  "  Canal,  for 
aretofodine.  ^  Sciop.,  for  descendit.  *  G,  Aldtis,  for 
inceruice  ruicum.         *  For  bacchium. 

§8.  ^  For  caepit.  ^  Sciop.,  for  aiAiiam..  ^  Added  by 
L.  Sp.         *  Sciop.,  for  ad.         *  Aldus,  with  p,  for  fecit. 

§  7.  "  Cf.  viii.  62.  "  Teucer,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  336 
Ribbeck» ;  R.O.L.  ii.  296-297  Warmington.  "  Ex  inc.  fab. 

xliv,  verse  408,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  Ribbeck^,  R.O.L.  ii.  292-293 
Warmington,  referring  to  the  dolphins  of  Nereus  ;  the  entire 



by  examples,  in  the  preceding  books,  of  what  sort 
these  phenomena  are,  I  have  thought  that  here  1 
need  only  set  a  reminder  of  that  previous  discussion. 

7.  Now  I  shall  set  forth  the  origins  of  the  indivi- 
dual words,  of  which  there  are  four  levels  of  explana- 
tion. The  lowest  is  that  to  which  even  the  common 
folk  has  come  ;  who  does  not  see  the  sources  of 
argentifodinae  "  '  silver-mines  '  and  of  viocurus  '  road- 
overseer  '  ?  The  second  is  that  to  which  old-time 
grammar  has  mounted,  which  shows  how  the  poet  has 
made  each  word  which  he  has  fashioned  and  derived. 
Here  belongs  Pacuvius's  * 

The  whistling  of  the  ropes, 
here  his  " 

Incurvate-necked  flock, 
here  his  ** 

With  his  mantle  he  beshields  his  arm. 

8.  The  third  level  is  that  to  which  philosophy 
ascended,  and  on  arrival  began  to  reveal  the  nature  of 
those  words  which  are  in  common  use,  as,  for  example, 
from  what  oppidum  '  tovvn  '  was  named,  and  vicus  '  row 
of  houses,'  "  and  via  '  street.'  The  fourth  is  that 
where  the  sanctuary  is,  and  the  mysteries  of  the  high- 
priest  :  if  I  shall  not  arrive  at  full  knowledge  there,  at 
any  rate  I  shall  cast  about  for  a  conjecture,  which 
even  in  matters  of  our  health  the  physician  sometimes 
does  when  we  are  ill. 

verse  in  Quintilian,  Inst.  Oral.  i.  5.  67,  Nerei  repandirostrum 
incur vicerricum  pecus.  <*  Hermiona,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  186 
Ribbeck»,  R.O.L.  ii.  232-233  Warmington ;  the  entire  verse  in 
Nonius  Marcellus,  87. 23  M. :  currum  liquit,  clamide  contorta 
astu  clipeat  braccium. 

§  8.  "  From  this  meaning,  either  an  entire  small  '  village  ' 
or  a  '  street '  in  a  large  city. 


9.  Quodsi  summum  gradum  non  attigero,  tamen 
secundum  praeteribo,  quod  non  solum  ad  Aris- 
tophanis  lucernam,  sed  etiam  ad  CleantAis  lucubravi. 
Volui  praeterire  eos,  qui  poetarum  modo  verba  ut 
sint  fieta  expediunt.  Non  enim  videbatur  consen- 
taneum  qua(e>re(re>i  me  in  eo  verbo  quod  finxisset 
Ennius  causam,  neglegere  quod  ante  rex  Latinus 
finxisset,  cum  poeticis  multis  verbis  magis  delecter 
quam  utar,  antiquis  magis  utar  quam  delecter.  An 
non  potius  mea  verba  ilia  quae  hereditate  a  Romulo 
rege  venerunt  quam  quae  a  poeta  Livio  relicta  ? 

10.  Igitur  quoniam  in  haec  sunt  tripertita  verba, 
quae  sunt  aut  nostra  aut  aliena  aut  oblivia,  de  nostris 
dicam  cur  sint,  de  alienis  unde  sint,  de  obliviis  re- 
linquam  :  quorum  partim  quid  ta(men)  invenerim 
aut  opiner^  scribam.  In  hoc  libro  dicam  de  vocabulis 
locorum  et  quae  in  his  sunt,  in  secundo  de  temporum 
et  quae  in  his  fiunt,  in  tertio  de  utraque  re  a  poetis 

11.  Pythagoras  Samius  ait  omnium  rerum  initia 
esse  bina  ut  finitum  et  infinitum,  bonum  et  malum, 

§  9.     ^  Aug.,  for  quare. 

§  10.  ^  After  A.  Sp.,  with  tamen  frotn  Fay's  quo  loco 
tamen  ;  for  quo  ita  inuenerim  ita  opiner. 

§  9.  "  Aristophanes  of  Byzantium,  262-185  b.c,  pupil  of 
Zenodotus  and  Callimachus  at  Alexandria,  and  himself  one 
of  the  greatest  of  the  Alexandrian  grammarians,  who  busied 
himself  especially  with  the  textual  correction  and  editing  of 
the  Greek  authors,  notably  Homer,  Hesiod,  and  the  lyric 
poets.  *  Fra(7.  485  von  Arnim  ;   Cleanthes  of  Assos,  331- 

232  B.C.,  pupil  and  successor  of  Zeno,  founder  of  the  Stoic 
school  of  philosophy  (died  264),  as  head  of  the  school,  at 
Athens,  and  author  of  many  works  on  all  phases  of  the  Stoic 
teaching.  '^  L.  Livius  Andronicus,  c.  284^202  b.c,  born  at 
Tarentum  ;   first  epic  and  dramatic  poet  of  the  Romans. 

§11.     "  Pythagoras,  born  probably  in  Samos  about  567  b.c, 



9.  But  if  I  have  not  reached  the  highest  level,  I 
shall  none  the  less  go  farther  up  than  the  second, 
because  I  have  studied  not  only  by  the  lamp  of  Aris- 
tophanes," but  also  by  that  of  Cleanthes.*  I  have 
desired  to  go  farther  than  those  who  expound  only 
how  the  words  of  the  poets  are  made  up.  For  it  did 
not  seem  meet  that  I  seek  the  source  in  the  case  of 
the  word  which  Ennius  had  made,  and  neglect  that 
which  long  before  King  Latinus  had  made,  in  \-iew  of 
the  fact  that  I  get  pleasure  rather  than  utility  from 
many  words  of  the  poets,  and  more  utility  than 
pleasure  from  the  ancient  words.  And  in  fact  are 
not  those  words  mine  which  have  come  to  me  by 
inheritance  from  King  Romulus,  rather  than  those 
which  were  left  behind  by  the  poet  Livius  ?  '^ 

10.  Therefore  since  words  are  divided  into  these 
three  groups,  those  which  are  our  own,  those  which 
are  of  foreign  origin,  and  those  which  are  obsolete  and 
of  forgotten  sources,  I  shall  set  forth  about  our  own 
why  they  are,  about  those  of  foreign  origin  whence 
they  are,  and  as  to  the  obsolete  I  shall  let  them  alone  : 
except  that  concerning  some  of  them  I  shall  none  the 
less  write  what  I  have  found  or  myself  conjecture.  In 
this  book  I  shall  tell  about  the  words  denoting  places 
and  those  things  which  are  in  them  ;  in  the  follow- 
ing book  I  shall  tell  of  the  words  denoting  times  and 
those  things  which  take  place  in  them  ;  in  the  third 
I  shall  tell  of  both  these  as  expressed  by  the  poets. 

1 1 .  Pythagoras  the  Samian  "  says  that  the  primal 
elements  of  all  things  are  in  pairs,  as  finite  and  infinite, 

removed  to  Croton  in  South  Italy  about  529  and  was  there  the 
founder  of  the  philosophic-political  school  of  belief  which 
attaches  to  his  name.  His  teachings  were  oral  only,  and 
were  reduced  to  writing  by  his  followers. 



vitam  et  mortem,  diem  et  noctem.  Quare  item  duo 
status  et  motus,  (utrumque  quadripertitum)^ :  quod 
stat  aut  agitatur,  corpus,  ubi  agitatur,  locus,  dum 
agitatur,  tempus,  quod  est  in  agitatu,  actio.  Quadri- 
pertitio  magis  sic  apparebit  :  corpus  est  ut  cursor, 
locus  stadium  qua  currit,  tempus  hora  qua  currit, 
actio  cursio. 

12.  Quare  fit,  ut  ideo  fere  omnia  sint  quadri- 
pertita  et  ea  aeterna,  quod  neque  unquam  tempus, 
quin  fuerit^  motus  :  eius  enim*  intervallum  tempus  ; 
neque  motus,  ubi  non  locus  et  corpus,  quod  alteram 
est  quod  movetur,  alterum  ubi  ;  neque  ubi  is  agitatus, 
non  actio  ibi.  Igitur  initiorum  quadrigae  locus  et 
corpus,  tempus  et  actio. 

13.  Quare  quod  quattuor  genera  prima  rerum, 
totidem  verborum  :  e  quis  <de)  locis  et  iis^  rebus  quae 
in  his  videntur  in  hoc  libro  summatim  ponam.  Sed 
qua  cognatio  eius  erit  verbi  quae  radices  egerit  extra 
fines  suas,  persequemur.  Saepe  enim  ad  limitem 
arboris  radices  sub  vicini  prodierunt  segetem.  Quare 
non,  cum  de  locis  dicam,  si  ab  agro  ad  agrarium^ 
hominem,  ad  agricolam  pervenero,  aberraro.     Multa 

§11.  ^  Added  by  L.  Sp. 

§  12.  ^  For  fuerint.         *  Aug.,  for  animi. 

§  13.  ^  L.  Sp.y  for  uerborum  enim  horum  dequis  locis  et 

his.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  agrosium. 

§  13.     "  Celebrated  on  April  23  and  August  19,  when  an 
offering  of  new  wine  was  made  to  Jupiter  ;   c/.  vi.  16  and 
vi.  20. 


good  and  bad,  life  and  death,  day  and  night.  There- 
fore likewise  there  are  the  two  fundamentals,  station 
and  motion,  each  divided  into  four  kinds  :  what  is 
stationary  or  is  in  motion,  is  body  ;  where  it  is  in 
motion,  is  place  ;  while  it  is  in  motion,  is  time  ;  what 
is  inherent  in  the  motion,  is  action.  The  fourfold 
division  will  be  clearer  in  this  way  :  body  is,  so  to 
speak,  the  runner,  place  is  the  race-course  where  he 
runs,  time  is  the  period  during  which  he  runs,  action  is 
the  running. 

12.  Therefore  it  comes  about  that  for  this  reason 
all  things,  in  general,  are  divided  into  four  phases, 
and  these  universal  ;  because  there  is  never  time 
without  there  being  motion — for  even  an  intermission 
of  motion  is  time —  ;  nor  is  there  motion  where 
there  is  not  place  and  body,  because  the  latter  is 
that  which  is  moved,  and  the  former  is  where  ;  nor 
where  this  motion  is,  does  there  fail  to  be  action. 
Therefore  place  and  body,  time  and  action  are  the 
four-horse  team  of  the  elements. 

13.  Therefore  because  the  primal  classes  of  things 
are  four  in  number,  so  many  are  the  primal  classes  of 
words.  From  among  these,  concerning  places  and 
those  things  which  are  seen  in  them,  I  shall  put  a 
summarv'  account  in  this  book  ;  but  we  shall  follow 
them  up  wherever  the  kin  of  the  word  under  discus- 
sion is,  even  if  it  has  driven  its  roots  beyond  its  own 
territory.  For  often  the  roots  of  a  tree  which  is  close 
to  the  line  of  the  property  have  gone  out  under  the 
neighbour's  cornfield.  Wherefore,  when  I  speak  of 
places,  I  shall  not  have  gone  astray,  if  from  ager 
'  field '  I  pass  to  an  agrarius  '  agrarian '  man,  and  to 
an  agricola  '  farmer.'  The  partnership  of  words  is  one 
of  many  members  :  the  Wine  Festival  °  cannot  be  set 



societas  verborum,  nee  Vinalia  sine  vino  expediri  nee 
Curia  Calabra  sine  ealatione  potest  aperiri. 

II.  14.  Incipiam  de  locis  ah^  ipsius  loci  origine. 
Locus  est,  ubi  locatum  quid  esse  potest,  ut  nunc 
dicunt,  collocatum.  Veteres  id  dicere  solitos  apparet 
apud  Plautum  : 

Filiam  habeo  grandem  dote  cassa(m>  atque 

Neque  earn  queo  locare  cuiquam. 

Apud  Ennium  : 

O  Terra  Thraeca,,  ubi  Liberi  fanum  inciu^um' 
Maro*  locavi<t>.^ 

15.  Ubi  quidque  consistit,  locus.  Ab  eo  praeco 
dicitur  locare,  quod  usque  idem  it,^  quoad  in  aliquo 
constitit  pretium.  In(de)2  locarium  quod  datur  in 
stabulo  et  taberna,  ubi  consistant.  Sic  loci  muliebres, 
ubi  nascendi  initia  consistunt. 

III.  16.  Loca  natura(e>i  secundum  antiquam 
divisionem  prima  duo,  terra  et  caelum,  deinde  par- 
ticulatim  utriusque  multa.     Caeli  dicuntur  loca  su- 

§  14.  ^  Sciop.,  for  sub.  *  So  Plautus,  for  cassa  dote 
atque  inlocabili  F  ;  Plautus  also  has  virginem  for  filiam. 
'  Wilhelm,  for  inciuium.  *  For  miro  F^,  maro  F^. 
*  Ribbeck,  for  locaui. 

§  15.     ^  Turnebus,  for  id  emit.         ^  Laetus,  for  in. 

§  16.     ^  Aug.,  for  natura. 

*  A  place  on  the  Capitoline  Hill,  near  the  cottage  of 
Romulus,  and  also  the  meeting  held  there  on  the  Kalends, 
when  the  priests  announced  the  number  of  days  until  the 
Nones  ;  c/.  vi.  27,  and  Macrobius,  Saturnalia,  i.  15.  7. 

§  14.  "  Theuncompounded  word ;  which,  like  its  compound, 
meant  both  '  established  in  a  fixed  position  '  and  '  established 
in  a  marriage.'  ^  Aulularia,  191-192.  "That  is,   in 

marriage.         <*  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  347-348  Ribbeck^ ;  R.O.L. 



on  its  way  without  wine,  nor  can  the  Curia  Calahra 
'  Announcement  Hall  '  ^  be  opened  without  the 
calatio  '  proclamation.' 

H.  14.  Among  places,  I  shall  begin  "«-ith  the 
origin  of  the  word  locus  '  place  '  itself.  Locus  is  where 
something  can  be  locatum  "  '  placed,'  or  as  they  say 
nowadays,  collocatum  '  established.'  That  the  ancients 
were  wont  to  use  the  word  in  this  meaning,  is  clear  in 
Plautus  ^  : 

I  have  a  grown-up  daughter,  lacking  dower, 

Nor  can  I  place  her  now  with  anyone. 

In  Ennius  we  find  **  : 

O  Thracian  Land,  where  Bacchus'  fane  renowned 
Did  Maro  place. 

15.  Where  anything  comes  to  a  standstill,  is  a  locus 
*  place.'  From  this  the  auctioneer  is  said  locate  '  to 
place  '  because  he  is  all  the  time  like^v^se  going  on 
until  the  price  comes  to  a  standstill  on  someone. 
Thence  also  is  locamim  '  place-rent,'  which  is  given 
for  a  lodging  or  a  shop,  where  the  payers  take  their 
stand.  So  also  loci  muliehres  '  woman's  places,'  where 
the  beginnings  of  birth  are  situated. 

III.  16.  The  primal  places  of  the  universe,  accord- 
ing to  the  ancient  division,  are  two,  terra  '  earth  '  and 
caelum  '  sky,'  and  then,  according  to  the  division  into 
items,  there  are  many  places  in  each.  The  places  of 
the  sky  are  called  loca  super  a  '  upper  places,'  and 

i.  376-377  Warmington.  Maro,  son  of  Euanthes  and  priest 
of  Apollo  in  the  Thracian  Ismaros,  in  thanks  for  protection 
for  himself  and  his  followers,  gave  Ulysses  a  present  of 
excellent  wine  {Odyssey,  Lx.  197  ff.).  Because  of  this,  later 
legend  drew  him  into  the  Dionysiac  circle,  as  son  or  grandson 
of  Bacchus,  or  otherwise.  There  were  even  cults  of  Maro 
himself  in  Maroneia,  Samothrace,  and  elsewhere. 



pera  et  ea  deorum,  terrae  loca  infera  et  ea  hominum. 
Ut  Asia  sic  caelum  dicitur  modis  duobus.  Nam  et 
Asia,  quae  non  Europa,  in  quo  etiam  Syria,  et  Asia 
dicitur  prioris  pars  Asiae,  in  qua  est  Ionia  ac  provincia 

17.  Sic  caelum  et  pars  eius,  summum  ubi  stellae, 
et  id  quod  Pacuvius  cum  demonstrat  dicit : 

Hoc  vide  circum  supraque  quod  complexu  continet 

Cui  subiungit  : 

Id  quod  nostri  caelum  memorant. 

A  qua  bipertita  divisione  Luc«7iusi  suorum  un<i)u5' 
et  viginti  librorum  initium  fecit  hoc  : 

Aetheris  et  terrae  genitabile  quaerere  tempus. 

18.  Caelum  dictum  scribit  Aelius,  quod  est 
caelatum,  aut  contrario  nomine,  celatum  quod  aper- 
tum  est  ;  non  male,  quod  <im)positori  multo  potius 
<caelare>*  a  caelo  quam  caelum  a  caelando.     Sed  non 

§  17.     ^  Scaliffer,  for  lucretius.       *  Laetus,  for  unum. 
§  18.     ^  GS.,for  posterior.         *  Added  by  Scaliger. 

%  16.  "  Asia  originally  designated  probably  only  a  town  or 
small  district  in  Lydia,  and  then  came  to  be  what  we  now  call 
Asia  Minor,  and  finally  the  entire  continent.  *  Ionia  was 
a  coastal  region  of  Asia  Minor,  including  Smyrna,  Ephesus, 
Miletus,  etc.,  and  was  included  within  provincia  nostra.  But 
'  our  province  '  ran  much  farther  inland,  comprising  Phrygia, 
M ysia,  Lydia,  Caria  (Cicero,  Pro  Flacco,  27.65),  which  explains 
the  '  and.' 

§  17.  "  Chryses,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  87-88  and  90  Ribbeck» ; 
R.O.L.  2.  202-203,  lines  107-108, 1 1 1  Warmington.  >  Satirae, 
verse  1  Marx.  As  there  were  thirty  books  of  Lucilius's 
Satires,  the  limitation  to  twenty-one  by  Varro  must  be  based 
on  another  division  (for  which  there  is  evidence),  thus :  Books 
XXVI.-XXX.  were  written  first,  in  various  metres;  I.-XXI., 



these  belong  to  the  gods  ;  the  places  of  the  earth  are 
loca  infer  a  '  lower  places,'  and  these  belong  to  man- 
kind. Caelum  '  sky  '  is  used  in  two  ways,  just  as  is 
Asia.  For  Asia  means  the  Asia,  which  is  not  Europe, 
wherein  is  even  Syria  ;  and  Asia  means  also  that 
part  "  of  the  aforementioned  Asia,  in  which  is  Ionia  ^ 
and  our  province. 

17.  So  caelum  '  sky  '  is  both  a  part  of  itself,  the  top 
where  the  stars  are,  and  that  which  Pacuvlus  means 
when  he  points  it  out  "  : 

See  this  around  and  above,  which  holds  in  its  embrace 
The  earth. 

To  which  he  adds  : 

.  That  which  the  men  of  our  days  call  the  sky. 

From  this  division  into  two,  Lucilius  set  this  as  the 
start  of  his  twenty-one  books  ^  : 

Seeking  the  time  when  the  ether  above  and  the 
earth  were  created. 

18.  Caelum,  AeUus  wTites,"  was  so  called  because 
it  is  caelatum  '  raised  above  the  surface,'  or  from  the 
opposite  of  its  idea,*  celatum  '  hidden  '  because  it  is 
exposed  ;  not  ill  the  remark,  that  the  one  who  applied 
the  term  took  caelare  '  to  raise  '  much  rather  from 
caelum  than  caelum  from  caelare.     But  that  second 

to  which  Varro  here  alludes,  were  a  second  volume,  in  dactj'lic 
hexameters,  which  Lucilius  had  found  to  be  the  best  vehicle 
for  his  work ;  XXII. -XXV.  were  a  third  part,  in  elegiacs, 
probably  not  published  until  after  their  author's  death. 

§  18.  °  Page  59  Funaioli.  Caelum  is  probably  connected 
with  a  root  seen  in  German  heiter  '  bright,'  and  not  with  the 
words  mentioned  by  \'arro.  *  Derivation  by  the  contrary 
of  the  meaning,  as  in  Indus,  in  quo  minime  luditur '  school,  in 
which  there  is  very  little  playing  '  (Festus,  1:22.  16  M.). 

VOL.  I  c  17 


minus  illud  alterum  de  celando  ab  eo  potuit  dici,  quod 
interdiu  celatur,  quam  quod  noctu  non  celatur. 

19.  Omnino  e(g}o^  magis  puto  a  chao  cho<um 
ca)vum^  et  hinc  caelum,  quoniam,  ut  dixi,  "  hoc  circum 
supraque  quod  complexu  continet  terrain,"  cavum 
caelum.     Itaque  dicit  Androm(ed>a'  Nocti  : 

Quae*  cava  caeli 
Signitenentibus  conficis  bigis  ; 

et  Agamemno  : 

In  altisono  caeli  clipeo  : 
cavum  enim  clipeum  ;  et  Ennius  item  ad  cavationem  : 

Caeli  ingentes  fornices. 

20.  Quare  ut  a  cavo  cavea  et  cauZlae^  et  convallis, 
cavata  vallis,  et  cave<m>ae*  <a)*  cavatione*  ut  cavum,* 
sic  ortum,  unde  omnia  apud  i/esiodum,  a  chao  cavo 

IV,  21.     Terra  dicta  ab  eo,  ut  Aelius  scribit,  quod 

§  19.  ^  Aldus,  for  eo.  ^  GS.  ;  choum  hinc  cavum 
Mue.  ;  for  chouum.  ^  Scaliger,for  androma.  *  Aug., 
for  noctique. 

§  20.  ^  Scaliger,  for  cauile.  ^  GS.,  for  cauea  e. 
^  Added  bj/ Mue.  *  iVwe., /or  cauitione.  ^  Vertranius, 
for  cauium. 

§  19.  "  Latin  cavum  is  not  related  to  Greek  chaos,  but  it  is 
the  source  of  all  the  Latin  words  in  §  19  and  §  20,  except 
caelum  and  convallis.  *  Ennius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  95-96 
Ribbeck^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  256-257  Warmington;  anapaestic. 
<=  Ennius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  177-178  Ribbeck^  R.O.L.  i. 
300-301  Warmington  ;  anapaestic.  ■*  Ennius,  Trag.  Rom. 
Frag.  374  Ribbeck» ;  R.O.L.  i.  364-365  Warmington. 

§  20.  "  Commonly  meaning  the  spectators'  part  of  the 
theatre;     but   also    'stall,   bird-cage,   bee-hive.'  *  Also 



origin,  from  celare  '  to  hide,'  could  be  said  from  this 
fact,  that  by  day  it  celatur  '  is  hidden,'  no  less  than 
that  by  night  it  is  not  hidden. 

19-  On  the  whole  I  rather  think  that  from  chaos 
came  ckoum  and  then  cavum  "  '  hollow,'  and  from  this 
caelum  '  sky,'  since,  as  I  have  said,  "  this  around  and 
above,  which  holds  in  its  embrace  the  earth,"  is  the 
cavum  caelum  '  hollow  sky.'  And  so  Andromeda  says 
to  Night,^ 

You  who  traverse  the  hollows  of  sky 
With  your  chariot  marked  by  the  stars. 

And  Agamemnon  says," 

In  the  shield  of  the  sky,  that  soundeth  on  high, 

for  a  shield  is  a  hollow  thing.  And  Ennius  likewise, 
x^-ith  reference  to  a  cavem,** 

Enormous  arches  of  the  sky. 

20.  WTierefore  as  from  cavum  '  hollow  '  come 
cavea'^  '  ca\'ity,'  and  caullae^  '  hole  or  passage,'  and 
convallis "  '  enclosed  valley  '  as  being  a  cavata  vallis 
'  hollowed  valley,'  and  cavemae  '  caverns  '  from  the 
cavatio  '  hollowing,'  as  a  cavum  '  hollow  thing,'  *^  so 
developed  caelum  '  sky  '  from  cavum,  which  itself  was 
from  chaos,  from  which,  in  Hesiod,*  come  all  things. 

IV.  21.  Terra"  'earth  '  is  —  as  Aelius  *  writes  — 
named  from  this  fact,  that  it  teritur  '  is  trodden  '  ; 

'  sheepfold.'  '  Apparently  out  of  place  ;  but  perhaps 
Varro  had  in  mind  a  pronunciation  with  only  a  slight  nasal 
sound,  virtually  covallis,  c/.  c&ntio  from  cocentio  {coventionid 
occurs  in  an  old  inscription).  **  This  text  is  a  desperate 
attempt  to  bring  sense  into  the  passage.  •  Theogony,  123  ff. 
§  21.  °  From  tersa  '  dry  ' :  tritura  and  tribulum  are  the  only 
words  in  the  section  connected  with  tero.  "  Page  67  Fu- 



teritur.  Itaque  tera  in  augurum  libris  scripta  cum 
R  uno.  Ab  eo  colonis  locus  com<m>unis  qui  prope 
oppidum  relinquitur  tentorium,  quod  maxime  teritur. 
Hinc  linteum  quod  teritur  corpore  extermentarium. 
Hinc  in  messi  tritura,  quod  tum  frumentum  teritur, 
et  trife?<lum,i  qui  teritur.  Hinc  fines  agrorum  termini, 
quod  eae  partes ^  propter  limitare  iter  maxime  te- 
runtur  ;  itaque  hoc  cum  P  in  Latio  aliquot  locis  dici- 
tur,  ut  apud  Accium,  non  terminus,  sed  ter(i>men* ; 
hoc  Graeci  quod  re/a/xoca.  Pote  vel  illinc  ;  Euander 
enim,  qui  venit  in  Palatium,  e  Graecia  Areas. 

22.  Via^  quidem  iter,  quod  ea  vehendo  teritur,  iter 
item'*  actus,  quod  agendo  teritur  ;  etiam  ambitus 
<i>ter,^  quod  circumeundo  teritur  :  nam  ambitus 
circuitus  ;  ab  eoque  Duodecim  Tabularum  interpretes 
'  ambitus  parietis  '  circuitum  esse  describunt.  Igitur 
tera  terra  et  ab  eo  poetae  appellarunt  summa  terrae 
quae  sola  teri  possunt,  '  sola  terrae.' 

§21.  ^  For  triuolum.  **  For  partis.  ^  L.  Sp.ffor  is. 
*  L.  Sp.,  for  termen. 

§22.  ^  Lachmann,  for  uias.  ^  A.  Sp.,  for  iterum. 
'  Groth,  for  ter. 

'  No  consonants  were  doubled  in  the  writing  of  Latin  until 
about  200  B.C.,  and  then  not  regularly  for  some  decades  ; 
before  200  b.c,  terra  was  necessarily  written  tera.  **  Page 
16  Regell.  *  Derivative  of  terra.  *  From  extergere  '  to 
wipe  off.'  "  From  a  different  root  ter-  '  to  cross  over.' 
^Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  p&ge  262  Ribbeck^;  R.O.L.  ii.  599 
Warmington.  *  See  Livy,  i.  5. 

§  22.  "  Of  uncertain  etymology,  but  not  from  vehere. 
*  Amb-itus  -  circu-itus  in  meaning  ;  -itus  and  iter  both  from 
the  root  in  ire  '  to  go.'  "  The  fundamental  Roman  laws, 
traditionally  drawn  up  by  the  Decemvirs  of  451-450  b.c. 
<*  Page  136  Schoell  ;  page  113  Funaioli.  '  Cf.  Ennius, 
Ann.  455  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  ii.  208-209  Warmington;   page 



therefore  it  is  written  tera "  in  the  Books  of  the 
Augurs,**  with  one  R.  From  this,  the  place  which  is 
left  near  a  town  as  common  property  for  the  farmers, 
is  the  territorium  *  '  territory,'  because  it  teritur  '  is 
trodden  '  most.  From  this,  the  linen  garment  which 
teritur  '  is  rubbed  '  bv  the  body,  is  an  extermentarium/ 
From  this,  in  the  harvest,  is  the  tritura  '  threshing,' 
because  then  the  grain  teritur  '  is  rubbed  out,'  and  the 
trihulum  '  threshing-sledge,'  with  which  it  teritur  '  is 
rubbed  out.'  From  this  the  boundaries  of  the  fields 
are  called  termini,^  because  those  parts  teruntur  '  are 
trodden  '  most,  on  account  of  the  boundary-lane. 
Therefore  this  word  is  pronounced  with  I  in  some 
places  in  Latium,  not  terminus,  but  terimen,  and  this 
form  is  found  in  Accius  ''  :  it  is  the  same  word  which 
the  Greeks  call  repfioji'.  Perhaps  the  Latin  word 
comes  from  the  Greek  ;  for  Evander,  who  came  to  the 
Palatine,  was  an  Arcadian  from  Greece.* 

22.  A  via  "  '  road  '  is  indeed  an  iter  '  way,'  because 
it  teritur  '  is  worn  do^^'n  '  by  vehendo  '  carrying  in 
wagons  '  ;  an  actus  '  driving-passage  '  is  likewise  an 
iter,  because  it  is  worn  doAvn  by  agendo  '  driving  of 
cattle.'  Moreover  an  ambitus  ^  '  edge-road  '  is  an  iter 
'  way,'  because  it  teritur '  is  worn '  by  the  going  around : 
for  an  edge-road  is  a  circuit  ;  from  this  the  inter- 
preters of  the  Tnelve  Tables "  define  the  ambitus  of 
the  wall  •*  as  its  circuit.  Therefore  tera,  terra  ;  and 
from  this  the  poets  ®  have  called  the  surface  of  the 
earth,  which  sola  '  alone '  can  be  trod,  the  sola  ^  '  soil ' 
of  the  earth. 

75  Funaioli ;  Lucretius,  ii.  592 ;  Catullus,  63.  7.  ^  Though 
solus  '  lone '  has  a  long  vowel,  and  solum  '  soil  '  has  a  short 
vowel ;  but  Varro  normally  disregards  the  differences  of 



23.  Terra,  ut  putant,  eadem  et  humus  ;  ideo 
Ennium  in  terram  cadentis  dicere  : 

Cubitis  pinsibant  humum  ; 

et  quod  terra  sit  humus,  ideo  is  humatus  mortuus,  qui 
terra  obrutus  ;  ab  eo  qui  Romanus  combustus  est, 
(siy  in  sepulcrum^  eius  abiecta  gleba  non  est  aut  si 
OS  exceptum  est  mortui  ad  familiam  purgandam, 
donee  in  purgando  hwmo'  est  opertum  (ut  pontifices 
dicunt,  quod  inhumatus  sit),  famiUa  funesta  manet. 
Et  dicitur  humilior,  que*  ad  humum^  demissior,  in- 
fimus  humilHmus,  quod  in  mundo  infima  humus. 

24.  Humor  hinc.     Itaque  ideo  Lucihus  : 

Terra  abiit  in  nimbos  ^Mmoremque.^ 

Pacuvius  : 

Terra  ex/jalat"  auram  atque  auroram  humidam  ; 

<humidam>*  humectam  ;  hinc  ager  uhginosus  humi- 
dissimus  ;  hinc  udus  uvidus  ;  hinc  sudor  et  udor. 

§  23.     ^  Added    by     Tumebiis.  ^  For     sepulchrum. 

^  Aldus,  for  homo.  *  3/«^., /or  quae.  ^  After  humum 
in  F,  is  found  the  passage  ut  Sabini  §  32  to  Septimontium  §  41  ; 
M^ie.,  following  G.  Buchanan  and  Tiirnebus,  recognized  the 
interchange  of  two  leaves  of  the  archetype  of  F  and  restored 
the  text  to  its  proper  order. 

§  24.  ^  Kent,  for  imbremque,  for  without  humor  or  a 
derivative  the  citation  is  irrelevant.  *  Laetus,  for  exalat. 
'  Added  by  Fay. 

§  23.  «  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  396  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  i.  376-377 
Warmington.  ^  Gleba  in  a  collective  sense.  "  Cf.  frag. 
170  Rowoldt.         **  Quod,  contracted  for  quoad. 

§  24.  "  Humor,  properly  umor,  got  its  h  by  popular  as- 
sociation with  humus,  with  which  it  is  not  etymologically 
connected.         ^  1308  Marx  ;  five  feet  of  a  spondaic  dactylic 



23.  Humus  '  soil  '  is,  as  they  think,  the  same  as 
terra  '  earth  ' ;  therefore,  they  say,  Ennius  meant  men 
falling  to  the  earth  when  he  said,* 

With  their  elbows  the  soil  they  were  smiting. 

And  because  humus '  soil '  is  terra  '  earth,'  therefore  he 
who  is  dead  and  covered  with  terra  is  humatus  '  in- 
humed.' From  this  fact,  if  on  the  burial-mound  of  a 
Roman  who  has  been  burned  on  the  p}Te  clods  ^  are 
not  thrown,  or  if  a  bone  of  the  dead  man  has  been  kept 
out  for  the  ceremony  of  purifying  the  household,  the 
household  remains  in  mourning ;  in  the  latter  case, 
until  in  the  purification  the  bone  is  covered  with  humus 
— as  the  pontifices  say,*'  as  long  as  <*  he  is  in-humatus 
'not  inhumed.'  Also  he  is  called  humilior  'more 
humble,'  who  is  more  downcast  toward  the  humus ;  the 
lowest  is  said  to  be  humillimus  '  most  humble,'  because 
the  humus  is  the  lowest  thing  in  the  world. 

24.  From  this  comes  also  humor ^  'moisture.'  So 
therefore  LuciUus  says  *  : 

Gone  is  the  earth,  disappeared  into  clouds  and  moisture. 

Pacuvius  says  * : 

The  land  exhales  a  breeze  and  dawning  damp  ; 

humida,'^  the  same  as  humecta  '  damp,'  P'rom  this,  a 
marshy  field  is  hufnidissimus  '  most  damp  ' ;  from  this, 
iidus"  and  uvidus  '  damp  ' ;  from  this,  sudor  f  '  sweat ' 
and  udor  '  dampness.' 

hexameter.  '  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  363  Ribbeck';  R.O.L.  ii. 
322-323  Warmington.  ■*  From  same  base  as  humor  ;  so 
also  humectus.  »  Sjncopated  form  of  uvidus,  which,  with 
its  abstract  substantive  udor,  contains  the  base  of  humor  in 
a  simpler  form  (without  the  ;n).  'Akin  to  English  sweat, 
and  not  connected  with  the  other  Latin  words  here  discussed. 



25.  Is  si  quamvis  deorsum  in  terra,  unde  sumi^ 
pote,  puteus  ;  nisi  potius  quod  ^eolis  dicebant  ut 
irvTajxov  sic  tti'tcov  a  potu,^  non  ut  nunc  <^pk{ap).^  A 
puteis  oppidum  ut  Puteoli,  quod  incircum  eum  locum 
aquae  frigidae  et  caldae  multae,  nisi  a  putore  potius, 
quod  putidus  odoribus  saepe  ex  sulphure  et  alumine. 
Extra  oppida  a  puteis  puticuli,  quod  ibi  in  puteis 
obruebantur  homines,  nisi  potius,  ut  Aelius  scribit, 
puticuli*  quod  putescebant  ibi  cadavera  proiecta,  qui 
locus  publicus  ultra  E^quilias.^  Itaque  eum  Afranius 
/mtiZucos*  in  Togata  appellat,  quod  inde  suspiciunt 
per  pjfteos'  lumen. 

26.  Lacus  lacuna  magna,  ubi  aqua  eontineri  potest. 
Palus  paululum  aquae  in  altitudinem  et  palam  latius 
difFusae.  Stagnum  a  Graeco,  quod  ii^  o-reyi'ov  quod 
non  habet  rimam.*  Hinc  ad  villas  rutunda*  stagna, 
quod  rutundum  facillime  continet,  anguli  maxima 

§  25.  ^  For  summi.  *  Buttmann,  for  potamon  sic  po 
tura  potu.  *  Victories,  for  <f>pe.  *  Mue.,for  puticulae. 
*  For  exquilias.  *  Scaliger,  for  cuticulos.  '  Canal,  for 

§  26.  ^  For  11.  *  Scaliger,  for  nomen  habet  primam. 
'  B,  for  rutundas. 

§  25,  "Or  '  pit '  ;  derivative  of  root  in  ptttare  '  to  cut, 
think,'  c/.  amputare '  to  cut  oif.'  *  AeoUs,  nom.  pi.  =  Greek 
AtoAet?.  *  This  and  Trureoj  are  unknown   in   the   extant 

remains  of  Aeolic  Greek,  but  a  number  of  Aeolic  words  show 
the  change :  anv  for  a-rro,  i5/xoia>?  for  ofxoiais.  **  The  modern 
Pozzuoli,  on  the  Bay  of  Naples,  in  a  locality  characterized 
by  volcanic  springs  and  exhalations  ;  Varro's  derivation  is 
correct.  *  Page  65  Funaioli.  '  The  Roman  '  potters' 
field,'  for  the  poor  and  the  slaves.  "  Com.  Rom.  Frag. 
430  Ribbeck^ ;  with  a  jesting  transposition  of  the  consonants. 
Cf.  for  a  similar  effect  '  pit-lets  '  and  '  pit-lights.'  The 
description  suggests  that  they  were  constructed  like  the 


25.  If  this  moisture  is  in  the  ground  no  matter 
how  far  down,  in  a  place  from  which  it  pote  '  can  '  be 
taken,  it  is  a  puteus  '  well ' "  ;  unless  rather  because 
the  Aeolians  ^  used  to  say,  like  — I'ra/zo?  '^  for  Trora/ios 
'  river,'  so  also  — rVcos  '  well  '  for  iroreos  '  drinkable,' 
from  potus  '  act  of  drinking,'  and  not  (^pkap  '  well  '  as 
they  do  now.  From  putei  '  wells  '  comes  the  town- 
name,  such  as  Puteoli,'^  because  around  this  place  there 
are  many  hot  and  cold  spring-waters  ;  unless  rather 
from  putor  '  stench,'  because  the  place  is  often  putidus 
'  stinking  '  \\ath  smells  of  sulphur  and  alum.  Outside 
the  towns  there  are  puticuli  '  little  pits,'  named  from 
putei '  pits,'  because  there  the  people  used  to  be  buried 
in  putei  '  pits  ' ;  unless  rather,  as  Aelius  *  wTites,  the 
puticuli  are  so  called  because  the  corpses  which  had 
been  thrown  out  putescehant  '  used  to  rot  '  there,  in 
the  public  burial-place  ^  which  is  beyond  the  Esqui- 
line.  This  place  Afranius  ^  in  a  comedy  of  Roman  Ufe 
calls  the  Putiluci  '  pit-lights,'  for  the  reason  that  from 
it  they  look  up  through  putei  '  pits  '  to  the  lumen 

26.  A  laais  '  lake  '  is  a  large  lacuna  "  '  hollow,' 
where  water  can  be  confined.  A  palus  ^  '  swamp  '  is 
a  paululum  '  small  amount  '  of  water  as  to  depth, 
but  spread  quite  ^videly  palam  '  in  plain  sight.'  A 
stagnum  '^ '  pool '  is  from  Greek,  because  they  gave  the 
name  orc-y  vos  **  '  waterproof  to  that  which  has  no 
fissure.  From  this,  at  farmhouses  the  stagna  '  pools  * 
are  round,  because  a  round  shape  most  easily  holds 
water  in,  but  corners  are  extremely  troublesome. 

§  26.  "  Lacuna  is  a  derivative  of  lacits,  ""  Palus,  paulu- 
lum, palam  are  all  etymological ly  distinct.  '  Properly,  a 
pool  without  an  outlet ;  perhaps  akin  to  Greek  araycov  '  drop 
(of  liquid).'         ■*  Original  meaning,  '  covered.' 



27.  Fluvius,  quod  fluit,  item  flumen  :  a  quo  lege 
praediorum  urbanorum  scribitur^  : 

Stillicidia  fluminaque*  ut<i  nunc,  ut>  ita'  cadant 
fluantque  ; 

inter  haec  hoc  inter  (est),  quod  stillicidium  eo  quod 
stillatim  cadj't,*  flumen  quod  fluit  continue. 

28.  Amnis  id  flumen  quod  circuit  aliquod  :  nam 
ab  ambitu  amnis.  Ab  hoc  qui  circum  Aternum^ 
habitant,  Amiternini  appellati.  Ab  eo  qui  popu- 
lum  candidatus  circum  i<,*  ambit,  et  qui  aliter  facit, 
indagabili  ex  ambitu  causam  dicit.  Itaque  Tiberis 
amnis,  quod  ambit  Martium  Campum  et  urbem  ;  op- 
pidum  Interamna  dictum,  quod  inter  amnis  est 
constitutum  ;  item  Antemnae,  quod  ante  amnis, 
qu<a>  Amo^  influit  in  Tiberim,  quod  bello  male  ac- 
ceptum  consenuit. 

29.  Tiberis  quod  caput  extra  Latium,  si  inde 
nomen  quoque  exfluit  in  linguam  nostram,  nihil  (ad>^ 
hvjioXoyoi'    Latinum,    ut,    quod    oritur    ex    Samnio, 

§  27,  ^  For  scribitur  scribitur.  ^  For  flumina  quae. 
^  L.  Sp.,  after  Gothofredus,  for  ut  ita.  *  a,  Pape,  for 


§28.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  alterunum.  ^  For  id, 
3  Canal,  for  quanto, 

§  29,     ^  Added  by  Thiersch. 

§  27,  "  Cf.  Digest,  viii.  2.  17.  *  That  is,  rain-waters 
dripping  from  roofs  and  streams  resulting  from  rain  shall  in 
city  properties  not  be  diverted  from  their  present  courses. 
Such  supplies  of  water  were  in  early  days  a  real  asset. 

§  28.  "  Probably  to  be  associated  with  English  Avon  (from^ 
Celtic  word  for  '  river  '),  and  not  with  ambire  '  to  go  around.' 
^  Good  etymology  ;  Amiternum  was  an  old  city  in  the  Sabine 
country,  on  the  Aternus  River ;  with  ambi-  '  around  '  in  the 
form  am-,  as  in  amicire  '  to  place  (a  garment)   around.' 



27.  Fluvius  '  river  '  is  so  named  because  it  Jiuit 
'  flows,'  and  likewise  jiumen  '  river  '  :  from  which  is 
written,  according  to  the  law  of  city  estates," 

Stillicidia  '  rain-waters '  and  flumina  '  rivers '  shall 
be  allowed  to  fall  and  to  flow  without  interference.* 

Between  these  there  is  this  difference,  that  stilUcidium 
'  rain-water  '  is  so  named  because  it  cadit  '  falls  ' 
stillatim  '  drop  by  drop,'  andjiumen  '  river  '  because  it 
Jiuit  '  flows  '  uninterruptedly. 

28.  An  amnis  °  is  that  river  which  goes  around 
something  ;  for  amnis  is  named  from  ambitus  '  circuit.' 
From  this,  those  who  dwell  around  the  Aternus  are 
called  Amiternini  '  men  of  Amiternum.'  *  From  this, 
he  who  circum  it '  goes  around  '  the  people  as  a  candi- 
date, ambit  '  canvasses,'  and  he  who  does  otherwise 
than  he  should,  pleads  his  case  in  court  as  a  result 
of  his  investigable  ambitus  '  canvassing.'"  Therefore 
the  Tiber  is  called  an  amnis,  because  it  ambit  '  goes 
around  '  the  Campus  Martius  and  the  City  '^  ;  the 
tovm  Interamna  *  gets  its  name  from  its  position 
inter  amnis  '  between  rivers  '  ;  likewise  Antemnae, 
because  it  lies  ante  amnis  '  in  front  of  the  rivers,'  where 
the  Anio  flows  into  the  Tiber — a  towTi  which  suffered 
in  war  and  wasted  away  until  it  perished. 

29.  The  Tiber,  because  its  source  is  outside 
Latium,  if  the  name  as  well  flows  forth  from  there 
into  our  language,  does  not  concern  the  Latin  ety- 
mologist ;  just  as  the  Volturnus," because  it  starts  from 

*  That  is,  for  corrupt  electioneering  methods.         ■*  The  Tiber 
swings  to  the  west  at  Rome,  forming  a  virtual  semicircle. 

*  A  city  in  Umbria,  almost  encircled  by  the  river  Nar. 

§  29.  "  Adjective  from  voltur  '  vulture  ' ;  there  was  a  Mt. 
Voltur  farther  south,  on  the  boundary  between  Samnium  and 



Volturnus  nihil  ad  Latinam  linguam  :  at"  quod  proxi- 
mum  oppidum  ab  eo  secundum  mare  Volturnum,  ad 
nos,  iam^  Latinum  vocabulum,  ut  Tiberinus  no<me>n.* 
Et  colonia  enim  nostra  Volturnu7«*  et  deus  Tiberinus. 

30.  Sed  de  Tiberis  nomine  anceps  historia.  Nam 
et  suum  Etruria  et  Latium  suum  esse  credit,  quod 
fuerunt  qui  ab  Thebri  vicino  regulo  Veientum^  dixe- 
rint  appellat?<m,*  primo  Thebrim.  Sunt  qui  Tiberim 
priscum  nomen  Latinum  Albulam  vocitatum  lit- 
teris  tradiderint,  posterius  propter  Tiberinum  regem 
Latinorum  mutatum,  quod  ibi  interierit :  nam  hoc 
eius  ut  tradunt  sepulcrum.* 

V.  31.  Ut  omnis  natura  in  caelum  et  terram  divisa 
est,  sic  caeli  regionibus  terra  in  Asiam  et  Europam. 
Asia  enim  iacet  ad  meridiem  et  austrum,  Europa  ad 
septemtriones  et  aquilonem.  Asia  dicta  ab  nympha, 
a  qua  et  lapeto  traditur  Prometheus.  Europa  ab 
Europa    Agenoris,    quam    ex    PA(o)enice^    Manlius 

*  For  ad.  *  After  iam,  A.  Sp.  deleted  ad.  *  A.  Sp., 
for  non.         ®  Atig.,  with  B,  for  uolturnus. 

§30.  ^  Aug.,  for  uem&nium.  ^*  For  appellatam.  ^  For 

§31.     1  For  fenice. 

*  The  god  of  the  river  Tiber. 

§  30.  "  No  probable  etymology  has  been  proposed. 
^  Veil  was  one  of  the  twelve  cities  of  Etruria,  about  twelve 
miles  north  of  Rome  ;  it  was  taken  and  destroyed  by  the 
Romans  under  Camillas  in  396  b.c.  "  Page  117  Funaioli. 
^  '  Whitish,'  from  albus  '  white '  ;  or  perhaps  more  probably 
'  the  mountain  stream,'  containing  a  pre-Italic  word  seen  in 
Alpes  '  Alps.'  «  King  of  Alba  Longa,  ninth  in  descent 
from  Aeneas,  and  great-grandfather  of  Numitor  and  Amulius ; 
he  lost  his  life  in  crossing  the  river  (Livy,  i.  3). 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  29-31 

Samnium,  has  nothing  to  do  with  the  Latin  language  ; 
but  because  the  nearest  to^\•n  to  it  along  the  sea  is 
^'olturnuIn,  it  has  come  to  us  and  is  now  a  Latin 
name,  as  also  the  name  Tiberinus.  For  we  have 
both  a  colony  named  \  olturnum  and  a  god  named 

30.  But  about  the  name  of  the  Tiber  *  there  are 
two  accounts.  For  Etruria  believes  it  is  hers,  and  so 
does  Latium,  because  there  have  been  those  who  said 
that  at  first,  from  Thebris,  the  near-by  chieftain  of  the 
\'eians,*  it  was  called  the  Thebris.  There  are  also 
those  who  in  their  writings  "  have  handed  down  the 
story  that  the  Tiber  was  called  Albula  ^  as  its  early 
Latin  name,  and  that  later  it  was  changed  on  account 
of  Tiberinus  *  king  of  the  Latins,  because  he  died 
there  ;  for,  as  they  relate,  it  was  his  burial-place. 

V,  31.  As  all  natura  is  divided  into  sky  and  earth, 
so  with  reference  to  the  regions  of  the  sky  the  earth  is 
di\ided  into  Asia  and  Europe.  For  Asia  is  that  part 
which  lies  toward  the  noonday  sun  and  the  south 
wind,  Europe  that  which  lies  toward  the  Wain  "  and 
the  north  wind.*'  Asia  was  named  from  the  nymph  " 
who,  according  to  tradition,  bore  Prometheus  to 
lapetus.  Europe  was  named  from  Europa**  the 
daughter  of  Agenor,  who,  Manlius  *"  writes,  was 
carried  off  from  Phoenicia  by  the  Bull ;  a  remarkable 

§31.  "In  America  usually  called  the  Dipper.  *  The 
points  of  the  compass  are  here,  as  often  with  the  ancients, 
somewhat  distorted.  '  Concerning  Asia,  see  Hesiod, 
Theogony,  359 ;  and  cf.  Herodotus,  iv.  45.  •*  Concern- 
ing Europa,  see  Herodotus,  iv.  45 ;  Horace,  Odes,  iii.  27. 
25-76  ;  Ovid,  Metamorphoses,  ii.  833-875.  '  Or  Mallius, 
or  Manilius ;  the  names  are  often  confused  in  the  manuscripts. 
He  cannot  be  identified.  See  Frag.  Poet.  Rom.,  page  284 
Baehrens,  and  Gram.  Rom.  Frag.  85  Funaioh. 



scribit   taurum  exportasse,   quorum   egregiam   ima- 
ginem  ex  aere  PytAagoras  Tarenti. 

32.  Europae  loca  multae  incolunt  nationes.  Ea 
fere  nominata  aut  translaticio  nomine  ab  hominibus^ 
ut  Sabini  et  Lucani,  aut  declinato  ab  hominibus,  ut 
Apulia  et  Latium,  <aut>^  utrumque,  ut  Etruria  et 
Tusci.'  Qua  regnum  fuit  Latini,  universus  ager 
dictus  Latius,  particulatim  oppidis  cognominatus,  ut 
a  Praeneste  Praenestinus,  ab  Aricia  Aricinus. 

33.  Ut  nostri  augures  publiei  disserunt,  agrorum 
sunt  genera  quinque  :  Romanus,  Gabinus,  pere- 
grinus,  hosticus,  ineertus.  Romanus  dictus  unde 
Roma  ab  Rom(ul>o^  ;  Gabinus  ab  oppido  Gabi(i>s  ; 
peregrinus  ager  pacatus,  qui  extra  Romanum  et 
Gabinum,  quod  uno  modo  in  his  serv(a>ntur*  auspicia  ; 
dictus  peregrinus  a  pergendo,  id  est  a  progredien- 
do  :  eo  enim'  ex  agro  Romano  primum  progredieban- 
tur  :  quocirca  Gabinus  quo^ue*  peregrinus,  sed  quorf* 
auspicia    habet*    singularia,    ab    reliquo    discretus  ; 

§  32.     1  C/.  §  23,  crit.  note  5.  ^  Added   by  Aug. 

'  Scaliger,  for  Tuscia. 

§  33.  1  Rhol.,  for  Romo  ;  cf.  viii.  80.  ^  Laetus,  for 
seruntur.  *  For  eo  quod  enim.  *  Scaliger,  for  quo 
siue.         *  Turnebus,  for  quos.         *  Turnebus,  for  habent. 

f  Pythagoras  of  Rhegium,  distinguished  for  his  statues  of 
athletes,  flourished  in  the  middle  of  the  fifth  century  b.c. 

§  32.  "  vSuch  names  as  Sabini,  Lucani,  Tusci  meant 
originally  the  people  and  not  the  countries. 

§  33.  "  Page  1 9  Regell.  "  Or  possibly  Romus  (Romo  F); 
for  Festus,  266  b  23-27  M.,  states  that  according  to  Antigonus, 
an  Alexandrian  writer,  Rome  received  its  name  from  Rhomus, 
a  son    of  Jupiter,  who   founded    a   city  on  the   Palatine. 



bronze  group  of  the  two  was  made  by  Pythagoras  '  at 

32.  The  various  locaUties  of  Europe  are  inhabited 
by  many  different  nations.  They  are  in  general 
denominated  by  names  transferred  from  the  men,  Hke 
Sahini  '  the  Sabine  countrj','  and  Lucani  '  the  country 
of  the  Lucanians,'  or  derived  from  the  names  of  the 
men,  hke  ApuUa  and  Latium,  or  both,  hke  Etruria  and 
Tusci.'*  Where  Latinus  once  had  his  kingdom,  the 
field-lands  as  a  whole  are  called  Latian  ;  but  when 
taken  piecemeal,  they  are  named  after  the  towns,  as 
Praenestine  from  Praeneste,  and  Arician  from  Aricia. 

33.  As  our  State  Augurs  set  forth,"  there  are  five 
kinds  of  fields  :  Roman,  Gabine,  peregrine,  hostic, 
uncertain.  '  Roman  '  field-land  is  so  called  from 
Romulus,^  from  whom  Rome  got  its  name.  '  Gabine  ' 
is  named  from  the  town  Gabii.*'  The  '  peregrine  '  is 
field-land  won  in  war  and  reduced  to  peace,  which  is 
apart  from  the  Roman  and  the  Gabine,  because  in 
these  latter  the  auspices  are  observed  in  one  uniform 
manner  :  '  peregrine  '  **  is  named  from  pergere  '  to  go 
ahead,'  that  is,  from  progredi  '  to  advance  ' ;  for  into 
it  their  first  advance  was  made  out  of  the  Roman 
field-land.  By  the  same  reasoning,  the  Gabine  also 
is  peregrine,  but  because  it  has  auspices  of  its 
own  special  sort  it  is  held  separate  from  the  rest. 

*  An  ancient  Latin  city  midway  between  Rome  and  Praeneste, 
where  Sextus  Tarquinius  took  refuge  after  his  expulsion 
from  Rome.  It  fought  against  Rome  at  Lake  Regillus,  and 
thereafter  declined  into  poverty  and  was  almost  deserted, 
though  it  was  revived  by  the  emperors  of  the  first  two 
Christian     centuries.  '*  Derivative    of  peregri    '  abroad, 

away  from  home  :  to,  from,  or  in  a  foreign  land,'  which 
is  either  prep,  per  '  through  '  -  loc.  agri,  or  a  loc.  of  a  com- 
pound pero-agro-  '  distant  field-land.' 



hosticus  dictus  ab  hostibus  ;  incertus  is,  qui  de  his 
quattuor  qui  sit  ignoratur. 

VI.  34.  Ager  dictus  in  quam  terram  quid  agebant, 
et  unde  quid  agebant  fructus  causa  ;  ali<i>,  quod^  id 
Graeci  dicunt  dyp6(i').  Ut  ager  quo-  agi  poterat, 
sic  qua  agi  actus.  Eius  finis  minimus  constitutus  in 
latitudinem  pedes  quattuor  (fortasse  an  ab  eo  quat- 
tuor, quod  ea  quadrupes  agitur)  ;  in  longitudinem 
pedes  centum  viginti  ;  in  quadratum  actum  et  latum 
et  longum  esset  centum  viginti.  Multa  antiqui  duo- 
denario  numero  finierunt  ut  duodecim  decuriis  actum. 

35.  lugerum  dictum  iunctis  duobus  actibus  quad- 
ratis.  Centuria  prim(um>  a^  centum  iugeribus  dicta, 
post  duplicata  retinuit  nomen,  ut  tribus  a/)(ar>tibus2 
(populi  tripartite  divisi  dictae  nunc)^  multiplicatae 
idem  tenent  nomen.  Ut  qua*  agebant  actus,  sic  qua 
vehebant,  viae^  dictae  ;  quo^  fructus  convehebant, 
villae.  Qua  ibant,  ab  itu'  iter  appellarunt  ;  qua  id 
anguste,  semita,  ut  semiter  dictum. 

§  34.     ^  L.  Sp.,for  aliquod.         "  Turnebus,  for  quod. 

§  35.  ^  L.  Sp.,for  prima.  *  GS.,for  actibus.  '  Added 
by  GS.,  c/.  C'ohimella,  v.  1.  7.  *  Aug.,  for  quo.  *  Laetus, 
for  actus  viae.         *  Aldus,  for  quod.         '  Laetus,  for  habitu. 

§  34.  "  Connexion  of  ager  with  agere  doubtful,  for  the 
original  meaning  was  wild  land,  not  subjected  to  human  use  ; 
but  this  had  been  replaced  even  in  early  Latin  by  the  meaning 
of  tilled  land  or  land  used  for  grazing  animals.  The  equation 
with  the  Greek  word  is  correct.  *  Page  114  Funaioli. 

§  35.     "  About  two-thirds  of  an  acre.  "  Abstract  noun 

from  centum  '  hundred  '  ;  applied  chiefly  to  a  company  of 
soldiers.  '  From  tri-bhu-s  '  being  three  '  ;   the  final  num- 

ber of  tribes  was  thirty-five.         **  Not  from  vehere.         '  From 


ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  33-35 

'  Hostic  '  is  named  from  the  hostes  '  enemies.'  '  Un- 
certain '  field-land  is  that  of  which  it  is  not  known  to 
which  of  these  four  classes  it  belonsrs. 

V  I.  34.  Ager  '  field  '  is  the  name  given  to  land 
into  which  they  used  agere  '  to  drive  '  something,  or 
from  which  they  used  to  drive  something,"  for  the 
sake  of  the  produce  ;  but  others  say  ^  that  it  is  be- 
cause the  Greeks  call  it  aypos.  As  an  ager  '  field  '  is 
that  to  which  driving  can  be  done,  so  that  whereby 
dri\ing  can  be  done  is  an  actus  '  driveway.'  Its  least 
limit  is  set  at  four  feet  in  width — four  perhaps  from 
the  fact  that  by  it  a  four-footed  animal  is  driven — -and 
one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  in  length.  For  a  square 
actus,  both  in  breadth  and  in  length,  the  limit  would 
be  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet.  There  are  manv 
things  which  the  ancients  deUmited  ^nth  a  multiple  of 
twelve,  like  the  actus  of  twelve  ten-foot  measures. 

35.  A  iugerum  "  is  the  name  given  to  two  square 
actus,  iuncti  '  joined  '  together.  A  centuria  *  '  cen- 
tury- '  was  named  originally  from  centum  '  one  hun- 
dred '  iugera,  and  later,  when  doubled,  kept  its  name, 
just  as  the  tribus  <^ '  tribes,'  which  got  their  name  from 
the  three  parts  into  which  the  people  were  di\ided, 
still  keep  the  same  name  though  their  number  has 
been  multiplied.  As  where  they  agebant  '  drove  ' 
were  actus  '  driveways,'  so  where  they  tehebant '  trans- 
jKjrted  '  were  viae  **  '  highways  '  ;  whither  they  con- 
vehebant  '  transported  '  their  produce  were  villae ' 
'  farmhouses.'  \^'hereby  they  went,  they  called  an 
iter  '  road  '  from  itus  '  going  '  ;  where  the  going  was 
narrow,  was  a  semita  f  '  by-path,'  as  though  it  were 
called  a  semiter  '  half-road.' 

vicus  '  dwelling-place.'  '  From  sed  '  apart  '  ~  mita,  from 
meare  '  to  go.' 

VOL.  I  D  33 


36.  Ager  cultus  ab  eo  quod  ibi  cum  terra  semina 
coalescebant,  et  «bi  n(on)  consitus^  incultus.  Quod 
primum  ex  agro  piano  fructus  capiebant,  campus 
dietus  ;  posteaquam  proxuma  superiora  loca  colere 
c<o>eperunt,  a  colendo  colles  appellarunt ;  quos 
agros  non  colebant  propter  silvas  aut  id  genus,  ubi 
pecus  possit  pasci,  et  possidebant,  ab  usu  s<al)vo'' 
saltus  nominarunt.  Haec  etiam  Graeci  ve/xi],^  nostri 

37.  Ager  quod  videbatur  pecj^dum^  ac  pecuniae 
esse  fundamentum,  fundus  dietus,  aut  quod  fundit 
quotquot  annis  multa.  Vineta  ac  vineae  a  vite  multa. 
Vitis  a  vino,  id  a  vi  ;  hinc  vindemia,  quod  est  vini- 
demia  aut  vitidemia.  Seges  ab  satu,  id  est  semine. 
Semen,  quod  non  plane  id  quod  inde  ;  hinc  seminaria, 
semente*,^  item  alia.     Quod  segetes  ferunt,  fruges, 

§  36.  ^  Wissowa,  for  ab  inconsitus.  *  Lachmann,  for 
suo,         ^  Lachmann,  for  NhMh. 

§37.     ^  jPor  pecodum.         ^  Laetus,  for  sementem. 

§  36.  "  Participle  o{  colere '  to  till,  cultivate.'  ^  Not  from 
capere.  '  Not  from  colere.  ^  A  '  leap,'  from  salire  '  to 
leap  '  ;  then  a  '  narrow  passage  (which  can  be  leapt  across),' 
'  defile  '  ;  then  a  '  valley  of  mixed  woods  and  pasture-land.' 
*  Like  saltus,  a  mixture  of  woods  and  pasture-land,  but  not 
necessarily  in  a  valley  between  hills  or  mountains. 

§  37.  "  Derivative  of  fundus  ;  fundere  is  unrelated. 
''  Vinum,  vinetum,  vinea,  vin-demia  (demere  '  to  take  off ')  go 
together  ;  vitis  and  vis  are  unrelated.  '  Satus,  semen, 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  36-37 

36.  Ager  ctiltus "  '  cultivated  field-land  '  is  so 
named  from  the  fact  that  there  the  seeds  coalescehant 
'  united  '  with  the  land,  and  where  it  is  not  consitus 
'  sown  '  it  is  called  incultus  '  uncultivated.'  Because 
they  first  used  capere  '  to  take  '  the  products  from  the 
level  field-land,  it  was  called  campus  *  '  plain  '  ;  after 
they  began  to  till  the  adjacent  higher  places,  they 
called  them  colles  '^  '  hills  '  from  colere  '  to  till.'  The 
fields  which  they  did  not  till  on  account  of  woods  or 
that  kind  where  flocks  can  be  grazed,  but  still  they 
took  them  for  private  use,  they  called  saltus  **  '  wood- 
land-pastures '  from  the  fact  that  their  use  was 
salvus  'saved.'  These  moreover  the  Greeks  call  rt/x»; 
■  glades  '  and  we  call  nemora  *  '  groves.' 

37.  Field-land,  because  it  seemed  to  be  \he.funda- 
mentum  <•  '  foundation  '  of  animal  flocks  and  of  money, 
was  caWed  fundus  '  estate,'  or  else  because  it  fundit 
'  pours  out  '  many  things  every  year.  J'ineta  and 
vineae  '  \inevards,'  from  the  many  vites  '  grape-vines.' 
J'itis  *  '  grapexine  '  from  vinum  '  wine,'  this  from  vis 
'  strength  '  ;  from  this,  vindemia  '  vintage,'  because  it 
is  vinidemia  '  wine-removal  '  or  vitideniia  '  vine-re- 
moval.' Seges  '^  '  standing  grain  '  from  satus  '  sow- 
ing,' that  is,  semen  '  seed.'  Semen  ^  '  seed,'  because  it 
is  not  completely  that  which  comes  from  it  ;  from 
this,  seminaria  '  nursery-gardens,'  sementes  '  sowings,' 
and  likewise  other  words.  \Miat  the  segetes  '  fields  of 
grain  '  feruni  '  bear,*  are  fruges  *   '  field-produce  '  ; 

seminaria,  tementes  go  together,  but  seges  probably  is  not 
related  to  them.  '*  \'arro  takes  semen  as  from  semis  '  half,' 
because  the  semen  is  less  in  quantity  than  that  which  grows 
from  it ;  an  incorrect  etymology.  '  Fruges,  friii,  fructus 
belong  together,  but  /erre  is  unrelated  ;  \'arro  takes  fruges 
froxn /erre,  /rui  from  fruges,  fructus  from  frui. 



a  fruendo  fructus,  a  spe  spicae,  ubi  et  culmi,  quod  in 
summo  campo  nascuntur  et  sum(m>um  culmen. 

38.  Ubi  frumenta  secta,  ut  terantur,  arescwnt,^ 
area.  Propter  horum  similitudinem  in  urbe  loca  pura 
areae  ;  a  quo  potest  etiam  ara  deum,  quod  pura,  nisi 
potius  ab  ardore,  ad  quern  ut  sit  fit  ara  ;  a  quo  ipsa 
area  non  abest,  quod  qui  arefacit  ardor  est  solis. 

39.  Ager  restibilis,  qui  restituitur  ac  reseritur 
quotquot  annis  ;  contra  qui  intermittitur,  a  novando 
novalis  ager.  Arvus  et  arationes  ab  arando  ;  ab  eo 
quod  aratri  vomer  sustulit,  suIcms^  ;  quo  ea  terra  iacta, 
id  est  proiecta,  porca. 

40.  Prata  dicta  ab  eo,  quod  sine  opere  parata. 
Quod  in  agris  quotquot  annis  rursum^  facienda  eadem, 
ut  rursum  capias  fructus,  appellata  rura.  Dividi 
t(am>en  e*se  ius^  scribit  Sulpicius  plebei  rura  largiter 
ad  (ad)oream.'     Praedia  dicta,  item  ut  praedes,  a 

§  38.     ^  L.  Sp.,/or  et  arescant. 
§  39.     ^  Laetus,  for  sulcos. 

§  40.  ^  For  rursum  rursum.  ^  Lachmann,  for  dividit 
in  eos  eius.     *  Fay,  for  ad  aream. 

*  Spes  and  spica  are  unrelated  ;  Varro  was  misled  by  the 
rustic  pronunciation  speca,  mentioned  by  him  in  De  Re 
Rustica,  i.  48.  2.         "  Culmus  and  culmen  are  unrelated. 

§  38.  "  Arescunt,  area,  ara,  ardor,  arefacit  belong  to- 
gether. '  Unoccupied  by  buildings  or  the  like  ;  in  the 
country,  free  also  of  bushes  and  trees.  "  Applied  in  the 

city  to  building  lots,  courtyards,  and  free  spaces  before  a 
temple  or  other  building,  and  around  an  altar. 

§  39.  "  That  is,  re  +  stabilis  '  again  standing  firm  ' ;  while 
restituere  is  re  +  statuere,  ultimately  to  same  root  as  stabilis. 

*  Properly  from  a  root  meaning  '  draw,  pull.'  "  Not  con- 
nected with  proiecta,  but  with  English  furrow. 

§  40.     "  Incorrect  etymologies.  ''  i.  241   Bremer ;   per- 

haps Servius  Sulpicius  Rufus,  a  legal  authority,  contempor- 
ary with  Cicero.         "  Praedium  is  a  derivative  of  praes  (pi. 




from  frui  '  to  enjoy  '  comes  fructus  '  fruits  '  ;  from 
spes  f  '  hope  '  comes  spicae  '  ears  of  grain,'  where  are 
also  the  culmi  ^  '  grain-stalks,'  because  they  grow  on 
the  top  of  the  plain,  and  a  top  is  a  admen. 

38.  Where  the  cut  grain-sheaves  arescunt "  '  dry 
out  '  for  threshing,  is  an  area  '  threshing-floor.'  On 
account  of  the  likeness  to  these,  clean  places  ^  in  the 
city  are  called  areae  ;  from  which  may  be  also  the 
Gods'  ara  '  altar,'  because  it  is  clean  '^ — unless  rather 
from  ardor  '  fire  '  ;  for  the  intention  of  using  it  for  an 
ardor  makes  it  an  ara  ;  and  from  this  the  area  itself  is 
not  far  away,  because  it  is  the  ardor  of  the  sun  which 
arefacit  '  does  the  drying.' 

39.  Ager  restihilis  "  '  land  that  withstands  use  '  is 
that  which  restituitur  '  is  restored  '  and  replanted 
yearly  ;  on  the  other  hand,  that  which  receives  an 
intermission  is  called  novalis  ager  '  renewable  field- 
land,'  from  novare  'to  renew.'  Arvus  '  ploughable  ' 
and  arationes  '  ploughings,'  from  arare  '  to  plough  ' ; 
from  this,  what  the  ploughshare  sustiilit  '  has  re- 
moved '  is  a  sulcus  *  '  furrow  ' ;  whither  that  earth  is 
thrown,  that  is,  proiecta  '  thrown  forth,'  is  the  porca  " 
'  ridge.' 

•to.  Prata  "  '  meadows  '  are  named  from  this,  that 
they  are  parata  '  prepared  '  without  labour.  Rura  <» 
'  country -lands  '  are  so  called  because  in  the  fields  the 
same  operations  must  be  done  every  year  rursum 
'  again,'  that  you  may  again  get  their  fruits.  Sul- 
picius  ^  writes,  however,  that  it  is  a  just  right  for  the 
country- lands  of  the  populace  to  be  divided  for  lavish 
distribution  as  bonus  to  discharged  soldiers.  Praedia  " 
'  estates  '  are  named,  as   also  praedes  '  bondsmen,' 

praedes),  a  compound  of  prae  +  vas  '  guarantor  ' ;  praestare 
has  the  same  prefix,  but  a  different  root. 



praestando,  quod  ea  pignore  data  publice  mancup«s* 
fidem  praestent. 

VII.  41.  Ubi  nunc  est  Roma,  Septi'montium' 
nominatum  ab  tot  montibus  quos  postea  urbs  muris 
comprehendit  ;  e  (juis  Capitolinum  dictum,  quod  hie, 
cum  fundamenta  foderentur  aedis  lovis,  caput  huma- 
num  dicitur  inventum.  Hie*  mons  ante  Tarpeius 
dictus  a  virgine  Vestale  Tarpeia,  quae  ibi  ab  SaWnis 
necata  armis  et  sepulta  :  cuius  nominis  monimentum 
relictum,  quod  etiam  nunc  eius  rupes  Tarpeium 
appellatur  saxum. 

42.  Hunc  antea  montem  Saturnium  appellatum 
prodiderunt  et  ab  eo  Late(um>i  Saturniam  terram,  ut 
etiam  Ennius  appellat.  Antiquum  oppidum  in  hoc 
fuisse  Saturnia<m>''  scribitur.  Eius  vestigia  etiam 
nunc  manent  tria,  quod  Saturni  fanum  in  faucibus, 
quod  Saturnia  Porta  quam  lunius  scribit  ibi,  quam 
nunc  vocant  Pandanam,  quod  post  aedem  Saturni  in 
aedificiorum  legibus  privatis  parietes  postici  "  niuri 
(Saturnii)  "'  sunt  scripti. 

43.  Aventinum  aliquot  de  causis  dicunt.     Naevius 

*  Gesner^for  mancupes. 

§  41.  ^  Turnebus,  for  septem  niontiuni  ;  c/.  also  §  23, 
crit.  note  5.         *  For  hinc. 

§  42.  ^  Ten  Brink,  for  late.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  hac 
fuisse  saturnia.  '  Added  by  ten  Brink  ;  Frag.  Cass,  has 

§  41.  "  Somehow  a  derivative  of  capvt ;  but  the  story  of 
finding  a  head  was  invented  to  explain  the  name. 

§42.  "Ennius,  Jnn.  25  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  12-13 
Warniington ;  the  metre  demands  the  nominative  case. 
GS.  think  that  Ennius  may  have  written  Saturnia  tellus, 
as  Vergil  does  in  Aen.  viii.  329  ;    but  Ovid,  Fasti,  v.  625, 



from  pruestare  '  to  offer  as  security/  because  these, 
when  given  as  pledge  to  the  official  authorities,  prae- 
stent  '  guarantee  '  the  good  faith  of  the  party  in  the 

Vn.  41,  Where  Rome  now  is,  was  called  the 
Septimontium  from  the  same  number  of  hills  which 
the  Citv  afterwards  embraced  within  its  walls  ;  of 
which  the  Capitoline  '^  got  its  name  because  here,  it 
is  said,  when  the  foundations  of  the  temple  of  Jupiter 
were  being  dug,  a  human  caput  '  head  '  was  found. 
This  hill  was  previously  called  the  Tarpeian,  from  the 
Vestal  Mrgin  Tarpeia,  who  was  there  killed  by  the 
Sabines  ^^ith  their  shields  and  buried  ;  of  her  name  a 
reminder  is  left,  that  even  now  its  cliff  is  called  the 
Tarpeian  Rock. 

42.  This  hill  was  previously  called  the  Saturnian 
Hill,  we  are  informed  bv  the  writers,  and  from  this 
Latium  has  been  called  the  Saturnian  Land,  as  in  fact 
Ennius  "  calls  it.  It  is  recorded  that  on  this  hill  was 
an  old  town,  named  Saturnia.  Even  now  there  re- 
main three  evidences  of  it  :  that  there  is  a  temple  of 
Saturn  by  the  passage  leading  to  the  hill  ;  that  there 
is  a  Saturnian  gate  which  Junius  writes  ^  of  as  there, 
which  they  now  call  Pandana  "  ;  that  behind  the 
temple  of  Saturn,  in  the  laws  for  the  buildings  of 
private  persons,  the  back  walls  of  the  houses  are 
mentioned  as  "  Saturnian  walls."  ^ 

43.  The   name   of  the   Aventine   is   referred  to 

has  Saturnia  terra.  *  i.  38  Bremer.  '  So  called  quod 
semper  pateret  (Festus,  220.  17  M.),  'because  it  was  always 
open '  (c/.  pandere  '  to  throw  open  ').  ■*  The  third  point 
becomes  clear  only  by  ten  Brink's  insertion  of  Satiirnii ; 
the  use  of  miiri  '  city-walls  '  for  parietes  '  building-walls  ' 
shows  that  the  walls  at  this  place  had  once  formed  part  of  a 
set  of  city-walls. 



ab  avibus,  quod  eo  se  ab  Tiberi  ferrent  aves,  alii  ab 
rege  Aventino  Albano,  quod  (ibi)^  sit  sepultus, 
alii  A<d>ventinum'  ab  adventu  hominum,  quod 
co<m>mune  Latinorum  ibi  Dianae  templum  sit  con- 
stitutum.  Ego  maxime  puto,  quod  ab  advectu  : 
nam  olim  paludibus  mons  erat  ab  reliquis  disclusus. 
Itaque  eo  ex  urbe  advehebantur  ratibus,  cuius  ves- 
tigia, quod  ea  qua  turn  <advectum>'  dicitur  Vela- 
brum,  et  unde  escendebant  ad  <in>fimam*  Novam 
Viam  locus  sacellum  <Ve>labrum.* 

44.  Velabrum  a  vehendo.  Velaturam  facere 
etiam  nunc  dicuntur  qui  id  mercede  faciunt.  Merces 
(dicitur  a  merendo  et  acre)  huic  vecturae  qui  ratibus 
transibant  quadrans.     Ab  eo  Lucilius  scripsit  : 

Quadrantis  ratiti. 
VIII.  45.     Reliqua  urbis  loca  olim  discreta,  cum 
Argeorum  sacraria  septem  et  viginti  in  (quattuor) 

§  43.  ^  Added  by  Laetus.  ^  Mue.,  with  M,  for  auen- 
tinum.  *  Added  by  L.  Sp.  *  Turnebus,  for  fimam. 
*  Mue.,  for  labrum. 

§  43.  "  Page  115  Funaioli.  Etymologies  of  place-names 
are  particularly  treacherous  ;  none  of  those  given  here  ex- 
plains Aventimis.  Varro  elsewhere  (de  gente  populi  Romani, 
quoted  by  Servius  in  Aen.  vii.  651)  says  that  some  Sabines 
established  here  by  Romulus  called  it  Aventinus  from  the 
Avens,  a  river  of  the  district  from  which  they  had  come. 
''  Frag.  Poet.  Rom.  27  Baehrens;  R.O.L.  ii.  56-57  Warming- 
ton.  "  The  spelling  with  d  is  required  by  the  sense. 
<*  Varro  says  that  a  ferry-raft  was  called  a  velabritm,  and 
that  this  name  was  transferred  to  the  passage  on  which  the 
rafts  had  plied,  when  it  was  filled  in  and  had  become  a  street ; 
but  that  there  survived  a  chapel  in  honour  of  the  ferry-rafts. 

§  44.     "  Correct    etymology.  '  Incorrect    etymology. 



several  origins.*  Naevius  ^  says  that  it  is  from  the 
aves  '  birds,'  because  the  birds  went  thither  from 
the  Tiber  ;  others,  that  it  is  from  King  Aventinus 
the  Alban,  because  he  is  buried  there  ;  others  that  it 
is  the  Adventine  <^  Hill,  from  the  adventus  '  coming  '  of 
people,  because  there  a  temple  of  Diana  was  estab- 
lished in  which  all  the  Latins  had  rights  in  common. 
I  am  decidedly  of  the  opinion,  that  it  is  from  advectus 
'  transport  by  water  '  ;  for  of  old  the  hill  was  cut  off 
from  everj-thing  else  by  swampy  pools  and  streams. 
Therefore  they  advehebantiir  '  were  conveyed  '  thither 
by  rafts  ;  and  traces  of  this  sur\ive,  in  that  the  way 
by  which  they  were  then  transported  is  now  called 
Velahrum  '  ferr\*,'  and  the  place  from  which  they 
landed  at  the  bottom  of  New  Street  is  a  chapel  of  the 

44.  Velabrum  "  is  from  vehere  '  to  convey.'  Even 
now,  those  persons  are  said  to  do  velatura  '  ferrj-ing,' 
who  do  this  for  pay.  The  nierces  *  '  pay  '  (so  called 
from  merere  '  to  earn  '  and  aes  '  copper  money  ')  for 
this  ferrjing  of  those  who  crossed  by  rafts  was  a 
farthing.     From  this  LuciUus  -WTote  "  : 

Of  a  raft-marked  farthing."* 

^  HL  45.  The  remaining  localities  of  the  City 
were  long' ago  di\ided  off,  when  the  twenty-seven" 

*  1272  Marx.  ■*  The  quadrans  or  fourth  of  an  as  was 
marked  with  the  figure  of  a  raft. 

§  45.  "  It  would  seem  simpler  if  the  shrines  numbered 
twenty-four,  six  in  each  of  the  four  sections  of  Rome.  But 
both  here  and  in  vii.  44  the  number  is  given  as  twenty-seven. 
It  is  hardly  likely  that  in  both  places  XXUII  (=  XXVII)  has 
been  miswritten  for  XXIIII  ;  yet  this  supposition  must  be 
made  by  those  who  think  that  the  correct  number  is  twenty- 



partis^  urbi(s>''  sunt  disposita.  Argeos  dictos  putant 
a  principibus,  qui  cum  i/ercule  Argivo  venerunt 
Romam  et  in  Saturnia  subsederunt.  E  quis  prima 
scripta  est  regio  Suburana,*  secunda  Esquilina,  tertia 
Collina,  quarta  Palatina. 

46.  In  Suburanae^  regionis  parte  princeps  est 
Caelius  mons  a  Caele  Vibenna,^  Tusco  duce  nobili,  qui 
cum  sua  manu  dicitur  Romulo  venisse  auxilio  contra 
Tatium'  regem.  Hinc  post  Caeli**  obitum,  quod 
nimis  munita  loca  tenerent  neque  sine  suspicione 
essent,  deducti  dicuntur  in  planum.  Ab  eis  dictus 
Vicus  Tuscus,  et  ideo  ibi  Vortumnum  stare,  quod  is 
deus  Etruriae  princeps  ;  de  Caelianis  qui  a  suspicione 
liberi  essent,  traductos  in  eum  locum  qui  vocatur 

47.  Cum  Caelio^  coniunctum  Carinae  et  inter  eas 
quem   locum    Caer(i)o/ensem*   appellatum    apparet, 

§  45.     ^  L.  Sp.,  for  sacraria  in   septem  et  uiginti  partis. 

*  Laetus,  for  urbi.         *  Aug.,  for  suburbana  F^,  subura  F^. 

§  46.  ^  A  uff.,  with  B,  for  suburbanae.  ^  Frag.  Cass., 
for  uibenno  ,•  cf.  Tacitus,  Ann.  iv.  65.  *  Puce  ins,  with 
Servius  in  Aen.  v.  5Q0,  for  latinum.  *  Coelis  Aug.,  for 

§  47.  ^  Laetus,  for  celion.  ^  Kent  ;  Caeliolensem  ten 
Brink  {and  similarly  through  the  section) ;  for  ceroniensem. 

*  Puppets  or  dolls  made  of  rushes,  thrown  into  the  Tiber 
from  the  Pons  Sublicius  every  year  on  May  14,  as  a  sacrifice 
of  purification  ;  the  distribution  of  the  shrines  from  which 
they  were  brought  was  to  enable  them  to  take  up  the  pollu- 
tion of  the  entire  city.  Possibly  the  dolls  were  a  substitute 
for  human  victims.  The  name  Argei  clearly  indicates  that 
the  ceremony  was  brought  from  Greece. 

§  46.     "  Comparison  with  §  47,  §  50,  §  53,  §  54,  shows  that 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  \.  45-47 

shrines  of  the  Argei  *  were  distributed  among  the  four 
sections  of  the  City.  The  Argei,  they  think,  were 
named  from  the  chieftains  who  came  to  Rome  with 
Hercules  the  Argive,  and  settled  do-v^Ti  in  Saturnia. 
Of  these  sections,  the  first  is  recorded  as  the  Suburan 
region,  the  second  the  Esquiline,  the  third  the  Colline, 
the  fourth  the  Palatine. 

46.  In  the  section  of  the  Suburan  region,  the  first 
shrine  "  is  located  on  the  Caelian  Hill,  named  from 
Caeles  \'ibenna,  a  Tuscan  leader  of  distinction,  who  is 
said  to  have  come  ^\■ith  his  followers  to  help  Romulus 
against  King  Tatius.  From  this  hill  the  followers  of 
Caeles  are  said,  after  his  death,  to  have  been  brought 
down  into  the  level  ground,  because  they  were  in 
possession  of  a  location  which  was  too  strongly  forti- 
fied and  their  loyalty  was  somewhat  under  suspicion. 
From  them  was  named  the  f'icus  Tuscus  '  Tuscan 
Row,'  and  therefore,  they  say,  the  statue  of 
Vertumnus  stands  there,  because  he  is  the  chief  god 
of  Etruria  ;  but  those  of  the  Caelians  who  were  free 
from  suspicion  were  removed  to  that  place  which  is 
called  Caeliolum  '  the  little  Caelian.'  * 

47.  Joined  to  the  Caelian  is  Carinae  '  the  Keels  '  ; 
and  between  them  is  the  place  which  is  called  Caerio- 

the  sacra  Argeorum  (§  50)  used  princeps,  terticeps,  etc.,  to 
designate  numerically  the  shrines  in  each  pars  ;  and  that  the 
place-name  was  set  in  the  nominative  alongside  the  neuter 
numeral :  therefore  "  the  first  is  the  Caelian  Hill  "  means  that 
the  first  shrine  is  located  on  that  hill.  Cf.  K.  O.  Mueller,  Zur 
Topographie  Roms  :  iiber  die  Fragmenta  der  Sacra  Argeorum 
bei  Varro,  de  Lingua  Latino,  v.  8  (pp.  69-94  in  C.  A.  Bottiger, 
Archaologie  und  Kunst,  vol.  i.,  Breslau,  1828).  *  The 
Caeliolum,  spoken  of  also  as  the  Caeliculus  (or  -um)  by 
Cicero,  De  Har.  Resp.  15.  32,  and  as  the  Caelius  Minor  by 
Martial,  xii.  18.  6,  seems  to  have  been  a  smaller  and  less  im- 
portant section  of  the  Caelian  Hill. 



quod  primae  regionis  quartum  sacrarium  scriptum  sic 

est  : 

Caer<i)olen.sjs' :  quarticeps*  circa  Minerviuin  qua  in 
Coeli«<m>  monte<ni)^  itur  :  in  tabernola  est. 

Caer<i>olensis*  a  Carinarum'  iunctu  dictus  ;  Carinae 
pote  a'  caeri<m)onia,*  quod  hinc  oritur  caput  Sacrae 
Viae  ab  Streniae  sacello  quae  pertinet  in  arce<m>,^*' 
qua  sacra  quotquot  mensibus  feruntur  in  arcem  et 
per  quam  augures  ex  arce  profecti  solent  inaugurare. 
Huius  Sacrae  Viae  pars  haec  sola  volgo  nota,  quae 
est  a  Fore  eunti  primore^^  clivo. 

48.  Eidem  regioni  adtributa  Subura,  quod  sub 
muro  terreo  Carinarum  ;  in  eo  est  Argeorum  sacel- 
lum  sextum.  Subura(m)^  Junius  scribit  ab  eo,  quod 
fuerit  sub  antiqua  urbe  ;  cui  testimonium  potest  esse, 
quod  subest  ei^  loco  qui  terreus  murus  vocatur.  Sed 
<ego  a)'  pago  potius  Succusano  dictam  puto  Suc- 
cusam  :   (quod  in  nota  etiam>*  nunc  scribitur  (S^^C>^ 

^  Kent,     for     cerolienses.  *  ^iug.,    for     quae     triceps. 

*  Aug.,  for  celio  monte.  *  Kent,  for  cerulensis.  '  For 
carinaerum.  *  Jordan,  for  postea.  '  cerimonia  Bek- 
ker,  for  cerionia.  ^"Aug.,  and  Frag.  Cass.,  for  arce. 
^^  Aldus,  for  primoro. 

§  48.     *  ]Vissowa,     for    subura.         *  Victorius,    for    et. 

*  Added  by  Laetus  (a  Frag.  Cass.).  *  Added  by  Mue., 
after  Qvintilian,  hist.  Orat.  i.  7.  29.  *  Added  by  Merck- 
lin,  to  fill  a  gap  capable  of  holding  three  letters,  in  F  ;  cf. 
Qiiintilian,  loc.  cit. 

§  47.  "  That  is,  Caeliolensis  '  pertaining  to  the  CaeliohisJ' 
Through  separation  in  meaning  from  the  primitive,  the  r  has 
been  subject  to  regular  dissimilation  as  in  caerulus  for  *caelu- 



lensis,'^  obviously  because  the  fourth  shrine  of  the  first 
region  is  thus  ^^Titten  in  the  records  : 

Caeriolensis  :  fourth  *  shrine,  near  the  temple  of  Miner\a, 
in  the  street  by  which  you  go  up  the  Caelian  Hill ;  it  is  in  a 

Caeriolensis  is  so  called  from  the  joining  of  the  Carinae 
with  the  Caelian.  Carinae  is  perhaps  from  caerimonia 
'  ceremony,'  because  from  here  starts  the  beginmng 
of  the  Sacred  Way,  which  extends  from  the  Chapel 
of  Strenia  ^  to  the  citadel,  by  which  the  offerings  are 
brought  ever}'  year  to  the  citadel,  and  by  which  the 
augurs  regularly  set  out  from  the  citadel  for  the 
observation  of  the  birds.  Of  this  Sacred  Way,  this 
is  the  only  part  commonly  known,  namely  the  part 
which  is  at  the  beginning  of  the  Ascent  as  you  go 
from  the  Forum. 

48.  To  the  same  region  is  assigned  the  Subura," 
which  is  beneath  the  earth-wall  of  the  Carinae  ;  in  it 
is  the  sixth  chapel  of  the  Argei.  Junius  *  wTites  that 
Subura  is  so  named  because  it  was  at  the  foot  of  the 
old  city  {suh  urhe)  ;  proof  of  which  may  be  in  the  fact 
that  it  is  under  that  place  which  is  called  the  earth- 
wall.  But  I  rather  think  that  from  the  Succusan  dis- 
trict it  was  called  Succusa ;  for  even  now  when  abbre- 
viated it  is  written  S\'C,  with  C  and  not  B  as  third 

lus,  Pariiia  for  Palilia  ;  possibly  association  with  Carinae 
furthered  the  change.  *  C/.  %  46,  note  a.  *  The  words 
sinistra  via  or  dexteriore  via  may  have  been  lost  before  in 
tabemola  ;  cf.  ten  Brink's  note.  **  A  goddess  of  health 
and  physical  well-being. 

§  48.  "  Etymology  entirely  uncertain.  The  neuters  quod 
and  in  eo,  referring  to  Subura,  mutually  support  each  other. 
*  M.  Junius  Gracchanus,  contemporary  and  partisan  of  the 
Gracchi ;  page  1 1  Huschke.  He  wrote  an  antiquarian  work 
De  Potestatibus. 



tertia  littera  C,  non  B.  Pagus  Succusanus,  quod 
succurrit  Carinis. 

49.  Secundae  regionis  Esquiliae.^  Alii  has  scrip- 
serunt  ab  excubiis  regis  dictas,  alii  ab  eo  quod  (aes- 
culis)"  excultae  a  rege  Tullio  essent.  Huic  origini 
itiagis  concinunt  loca  vicina,*  quod  ibi  lucus  dicitur 
Facutalis  et  Larum  Querquetulanum  sacellum  et 
Imcus*  Mefitis  et  lunonis  Lucinae,  quorum  angusti 
fines.  Non  mirum  :  iam  diu  enim  late  avaritia  una 
(domina)^  est. 

50.  Esquiliae  duo  montes  habiti,  quod  pars  <0p- 
pius  pars>i  Cespms^  mons  suo  antiquo  nomine  etiam 
nunc  in  sacris  appellatur.  In  Saeris  Argeorum 
scriptum  sic  est  : 

Oppius  Mons  :  princeps  <Es>quili<i>s'  uls*  Iwcum  Facu- 
talem* ;  sinistra  via,^  secundum  ni{o>erum  est. 

Oppius  Mons  :  terticeps  cis'  lucum*  Esquilinum  ;  dex- 
terior(e)*  via  in  tabernola  est. 

Oppius  Mons :  quarticeps  c<i>s^''  Iwcum*'  Esquilinum ;  via 
dexteriore^''  in  figlinis  est. 

§  49.  ^  Turnebus,  for  esquilinae.  ^  Added  by  ten 
Brink.  ^  GS.,for  uicini.  *  Laetus,  for  lacus.  *  GS., 
for  unae. 

§  50.  ^  Added  by  Mue.  ^  For  cespeus.  '  Kent ; 
Exquilis  Mue.,  for  quills.  *  Lindsay ;  ouls  Mue.  ;  for 
ouis.  ^  Laetus,  for  lacum  facultalem.  ®  ScaUger,  for 
quae.  '  Mue.,  for  terticepsois.  *  Aldus,  for  lacum. 
'  Kent,     for      dexterior.  ^"  Mue.,     for      quatricepsos. 

^^  Laetus,  for    lacum.         ^^  Kent,  for    uiam    dexteriorem. 

«  As  stated  by  Quintilian,  Inst.  Orat.  i.  7.  29.  "  This 
association  was  made  easy  by  the  fact  that  r  was  normally 
lost  in  Latin  before  ss  :  cf.  rursutn  and  rusiim,  dorsum  and 
Dossennus.  Hence  one  might  take  Succusa  to  be  suc- 
cur{s)sd;  but  such  an  s,  representing  ss,  could  not  become 
r  as  in  Subura. 


ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  48-50 

letter.*^     The  Succusan  district  is  so  named  because  it 
succurrit  '* '  runs  up  to  '  the  Carinae. 

49.  To  the  second  region  belongs  the  Esquiline." 
Some  *  say  that  this  was  named  from  the  king's 
excuhiae  '  watch-posts,'  others  that  it  was  from  the 
fact  that  it  was  planted  with  aesculi  '  oaks  '  by  King 
Tullius.  With  this  second  origin  the  near-by  places 
agree  better,  because  in  that  locality  there  is  the  so- 
called  Beech  Grove,''  and  the  chapel  of  the  Oak- 
Grove  Lares,**  and  the  Grove  of  Mefitis  *  and  of  Juno 
Lucina  f — whose  territories  are  narrow.  And  it  is  not 
astonishing  ;  for  now  this  long  while,  far  and  wide, 
Greed  has  been  the  one  and  only  mistress. 

50.  The  Esquiline  includes  two  hills,  inasmuch  as 
the  Oppian  part  and  the  Cespian  "  part  of  the  hill  are 
called  by  their  own  old  names  even  now,  in  the  sacri- 
fices. In  the  Sacrifices  of  the  Argei  there  is  the  follow- 
ing record  *  : 

Oppian  Hill :  first  shrine,  on  the  Esquiline,  beyond  the 
Beech  Grove  ;  it  is  on  the  left  side  of  the  street  along  the 

Oppian  Hill :  third  shrine,  this  side  of  the  Esquiline  Grove ; 
it  is  in  a  booth  on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  street. 

Oppian  Hill  :  fourth  shrine,  this  side  of  the  Esquiline 
Grove  ;  it  is  on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  street  among  the 

§  49.  "  By  origin,  ex-queliai '  dwelling-places  outside,'  in 
contrast  to  the  inquilini  '  dwellers  inside  '  the  walls  of  the 
city.  *  Page  115  Funaioli.  '  Facutalis  has  the  C  in 
its  old  use  with  the  value  of  ff.  **  Not  other\sise  known, 
but  the  emendations  proposed  seem  violent;  Querquetulanutn 
Ls  gen.  pi.  «  Goddess  of  malodorous  exhalations,  with  the 
function  of  averting  their  pestilential  effect.  '  Juno  as 
goddess  of  child-birth. 

§  50.  "  Usually  spelled  Cispius,  but  Varro  has  Cesp-. 
*  Page  6  Preibisch. 



Cespius^'  Mons :  quinticeps  cis^*  iMCum*^  Poetelium  ; 
Esquiliis^*  est. 

Cespius  Mons  :  sexticeps  apud  aedeni  lunonis  Lucinae, 
ubi  aeditumus  habere  solet. 

51.  Tertiae  regionis  colles  quinque  ab  deorum 
fanis  appellati,  e  quis  nobiles  duo.  Collis^  Viminalis* 
a  love  Vimin<i>o,^  quod  ibi  ara  e<ius>.*  Sunt  qui, 
quod  ibi  vimineta^  fuerint.  ColU's*  Quirinalis,  (quod 
ibi)'  Quirini  fanum.  Sunt  qui  a  Quiritibus,  qui  cum 
Tatio  Curibus  venerunt  ad  Roma<m),*  quod  ibi 
habuerint  castra. 

52.  Quod  vocabulum  coniunctarum  regionum 
nomina  obliteravit.  Dictos  enim  collis  pluris  apparet 
ex  Argeorum  Sacrificiis,  in  quibus  scriptum  sic  est  : 

Collis  Quirinalis  :  terticeps  cis^  aedem  Quirini. 
Collis  Salutaris :    quarticeps  adversum  est  <A>pol<]>inar 
cis*  aedem  Salutis. 

1^  Mue.,  for  sceptius.  **  Mue.,  for  quinticepsois. 
^*  Laetus,  for  lacum.         ^*  Scaliger,  for  esquilinis. 

§  51.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  colles.  ^  Laetus,  for  uiminales. 
3  Auff.,  with  B,  for  uimino  ;  cf  Festus,  376  a  10  M.  *  L. 
Sp.,  after  ten  Brink  (arae  eius),  for  arae.  *  G,  Aug.,  for 
uiminata.  *  Laetus,  for  colles.  '  Added  by  L.  Sp. 
*  Ten  Brink  ;  Romam  Laetus  ;  for  ab  Roma. 

§  52.  ^  Mue.,  for  terticepsois.  ^  Apollinar  cis  3Iue., 
for  pilonarois. 

'  Apparently  to  be  associated  with  putidus  '  stinking,' 
because  of  the  mention  of  Mefitis  a  few  lines  before ;  but  if 
so,  the  oe  is  a  false  archaic  spelling,  out  of  place  in  putidus 
and  its  kin.  Another  possibility  is  that  it  is  to  be  connected 
with  the  plebeian  gens  Poetelia  ;  one  of  this  name  was  a 
member  of  the  Second  Decemvirate,  450  b.c.  •*  That  is, 
adjacent  to  the  sacristan's  dwelling. 


Cespian  Hill  :  fifth  shrine,  this  side  of  the  Poetelian  • 
Grove  ;  it  is  on  the  Esquiline. 

Cespian  Hill :  sixth  shrine,  at  the  temple  of  Juno  Lucina, 
where  the  sacristan  customarily  dwells. "* 

51.  To  the  third  region  belong  five  hills,  named 
from  sanctuaries  of  gods  ;  among  these  hills  are  two 
that  are  well-known.  The  \'iminal  Hill  got  its  name 
from  Jupiter  Vtminius  '  of  the  Osiers,'  because  there 
was  his  altar  ;  but  there  are  some  °  who  assign  its 
name  to  the  fact  that  there  were  vimineta  '  willow- 
copses  '  there.  The  Quirinal  Hill  was  so  named 
because  there  was  the  sanctuarj-  of  Quirinus  *•  ; 
others  '^  say  that  it  is  derived  from  the  Quirites,  who 
came  with  Tatius  from  Cures  **  to  the  vicinity  of 
Rome,  because  there  they  established  their  camp. 

52.  This  name  has  caused  the  names  of  the 
adjacent  localities  to  be  forgotten.  For  that  there 
were  other  hills  with  their  own  names,  is  clear  from 
the  Sacrifices  of  the  Argei,  in  which  there  is  a  record 
to  this  effect  "  : 

Quirinal  Hill :  third  shrine,  this  side  of  the  temple  of 

Salutary  Hill  *  :  fourth  shrine,  opposite  the  temple  of 
Apollo,  this  side  of  the  temple  of  Salus. 

§51.     "Page    118    Funaioli.  '' Quirinalis,    Quirinus, 

Quirites  belong  together ;  but  Cures  Ls  probably  to  be  kept 
apart.  '  Page  116  Funaioli.  ''  An  ancient  city  of  the 
Sabines,  about  twenty-four  miles  from  Rome,  the  city  of 
Tatius  and  the  birthplace  of  Numa  Pompilius,  successor  of 
Romulus  ;  cf.  Livy,  i.  13,  18. 

§  52.     "  Page    6     Preibisch.  *  Salutaris,    from    salus 

'  preservation  '  ;  the  temple  perhaps  marked  the  place  of  a 
victory  in  a  critical  battle,  or  commemorated  the  end  of  a 
pestilence.  We  do  not  know  whether  this  Salus  was  the 
same  a.s  luppiter  Salutaris.  mentioned  by  Cicero,  De  Finibus, 
iii.  20.  66  ;    cf.  the   Greek  Zeus  aorrqp  '  Zeus   the   Saviour.' 

VOL.  I  F.  49 


Collis  Mucialis  :  quinticeps  apud  oedem  Dei  Fidi'  ;  in 
delubro,  ubi  aeditumus  habere  solet. 

Coll/s'*  Latiaris^  :  sexticeps  in  Vico  Inste/ano*  summo, 
apud  au(gu>raculum'  ;  aedificium  solum  est. 

Horum  deorum  arae,  a  quibus  cognomina  habent,  in 
eius  regionis  partibus  sunt. 

53.  Quartae  regionis  Palatium,  quod  Pallantes 
cum  Euandro  venerunt,  qui  et  Palatini  ;  (alii  quod 
Palatini), 1  aborigines  ex  agro  Reatino,  qui  appeliatur 
Palatium,  ibi  conse(de)runt^  ;  sed  hoc  alii  a  Palanto* 
uxore  Latini  putarunt.  Eundem  hunc  locum  a  pecore 
dictum  putant  quidam  ;  itaque  Naevius  Balatium 

5 1.  Huic  Cermalum  et  Velias^  coniunxerunt,  quod 
in  hac  regione*  scriptum  est  : 

Germalense  :  quinticeps  apud  aedem  Romuli. 
Veliense' :   sexticeps  in  Velia  apud  aedem  deum  Penatium. 

'  For  de  i  de  fidi.  *  For  colles.  *  M,  Laetus,  for 
latioris.  *  Jordan,  for  instelano  ;  c/.  Livy,  xxiv.  10.  8, 
in  vico  Insteio.         '  Tu7-tiebus,  for  auraculum. 

§  53.  ^  Added  by  A.  Sp.  ^  Fray.  Cass.,  M,  Ijaetus, 
for  conserunt.  ^  Mue.,  (Palantho  L.  Sp.),  for  palantio  ; 
cf.  Fest.  220.  6  M. 

§  54.  ^  For  uellias.  ^  M,  Laetus,  for  religione. 
'  Bentinus,  for  uelienses. 

"  Mucialis,  apparently  from  the  gens  Mucia ;  the  first  known 
Mucins  was  the  one  who  on  failing  to  assassinate  Porsenna, 
the  Etruscan  king  who  was  besieging  Rome,  burned  his  right 
hand  over  the  altar-fire  and  thus  gained  the  cognomen  Scae- 
vola  '  Lefty.'  Several  Mucii  with  the  cognomen  Scaevola 
were  prominent  in  the  political  and  legal  life  of  Rome  from 
215  to  82  B.C.  **  Deus  Fidius  was  an  aspect  of  Jupiter ; 
cf.  Greek  Zei)?  marios.  "  Latiarls  'pertaining  to  Latium'; 
tuppiter  Latiaris  was  the  guardian  deity  of  the  Latin  Con- 
federation, cf.  Cicero,  Pro  Milone,  .SI.  85. 


ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  52-54 

-Mucial  Hill  ' :  fifth  shrine,  at  the  temple  of  the  God  of 
Faith, "^  in  the  chapel  where  the  sacristan  customarily  dwells. 

Latiary  Flill  ' :  sixth  shrine,  at  the  top  of  Insteian  Row,  at 
the  augurs'  place  of  observation  ;   it  is  the  only  building. 

The  altars  of  these  gods,  from  which  they  have  their 
surnames,  are  in  the  various  parts  of  this  region. 

53.  To  the  fourth  region  belongs  the  Palatine,"  so 
called  because  the  Pallantes  came  there  with  Evan- 
der,  and  they  were  called  also  Palatines  ;  others  think 
that  it  was  because  Palatines,  aboriginal  inhabitants 
of  a  Reatine  district  called  Palatium,^  settled  there  ; 
but  others  '^  thought  that  it  was  from  Palanto,**  ^\ife 
of  Latinus.  This  same  place  certain  authorities 
think  was  named  from  the  pecus  '  flocks  '  ;  therefore 
Naevius  "  calls  it  the  Balatiiun  f  '  Bleat-ine.' 

54-.  To  this  they  joined  the  Cermalus  "  and  the 
Veliae,*  because  in  the  account  of  this  region  it  is  thus 
recorded  "^  : 

Germalian  :  fifth  shrine,  at  the  temple  of  Romulus, 


Velian :  sixth  shrine,  on  the  Velia,  at  the  temple  of  the 
deified  Penates. 

§  53.  "  For  Palatlum,  there  is  no  convincing  etymology. 
*  An  ancient  city  of  the  Sabines,  on  the  Via  Salaria,  forty- 
eight  miles  from  Rome,  on  the  banks  of  the  river  \'elinus. 
•Page  116  Funaioli.  ■*  According  to  Festus,  220.  5  M., 
Palanto  was  the  mother  of  Latinus  ;  she  is  called  Pallantia 
by  Servius  in  Aen.  viii.  51.  '  Frag.  Poet.  Rom.  28  Raeh- 
rens;  R.O.L.  ii.  56-57  Warmington.  'As  though  from 
balare  '  to  bleat.' 

§  54.  "  There  is  no  etymology  for  Cermalus  ;  the  word 
began  with  C,  but  for  etymological  purposes  \'arro  begins  it 
with  G,  relying  on  the  fact  that  in  older  Latin  C  represented 
two  sounds,  c  and  g.  *  Apparently  used  both  in  the 
singular,  Velia,  and  in  the  plural,  Veliae ;  there  is  no  ety- 
mology.        '  Page  7  Preibisch. 



Germalum  a  germanis  Romulo  et  Remo,  quod  ad 
ficum  ruminalem,  et  ii  ibi  inventi,  quo  aqua  hiberna 
Tiberis  eos  detulerat  in  alveolo  expositos.  Veliae 
unde  essent  plures  accepi  causas,  in  quis  quod  ibi 
pastores  Palatini  ex  ovibus*  ante  tonsuram  inventam 
vellere  lanam  sint  soliti,  a  quo  vellera»  dicuntur, 

IX.  55.  Ager  Romanus  primum  divisus  in  partis 
tris,  a  quo  tribus  appellata  T«tiensium,^  Ramnium, 
Lucerum.  Nominatae,  ut  ait  Ennius,  Titienses  ab 
Tatio,  Ramnenses  ab  Romulo,  Luceres,  ut  Junius, 
ab  Lucumone  ;  sed  omnia  haec  vocabula  Tusca,  ut 
Volnius,  qui  tragoedias^  Tuscas  scripsit,  dicebat. 

56.  Ab  hoc  partes^  quoque  quattuor  urbis  tribus 
dictae,  ab  locis  Suburana,  Palatina,  Esquilina,  Collina ; 
quinta,  quod  sub  Roma,  Romilia  ;  sic  reliquae' 
tri<gin>ta'  ab  his  rebus  quibus  in  Tribu(u>m  Libro* 

X.  57.    Quod  ad  loca  quaeque  his  coniuncta  fuerunt, 

*  Victoriiis,  for  quihus.  ^  Laetvs,  for  ueWtiner a.  (uellaera 
Frag.  Cass.). 

§  55.     ^  Groth,  for  tatiensium.         ^  For  tragaedias. 

§  56.  ^  For  partis.  *  For  reliqiia,  altered  from  re- 
liquae.  *  Turnehus,  for  trita.  *  Frag.  Cass.,  L.  Sp., 
for  libros. 

''  Page  118  Funaioli. 

§  55.  "  Roman  possessions  in  land,  both  state  property 
and  private  estates  ;  as  opposed  to  ager  peregrinus  '  foreign 
land.'  *"  None  of  the  etymologies  is  probable,  which  is 
not  surprising,  as  they  were  of  non-Latin  origin,  whether  or 
not    they  were   Etruscan.  "  ylnn.   i.  frag.  lix.  Vahlen^ ; 

R.O.L.    i.    38-39     Warmington.  "  Page    131    Funaioli ; 

page  11  Huschke.  *  Page  126  Funaioli;  Volnius  is  not 
mentioned  elsewhere. 

§  6G.     "  The  four  urbanae  tribus  '  city  tribes.'         *  The 



Germalus,  they  say,  is  from  the  germani  '  brothers  ' 
Romulus  and  Remus,  because  it  is  beside  the  Fig-tree 
of  the  Suckhng,  and  they  were  found  there,  where  the 
Tiber's  winter  flood  had  brought  them  when  they  had 
been  put  out  in  a  basket.  For  the  source  of  the  name 
\'eUae  I  have  found  several  reasons,*^  among  them, 
that  there  the  shepherds  of  the  Palatine,  before  the 
invention  of  shearing,  used  to  vellere  '  pluck  '  the  wool 
from  the  sheep,  from  which  the  vellera  '  fleeces  '  were 

IX.  55.  The  Roman  field-land "  was  at  first 
divided  into  iris  '  three  '  parts,  from  which  they  called 
the  Titienses,  the  Ramnes,  and  the  Luceres  each  a 
tribus  '  tribe.'  These  tribes  were  named, **  as  Ennius 
says,*^  the  Titienses  from  Tatius,  the  Ramnenses  from 
Romulus,  the  Luceres,  according  to  Junius,**  from 
Lucumo  ;  but  all  these  words  are  Etruscan,  as  Vol- 
nius,*  who  wrote  tragedies  in  Etruscan,  stated. 

56.  From  this,  four  parts  of  the  City  also  were 
used  as  names  of  tribes,  the  Suburan,  the  Palatine, 
the  Esquiline,  the  Colline,"  from  the  places  ;  a  fifth, 
because  it  was  sub  Roma  '  beneath  the  walls  of  Rome,' 
was  called  Romilian  *•  ;  so  also  the  remaining  thirty  " 
from  those  causes  which  **  I  wrote  in  the  Book  of  the 

X.  57.  I  have  told  what  pertains  to  places  and 
those  things  which  are  connected  with  them  ;  now  of 

first  of  the  rusticae  tribus  '  country  tribes,'  called  also  Ro- 
tnulia  ;  Festus,  271.  1  M.,  attributes  the  name  to  their  being 
inhabitants  of  a  district  which  Romulus  had  taken  from  Veii. 
"  Thirty-five  tribes  in  all,  some  named  from  their  places  of 
origin,  others  from  Roman  gentes.  The  three  original  names, 
given  in  §  55,  went  out  of  use  as  tribe  names  long  before  the 
time  of  Varro.  **  Quibus  for  qutis,  attracted  to  the  case  of 
its  antecedent. 



dixi  ;  nunc  de  his  quae  in  locis  esse  solent  immortalia 
et  mortalia  expediam,  ita  ut  prius  quod  ad  deos  per- 
tinet  dicam.  Principes  dei  Caelum  et  Terra.  Hi  dei 
idem  qui  Aegi/pti^  Serapis  et  Isis,  etsi  //arpocrates 
digito  significat,  ut  taceam.*  Idem  principes  in  Latio 
Saturnus  et  Ops,' 

58.  Terra  enim  et  Caelum,  ut  <Sa>mothracum' 
initia  decent,  sunt  dei  magni,  et  hi  quos  dixi  multis 
nominibus,  non  quas  <S>amo<th>racia^  ante  portas 
statuit  duas  virilis  species  aeneas  dei  magni,*  neque 
xit  volgus  putat,  hi  Samot^races  dii,  qui  Castor  et 
Pollux,  sed  hi  mas  et  femina  et  hi  quos  Augurum 
Libri  scriptos  habent  sic  "  divi  potes,"*  pro  illo  quod 
Samot/^races  deal  SwaroL^ 

59.  Haec  duo  Caelum  et  Terra,  quod  anima  et 
corpus.     Humidum  et  frigidum  terra,  sive 

Ova  par/re^  solet  genus  pennis  condecoratu  m, 
Non  animam, 

§  57.  ^  For  quia  egipti.  ^  Turnebus,  for  tata  seam. 
'  For  obs. 

§  58.  ^  Laetus,  for  mothracum.  *  Laetus,  for  am- 
bracia.  '  Laetus,  for  imagini.  *  Laetus,  for  diui  qui 
potes.        «  Aug.,  for  THeOeSYNATOe. 

§  59.     ^  Laetus,  for  parere. 

§  57.  "  The  chief  gods  of  the  Egyptians  ;  their  last  child 
was  Harpocrates,  the  youthful  aspect  of  the  Sun-God  Horus. 
Harpocrates  was  commonly  represented  with  his  finger  on  his 
lips,  imposing  silence  (c/,  Catullus,  74.  4) ;  the  passage  seems 



these  things  which  are  wont  to  be  in  places,  I  shall 
explain  those  which  deal  with  immortals  and  with 
mortals,  in  such  a  way  that  first  I  shall  tell  what  per- 
tains to  the  gods.  The  first  gods  were  Caelum  '  Sky  ' 
and  Terra  '  Earth.'  These  gods  are  the  same  as 
those  who  in  Egypt  are  called  Serapis  and  Isis," 
though  Harpocrates  with  his  finger  make  a  sign  to 
me  to  be  silent.  The  same  first  gods  were  in  Latium 
called  Saturn  and  Ops. 

58.  For  Earth  and  Sky,  as  the  mysteries  of  the 
Samothracians  °  teach,  are  Great  Gods,  and  these 
whom  I  have  mentioned  under  many  names,  are  not 
those  Great  Gods  whom  Samothrace  *  represents  by 
two  male  statues  of  bronze  which  she  has  set  up  before 
the  city-gates,  nor  are  they,  as  the  populace  thinks, 
the  Samothracian  gods,"  who  are  really  Castor  and 
Pollux  ;  but  these  are  a  male  and  a  female,  these  are 
those  whom  the  Books  of  the  Augurs  '^  mention  in  wtH- 
ing  as  "  potent  deities,"  for  what  the  Samothracians 
call  "  powerful  gods." 

59.  These  two.  Sky  and  Earth,  are  a  pair  like  life  " 
and  body.     Earth  is  a  damp  cold  thing,  whether 

Eggs  the  flock  that  is  feather-adorned  is  wont  to  give 

birth  to. 
Not  to  a  life, 

to  Indicate  that  some  orthodox  Romans  scorned  the  Egyptian 
deities  and  objected  to  their  identification  with  the  Roman 
gods,  a  prejudice  which  the  scholar  \'arro  did  not  share. 

§  08.     "  Mystic  rites   in   honour   of  the  Cabiri.  *  An 

island  in  the'  northern  Aegean,  off  the  coast  of  Thrace. 
'  The  Cabiri,  popularly  identified  with  Castor  and  Pollux, 
since  they  were  all  youthful  male  deities  to  whom  protective 
powers  were  attributed.         "*  Page  16  Regell. 

§  59.  "  Not  quite  '  soul,'  though  it  is  that  which  distin- 
guishes the  living  body  from  the  dead  body. 



ut  ait  Ennius,  et 

Post  inde  venit  divinitus  pullis 
Ipsa  anima, 

sive,  ut  Zenon  Cit<ie)us,* 

Animalium  semen  ignis  is  qui  anima'  ac  mens. 

Qui  caldor  e  caelo,  quod  h?/?c*  innumerabiles  et  im- 
mortales  ignes.  Itaque  Epicharmus  (cum>*  dicit  de 
mente  humana  ait 

Istic  est  de  sole  sumptus  ignis  ; 
idem  (de)  sole*  : 

Isque  totus  mentis  est, 
ut  humores  frigidae  sunt  humi,  ut  supra  ostendi. 

60.     Quibus  iuncti  Caelum  et  Terra  omnia  ex  (se> 
genuerunt,^  quod  per  hos  natura 

Frigori  niiscet  calorem  atque  hwmori*  aritudinem. 

Recte  igitur  Pacuius  quod  ait 

Animam  aether  adiugat, 

et  Ennius 

terram  corpus  quae  demerit,*  ipsam 
capere,  neque  dispendi  facere  hilum. 

'  Aug., /or  citus.         ^  Laetus,  for  animam.         *  Lachmmm, 
for  hinc.         *  Added  by  L.  Sp.         ®  L.  Sp.,  for  idem  solem. 
§  60.     ^  Laefus,      for      exgenuerunt.         ^  For      homori. 
'  Scaliger,  for  deperit. 

*  Ann.      10-12     Vahlen^  ;      R.O.L.     i.     6-7     Warmington. 

'  Frag.  126  von  Arnim.  Zeno,  of  Citium  in  Cyprus,  re- 
moved to  Athens,  where  he  became  the  founder  of  the 
Stoic   school   of  philosophy  ;    he  lived  about  331-264   b.c. 



as  Ennius  says,*  and 

Thereafter  by  providence  comes  to  the  fledglings 
Life  itself, 

or,  as  Zeno  of  Citium  says," 

The  seed  of  animals  is  that  fire  which  is  life  and  mind. 

This  warmth  is  from  the  Sky,  because  it  has  count- 
less undying  fires.  Therefore  Epicharmus,  when  he 
is  speakiiig  of  the  human  mind,  says  <* 

That  Ls  fire  taken  from  the  Sun, 

and  likewise  of  the  sun. 

And  it  is  all  composed  of  mind, 

just  as  moistures  are  composed  of  cold  earth,  as  I  have 
sho\sTi  above.* 

60.  United  A\ith  these,"  Sky  and  Earth  produced 
ever}-thing  from  themselves,  because  by  means  of 
them  nature 

Mixes  heat  with  cold,  and  dryness  with  the  wet.* 

Pacu\aus  is  right  then  in  saying  * 

And  heaven  adds  the  life, 

and  Ennius  in  saying  that  ** 

The  body  she's  given 
Earth  does  herself  take  back,  and  of  loss  not  a  whit 
does  she  suffer. 

'  Ennius,  Varia,  52-53  Vahlen* ;  R.O.L.  i.  112-413  Warming- 
ton.         •  C/.  V.  24. 

§  60.  "  That  is,  heat  and  moisture.  '  Ennius.  Varia, 
46  Vahlen-:  R.O.L.  i.  410-411  Warmington.  '  Trag. 
Rom.  Frag.  94  Ribbeck* ;  R.O.L.  ii.  204-205  Warmington. 
'  Ann.  13-14  \'ahlen* ;  R.O.L.  i.  6-7  Warmington ;  indirectly 
quoted,  and  therefore  not  metrical ;  cf.  ix.  54. 



Animae  et  corporis  discessus  quod  natis  is  exi<t>us/ 
inde  exitium,  ut  cum  in  unum  ineunt,  initia. 

61.  Inde  omne  corpus,  ubi  nimius  ardor  aut 
humor,  aut  interit  aut,  si  manet,  sterile.  Cui  testis 
aestas  et  hiems,  quod  in  altera^  aer  ardet  et  spica  aret, 
in  altera  natura  ad  nascenda  cum  imbre  et  frigore 
luctare  non  volt  et  potius  ver*  expectat.  Igitur  causa 
nascendi  duplex  :  ignis  et  aqua.  Ideo  ea  nuptiis  in 
limine  adhibentur,  quod  coniungit<ur)'  hie,  et  mas* 
ignis,  quod  ibi  semen,  aqua  femina,  quod  fetus*  ab 
eius  humore,  et  horum  vinctionis  vis*  Venus. 

62.  Hinc  comicMS^  : 

Huic  victrix  Venus,  videsne  haec  ? 

Non  quod  vincere  velit  Venus,  sed  vincire.  Ipsa  Vic- 
toria ab  eo  quod  superati  vinciuntur.  Utrique  test«s* 
poesis,  quod  et  Victoria  et  Venus  dicitur  caeligena  : 
Tellus  enim  quod  prima  vincta  Caelo,  Victoria  ex  eo. 
Ideo  haec  cum  corona  et  palma,  quod  corona  vinclum 

*  Sciap.yfor  nati  sis  exius. 

§  61.     ^  Mue.,   for    altero,         ^  Aldus,  for    totius   uere. 

*  A.  Sp.,  for  coniungit.  *  G,  H,  a  for  mars.  *  For 
faetus.  *  Pape  ;  iunctionis  vis  Turnebus  ;  for  uinctione 

§  62.     ^  Laetus,  for  comicos.         *  For  testes. 

§  61.  "  On  arrival  at  her  husband's  house,  the  Roman 
bride  was  required  to  touch  fire  and  water  (or  perhaps  was 
sprinkled  with  water),  as  initiation  into  the  family  worship. 

*  Apparently  Venus  is  said  to  be  the  basis  of  the  word  vinctio ; 

§  62.  "  Com.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  133  Ribbeck^.  »  It  is 
morphologically  possible,  but  not  likely,  that  victrix  stands 
for  the  agent  noun  to  vincire  ;  vincere  '  to  conquer  '  and 
vincire    '  to    bind '    seem    to    be    distinct    etymologically. 



Inasmuch  as  the  separation  of  Ufe  and  body  is  the 
exitus  '  way  out  '  for  all  creatures  born,  from  that 
comes  exitium  '  destruction,'  just  as  when  they  inetmt 
'  go  into  '  unity,  it  is  their  iniiia  '  beginnings.' 

61.  From  this  fact,  every  body,  when  there  is 
excessive  heat  or  excessive  moisture,  perishes,  or  if  it 
sur\ives,  is  barren.  Summer  and  winter  are  witnesses 
to  this  :  in  the  one  the  air  is  blazing  hot  and  the 
wheat-ears  dry  up  ;  in  the  other,  nature  has  no  wish 
to  struggle  with  rain  and  cold  for  purposes  of  birth, 
and  rather  waits  for  spring.  Therefore  the  condi- 
tions of  procreation  are  two  :  fire  and  water.  Thus 
these  are  used  at  the  threshold  in  weddings,"  because 
there  is  union  here,  and  fire  is  male,  which  the  semen 
is  in  the  other  case,  and  the  water  is  the  female, 
because  the  embryo  develops  from  her  moisture,  and 
the  force  that  brings  their  vinctio  '  binding  '  is  Venus  * 
'  Love.' 

62.  Hence  the  comic  poet  says," 

Venus  is  his  victress,  do  you  see  it  ? 

not  because  \'enus  -vs-ishes  vincere  '  to  conquer,'  but 
vincire  '  to  bind.'  *  Victory  herself  is  named  from  the 
fact  that  the  overpowered  vinciuntur  '  are  bound.'  '^ 
Poetry  bears  testimony  to  both,  because  both  Victorv^ 
and  Venus  are  called  heaven-born  ;  for  Tellus '  Earth,' 
because  she  was  the  first  one  bound  to  the  Sky,  is 
from  that  called  Victory. **  Therefore  she  is  connected 
with  the  corona  '  garland  '  and  the  palma  '  palm,'  * 
because  the  garland  is  a  binder  of  the  head  and  is 

'  Victoria  belongs  to  vincere  '  to  conquer.'  ^  Earth  as  a 
productive,  nourishing  divinity  ;  identification  with  Victoria 
is  not  found  elsewhere.  •  The  customary  symbols  of 



capitis  et  ipsa  a  vinctura  dicitur  viere,  (id)  est  vincin'  ; 
a  quo  est  in  Sota  Enni  : 

Ibant  malaci  viere  Veneriam  corollam. 
Palma,*  quod  ex  utraque  parte  natura  vincta  habet 
paria  folia. 

63.  Poetae  de  Caelo  quod  semen  igneum  cecidisse 
dicunt  in  mare  ac  natam  "  e  spumis  "  Venerem, 
coniunctione  ignis  et  humoris,  quam  habent  vim 
significant  esse  Ve(ne>ris.^  A  qua  vi  natis  dicta  vita 
et  illud  a  Lucilio  : 

Vis  est  vita,  vides,  vis  nos  facere  omnia  cogit. 

6t.     Quare  quod  caelum  principium,  ab  satu  est 

dictus   Saturnus,   et   quod  ignis,   Saturnalibus   cerei 

superioribus  mittuntur.     Terra  Ops,  quod  hie  omne 

opus  et  hac  opus  ad  vivendum,  et  ideo  dicitur  Ops 

mater,  quod  terra  mater.     Haec  enim 

Terris  gentis  omnis  peperit  et  resiimit  denuo, 


Dat  cibaria, 

*  Sciop.,  for  uiere  est  uincere.         *  Scaliger,  for  palmam. 

§  63.  ^  L.  Sp.  ;  significantes  Veneris  Laetus  ;  for  signi- 
ficantes  se  ueris. 

^  Vincire  is  in  fact  derived  from  an  extension  of  the  root 
seen  in  riere.  "  25  Vahlen*;  R.O.L.  i.  404-405  Warming- 
ton.         ''  Palma  and  paria  are  etymologically  separate. 

§  63.  "  A  Greek  legend,  invented  to  connect  the  name  of 
yiphrodite  with  d<f>p6s  '  foam  '  ;  c/.  Hesiod,  Theogony,  188- 
198.  The  name  Aphrodite  is  probably  of  Semitic  origin. 


itself,  from  vinchtra  '  binding,'  said  vieri '  to  be  plaited,' 
that  is,  vinciri  '  to  be  bound  '  ^  ;  whence  there  is  the 
line  in  Ennius's  Sola  ^  : 

The  lustful  pair  were  going,  to  plait  the  Love-god's 

Palma  '  palm  '  is  so  named  because,  being  naturally 
bound  on  both  sides,  it  has  paria  '  equal  '  leaves.'» 

63.  The  poets,  in  that  they  say  that  the  fiery  seed 
fell  from  the  Sky  into  the  sea  and  \'enus  was  born 
"from  the  foam-masses,""  through  the  conjunction 
of  fire  and  moisture,  are  indicating  that  the  vis  '  force' 
which  they  have  is  that  of  \'enus.  Those  born  of  this 
t"i*  have  what  is  called  vita  ^  '  life,'  and  that  was  meant 
by  Lucilius  '^  : 

Life  is  force,  j'ou  see  ;  to  do  everything  force  doth 
compel  us. 

64.  Wherefore  because  the  Sky  is  the  beginning, 
Saturn  was  named  from  satus "  '  sowing  '  ;  and 
because  fire  is  a  beginning,  waxlights  are  presented  to 
patrons  at  the  Saturnalia.*  Ops  '^  is  the  Earth,  be- 
cause in  it  is  every  opus  '  work  '  and  there  is  opus 
'  need  '  of  it  for  living,  and  therefore  Ops  is  called 
mother,  because  the  Earth  is  the  mother.     For  she  ** 

AH  men  hath  produced  in  all  the  lands,  and  takes 
them  back  again, 

she  who 

Gives  the  rations, 

*  Vis  and  vita  are  not  connected  etymologically.  *  13-k) 

§  64.  «  This  etymology  is  unlikely.  *  Confirmed  by 
Festus,  54.  16  M.  '  Ops  and  opiis  are  connected  ety- 
mologically. ^  Ennius,  Varia,  48  Vahlen*;  R.O.L.  i.  412- 
413  Warmington. 



ut  ait  Ennius,  quae 

Quod  gerit  fruges,  Ceres  ; 

antiquis  enim  quod  nunc  G  C.^ 

65.  Idem  hi  dei  Caelum  et  Terra  lupiter  et  luno, 
quod  ut  ait  Ennius  : 

Istic  est  is  lupiter  quern  dico,  quern  Graeci  vocant 
Aereni,  qui  ventus  est  et  nubes,  iniber  postea, 
Atque  ex  inibre  frigus,  vent?rs^  post  fit,  aer  denuo. 
Haec<e>^  propter  lupiter  sunt  ista  quae  dico  tibi, 
Qui^  mortalis,  (arva)*  atque  urbes  beluasque  omnis 

Quod  hi(n)c'^  omnes  et  sub  hoc,  eundem  appellans 
dicit  : 

Divumque  honiinunique  pater  rex. 

Pater,  quod  patefacit  semen  :    nam  tum  esse^  con 
ceptum  (pat)et,'  inde  cum  exit  quod  oritur. 

66.  Hoc  idem  magis  ostendit  antiquius  lovis 
nomen  :  nam  olim  Diovis  et  Di<e>spiter^  dictus,  id 
est  dies  pater  ;    a  quo  dei  dicti  qui  inde,  et  diws*  et 

§  64.  ^  Lachnmnn  ;  C  quod  nunc  G  Mue.  ;  for  quod 
nunc  et. 

§  65.     ^  Laetus,   for    uentis.         ^  Mor.    JIaupt  ;     haecce 

Mue.;  for   haec.         ^  Aug.,  icith  li,  for  qua.  *  Added 

by  Schoell.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  hie.  *  Mue.,  for  est. 
'  Mue.,  for  et. 

§  66.     ^  Laetus,    for     dispiter.         ^  Bentinus,  for    dies. 

'Varia,  49-50  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  412-413  Warmington; 
gerit  and  Ceres  are  not  connected.  f  There  was  a  time 
when  C  had  its  original  value  g  (as  in  Greek,  where  the 
third  letter  is  gamma)  and  had  taken  over  also  the  value  of 
K.  The  use  of  the  symbol  G  for  the  sound  g  was  later.  C 
in  the  value  g  survived  in  C.  =  Gaius,  Cn.  =  Gnaeus. 

§  65.  »  Varia,  54-58  Vahlen^  ;  R.O.L.  i.  414-415  Warm- 
ington.        *  lupiter  and  iuvare  are  not  related.         "  An- 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  64-66 

as  Ennius  says,*  who 

Is  Ceres,  since  she  brings  {gerit)  the  fruits. 
For  with  the  ancients,  what  is  now  G,  was  written  C/ 

65.  These  same  gods  Sky  and  Earth  are  Jupiter 
and  Juno,  because,  as  Ennius  says,** 

That  one  is  the  Jupiter  of  whom  I  speak,  whom 
Grecians  call 

Air ;   who  is  the  windy  blast  and  cloud,  and  after- 
wards the  rain  ; 

After  rain,  the  cold  ;  he  then  becomes  again  the 
wind  and  air. 

This  is  whj'  those  things  of  which  I  speak  to  you 
are  Jupiter  : 

Help  he  gives  *  to  men,  to  fields  and  cities,  and 
to  beasties  all. 

Because  all  come  from  him  and  are  under  him,  he 
addresses  him  with  the  words  '^  : 

O  father  and  king  of  the  gods  and  the  mortals. 

Pater  '  father  '  because  he  patefacit  ** '  makes  evident  ' 
the  seed  ;  for  then  it  patet  '  is  evident  '  that  concep- 
tion has  taken  place,  when  that  which  is  born  comes 
out  from  it. 

66.  This  same  thing  the  more  ancient  name  of 
Jupiter  "  shows  even  better  :  for  of  old  he  was  called 
Diovis  and  Diespiter,  that  is,  dies  pater  '  Father  Day  '  *> ; 
from  which  they  who  come  from  him  are  called  dei 
'  deities,'  and  dius  '  god  '  and  divum  '  sky,'  whence 
fuh  divo  '  under  the  sky,'  and  Dius  Fidius  '  god  of 

tiales,  580  Vahlen" ;  R.O.L.  i.  168-169  Warmington. 
*  Pater  and  patere  are  not  related. 

§  66.  "  III-  in  lupiter,  Diovis,  Dies,  dens,  Dius,  divum 
belong  together  by  etymology.  ^  K.  O.  Mueller  thought 
that  \'arro  meant  dies  as  the  old  genitive, '  father  of  the  day,' 
instead  of  as  a  nominative  in  apposition  ;  but  this  is  hardly 



divum,  imde  sub  divo,  Dius  Fidius.  Itaque  inde  eius 
perforatum  tectum,  ut  ea  videatur  divum,  id  est 
caelum.  Quidam  negant  sub  tecto  per  hunc  deierare 
oportere.  Aelius  Dium  Fid(i)um  dicebat  Diovis 
filium,  ut  Graeci  Aido-Kopoj/  Castorem,  et  putabat* 
hunc  esse  Sancum*  ab  Safcina  lingua  et  Herculem  a 
Graeca.  Idem  hie  Dis*  pater  dicitur  infimus,  qui  est 
coniunctus  terrae,  ubi  omnia  (ut)"  oriuntur  ita'  abori- 
untur  ;   quorum  quod  finis  ortu(u>m,  Orcus*  dictus. 

67.  Quod  lovis  luno  coniunx  et  is  Caelum,  haec 
Terra,  quae  eadem  Tellus,  et  ea  dicta,  quod  una  iuvat 
cum  love,  luno,  et  Regina,  quod  huius  omnia  ter- 

68.  SoP  vel  quod  ita  Sa6ini,  vel  (quod)^  solu*^  ita 
lucet,  ut  ex  eo  deo  dies  sit.  Luna,  vel  quod  sola  lucet 
noctu.  Itaque  ea  dicta  Noctiluca  in  Palatio  :  nam 
ibi  noctu  lucet  templum.  Hanc  ut  Solem  Apollinem 
quidam  Dianam  vocant  (Apollinis  vocabulum  Grae- 
cum  alterum,  alterum  Latinum),  et  hinc  quod  luna  in 
altitudinem  et  latitudinem  simul  it,*  Diviana  appel- 
lata.     Hinc  Epicharmus  Ennii  Proserpinam  quoque 

*  Puccius,  for  putabant.  *  Sealiger,  for  sanctum. 
^  Mue.,  for  dies.         *  Added  by  Mne.         ''  Mue.,  for   ui. 

*  Turnebiis,  for  ortus. 

§  (>8.  ^  Laetus,  with  M,  for  sola.  ^  Added  by  Aug., 
wiih  B.         '  Sc'iop.,  for  solum.         *  L.  Sp.,  for  et. 

'  Page  60  Funaioli.  ''  Sabine  Sancus  and  the  Umbrian 
divine  epithet  Sangio-  are  connected  with  Latin  sancire  '  to 
make  sacred,'  sacer  'sacred.'  *  l)is  is  the  short  form  of 
dives  '  rich,'  cf.  the  genitive  divitls  or  ditis,  and  is  not  con- 
nected with  dies  ;  it  is  a  translation  of  the  Greek  UXovtojv 
'  Pluto,'  as  'the  rich  one,'  from  ttXoOtos  'wealth.'  ^  The 
Italic  god  of  death,  not  connected  with  ortus,  but  perhaps 
with  arcere  '  to  hem  in,'  as  '  the  one  who  restrains  the  dead.' 
§  67.     "  Not  connected  either  with  Iiipiter  or  with  iuvare. 


ox  THE  LATIX  LANGUAGE,  V.  66-68 

faith.'  Thus  from  this  reason  the  roof  of  his  temple 
is  pierced  with  holes,  that  in  this  way  the  divum, 
which  is  the  caelum  '  sky,'  may  be  seen.  Some  say 
that  it  is  improper  to  take  an  oath  by  his  name,  when 
you  are  under  a  roof.  AeUus  "  said  that  Dius  Fidius 
was  a  son  of  Diovis,  just  as  the  Greeks  call  Castor  the 
son  of  Zeus,  and  he  thought  that  he  was  Sancus  in  the 
Sabine  tongue,**  and  Hercules  in  Greek.  He  is  Uke- 
wise  called  Dispater  '  in  his  lowest  capacity,  when  he 
i":  joined  to  the  earth,  where  all  things  vanish  awav 
ven  as  they  originate  ;  and  because  he  is  the  end  of 
ihese  ortus  '  creations,'  he  is  called  OrcusJ 

67.  Because  Juno  is  Jupiter's  wife,  and  he  is  Sky, 
she  Terra  '  Earth,'  the  same  as  Tellus  '  Earth,'  she 
also,  because  she  iuvat  '  helps  '  una  '  along  '  with 
Jupiter,  is  called  Juno,"  and  Regina  '  Queen,'  because 
all  earthly  things  are  hers. 

68.  Sol "  '  Sun  '  is  so  named  either  because  the 
Sabines  called  him  thus,  or  because  he  solus  '  alone  ' 
shines  in  such  a  way  that  from  this  god  there  is  the 
dayhght.  Luna  '  Moon  '  is  so  named  certainly  be- 
cause she  alone  '  lucet '  shines  at  night.  Therefore 
she  is  called  Xoctiluca  '  Night-Shiner  '  on  the  Pala- 
tine ;  for  there  her  temple  noctu  lucet  '  shines  by 
night.'  *  Certain  persons  call  her  Diana,  just  as  they 
call  the  Sun  Apollo  (the  one  name,  that  of  Apollo,  is 
Greek,  the  other  Latin)  ;  and  from  the  fact  that  the 
Moon  goes  both  high  and  A^idely ,  she  is  called  Diiiana.'^ 
From  the  fact  that  the  Moon  is  wont  to  be  under  the 

§  68.  «  Not  connected  with  solus.  *  Either  because 
the  white  marble  gleams  in  the  moonlight,  or  because  a  light 
was  kept  burning  there  all  night.  *  An  artificially  pro- 
longed form  of  Diana  ;  Varro  seems  to  have  had  in  mind 
(hciare  '  to  go  aside '  as  its  basis. 

VOL.  IF  65 


appellat,  quod  solet  esse  sub  terris.  Dicta  Proserpina, 
quod  haec  ut  serpens  modo  in  dexteram  modo  in 
sinisteram  partem  late  movetur.  Serpere  et  proser- 
pere  idem  dicebant,  ut  Plautus  quod  scribit  : 

Quasi  proserpens  bestia, 

69.  Quae  ideo  quoque  videtur  ab  Latinis  luno 
Lucina  dicta  vel  quod  est  e<t>^  Terra,  ut  physici 
dicunt,  et  lucet  ;  vel  quod^  ab  luce  eius  qua  quis 
conceptus  est  usque  ad  eam,  qua  partus  quis  in  lucem, 
<l)una*  iuvat,  donee  mensibus  actis  produxit  in  lucem, 
ficta  ab  iuvando  et  luce  luno  Lucina.  A  quo  parientes 
eam  invocant  :  luna  enim  nascentium  dux  quod 
menses  huius.  Hoc  vidisse  antiquas  apparet,  quod 
mulieres  potissimum  supercilia  sua  attribuerunt  ei 
deae.  Hie  enim  debuit  maxime  collocari  luno  Lucina, 
ubi  ab  diis  lux  datur  oculis. 

70.  Ignis  a  <g>nascendo,^  quod  hinc  nascitur  et 
omne  quod  nascitur  ignis  s(uc>cendit2  ;  ideo  calet,  ut 
qui  denascitur  eum  amittit  ac  frigescit.  Ab  ignis  iam 
maiore  vi  ac  violentia  Volcanus  dictus.     Ab  eo  quod 

§  69.  1  L.  Sp.,  for  e .  ^  For  quod  uel.  *  Sciop., 
for  una. 

§  70.     ^  3Iue.,for  nascendo.         ^  OS.,  for  scindit. 

•*  Ennius,  Varia,  59  Vahlen^.  Proserpina  is  really  borrowed 
from  Greek  IIepo€(f>6vT],  but  transformed  in  popular  speech 
into  a  word  seemingly  of  Latin  antecedents.  '  Poenulus 
1034,  Stichus  724  ;  in  both  passages  meaning  a  snake. 

§  69.  "  Liicina,  from  lux  '  light,'  indicates  Juno  as  goddess 
of    child-birth.  >>  Equal    to    '  full    moon,'    or    '  month.' 



lands  as  well  as  over  them,  Ennius's  Epicharmus  calls 
her  Proserpiiia.^  Proserpina  received  her  name 
because  she,  like  a  serpens  '  creeper,'  moves  widely 
now  to  the  right,  now  to  the  left.  Serpere  '  to  creep  ' 
and  proserpere  *  to  creep  forward  '  meant  the  same 
thing,  as  Plautus  means  in  what  he  writes  *  : 

Like  a  forward-creeping  beast. 

69.  She  appears  therefore  to  be  called  by  the 
Latins  also  Juno  Lucina,"  either  because  she  is  also 
the  Earth,  as  the  natural  scientists  say,  and  lucet 
'  shines  '  ;  or  because  from  that  light  of  hers  ^  in 
which  a  conception  takes  place  until  that  one  in  which 
there  is  a  birth  into  the  light,  the  Moon  continues  to 
help,  until  she  has  brought  it  forth  into  the  light  when 
the  months  are  past,  the  name  Juno  Lucina  was  made 
from  iuvare  '  to  help  '  and  lux  '  light.'  From  this  fact 
women  in  child-birth  invoke  her  ;  for  the  Moon  is  the 
guide  of  those  that  are  born,  since  the  months  belong 
to  her.  It  is  clear  that  the  women  of  olden  times 
observed  this,  because  women  have  given  this  goddess 
credit  notably  for  their  eyebrows. '^  For  Juno  Lucina 
ought  especially  to  be  established  in  places  where  the 
gods  give  light  to  our  eyes. 

70.  IgTiis  '  fire  '  is  named  from  gnasci  "  '  to  be 
born,'  because  from  it  there  is  birth,  and  everything 
which  is  born  the  fire  enkindles  ;  therefore  it  is  hot, 
just  as  he  who  dies  loses  the  fire  and  becomes  cold. 
From  the  fire's  vis  ac  violentia  '  force  and  violence,' 
now  in  greater  measure,  \ulcan  was  named."  From 
the  fact  that  fire  on  account  of  its  brightness  Julget 

•  Because  the  eyebrows  protect  the  eyes  by  which  we  enjoy 
the  light  (Festus,  305  b  10  M.). 
§  70.     "  False  etymologies. 



ignis  propter  splendoreni  fulget,  fulgwr^  et  fulmen,  et 
fulgur(itum>*  quod  fulmine  ictum. 

71.  <In)^  contrariis  diis,  ab  aquae  lapsu  lubrico 
Ij/mpha.  Lj/mpha  luturna  quae  iuvaret  :  itaque 
multi  aegroti  propter  id  nomen  hinc  aquam  petere 
Solent.  A  fontibus  et  fluminibus  ac  ceter2S  aqut's^  dei, 
ut  Tiberinus  ab  Tiberi,  et  ab  lacu  Velini  Velinia,  et 
Lj/mphae  Com(m)otiZ<e)s'  ad  lacum  Cutiliensem  a 
eommotu,  quod  ibi  insula  in  aqua  commovetur. 

72.  Neptunus,  quod  mare  terras  obnubit  ut  nubes 
caelum,  ab  nuptu,  id  est  opertione,  ut  antiqui,  a  quo 
nuptiae,  nuptus  dictus.  Salacia  Neptuni  ab  salo. 
Venelia^  a  veniendo  ac  vento  illo,  quern  Plautus  dicit  : 

Quod  ille^  dixit  qui  secundo  vento  vectus  est 
Tranquillo  mari,'  ventum  gaudeo. 

73.  Bellona  ab  bello  nunc,  quae  Duellona  a  duello. 

*  Canal,  for  fulgor.         *  Ttirnebus,  for  fulgur. 

§  71.  ^  Added  by  Madvig,  who  began  the  sentence  here 
instead  of  after  diis.  ^  V,  p,for  ceteras  aquas.  *  GS., 
for  comitiis. 

§  72.     ^  Aug.,   for     uenelia.  ^  mss.    of  Plautus,  for 

ibi  F.         '  itss.  of  Plautus  have  mare. 

*  The  three  words  are  from  fulgere  '  to  flash  ' ;  but  the  -itum 
of  fulguritum  is  suffixal  only,  and  is  not  connected  with 

§  71.  "  Properly  from  the  Greek  vu/x^rj,  with  dissimilative 
change  of  the  first  consonant.  *  The  first  part  may  be  the 
same  element  seen  in  lupiter,  but  is  certainly  not  connected 
with  iuvare.  "  A  lake  in  the  Sabine  country,  formed  by 

the  spreading  out  of  the  Avens  River  a  few  miles  southeast  of 
Interamna.  ■*  A  lake  in  the  Sabine  country,  a  few  miles 
east  of  Reate,  in  which  there  was  a  floating  island  which 
drifted  with  the  wind. 

§  72.  "  Neptunus  is  not  connected  with  the  other  words, 
though  nubes  may  perhaps   be   related   to  nubere  and  its 



'  flashes,'  come  fulgur  '  lightning-flash  '  and  fulmen 
'  thunderbolt,'  and  what  has  heen  fulmine  ictum  '  hit 
by  a  thunderbolt  '  is  caWed  J'ulguritu)?!.^ 

71.  Among  deities  of  an  opposite  kind,  Lympha  " 
'  water-nymph  '  is  derived  from  the  water's  lapsus 
luhrieus  '  slippery  gliding.'  Juturna  *  was  a  nymph 
whose  function  was  iiivare  '  to  give  help  '  ;  therefore 
many  sick  persons,  on  account  of  this  name,  are  wont 
to  seek  water  from  her  spring.  From  springs  and 
rivers  and  the  other  waters  gods  are  named,  as 
Tiberinus  from  the  river  Tiber,  and  ^'elinia  from  the 
lake  of  the  \'elinus,'^  and  the  Commotiles  '  Restless  ' 
Nymphs  at  the  Cutilian  Lake,**  from  the  commotus 
'  motion,'  because  there  an  island  commoveiur  '  moves 
about  '  in  the  water. 

72.  Neptune,"  because  the  sea  veils  the  lands  as 
the  clouds  veil  the  sky,  gets  his  name  from  nuptus 
'  veiling,'  that  is,  opertio  '  covering,'  as  the  ancients 
said  ;  from  which  nuptiae  '  wedding,'  nuptus  '  wed- 
lock '  are  derived.  Salacia,*  wife  of  Neptune,  got 
her  name  from  solum  '  the  surging  sea.'  \'enilia  '^  was 
named  from  venire  '  to  come  '  and  that  ventus  '  wind  ' 
which  Plautus  mentions  **  : 

As  that  one  said  who  with  a  favouring  wind  was  borne 
Over  a  placid  sea  :  I'm  glad  I  went.* 

73.  Bellona  '  Goddess  of  War  *  is  said  now,  from 
lellum  "   '  war,'   which  formerly  was  Duellona,  from 

derivatives.  *  Almost  certainly  an  abstract  substantive  to 
salax  '  fond  of  leaping,  lustful,  provoking  lust ' ;  though 
popularly  associated  with  salmn.  '  There  is  a  Venilia  in 

the  Aeneid,  x.  76,  a  sea-nymph  who  is  the  mother  of  Turnus. 
**  Cistellaria,  14-15.  «  Punning  on  ventum :  the  last 
phrase  may  mean  also  "  I'm  glad  there  was  a  wind." 

§  73.     »  Correct. 



Mars  ab  eo  quod  maribus  in  bello  praeest,  aut  quod 
Sabinis  acceptus  ibi  est  Mamers.  Quirinus  a  Quiri- 
tibus.  \'irtus  ut  viri^us^  a  virilitate.  Honos  ab* 
onere  :  itaque  honestum  dicitur  quod  oneratum,  et 
dictum  : 

Onus  est  honos  qui  sustinet  rem  publicam. 

Castoris  nomen  Graecum,  Pollucis  a  Graecis  ;  in 
Latinis  litteris  veteribus  nomen  quod  est,  inscribitur 
ut  IIoAuSerKj^s'  Polluces,  non  ut  nunc*  Pollux.  Con- 
cordia a  corde  congruente. 

74.  P'eronia,  Minerva,  Novensides  a  Sa6inis.  Paulo 
aliter  ab  eisdem  dicimus  haec  :  Palem,^  Vestam, 
Salutem,  Fortunam,  Fontem,  Fidem.  E(t>  arae* 
Sabinum  linguam  olent,  quae  Tati  regis  voto  sunt 
Romae  dedicatae  :  nam,  ut  annales  dicunt,  vovit  Opi, 
Florae,  Vediovi*  Saturnoque,  Soli,  Lunae,  Volcano 
et  Summano,  itemque  Larundae,  Termino,  Quirino, 
Vortumno,  Laribus,  Dianae  Lucinaeque  ;  e  quis  non- 
nulla  nomina  in  utraque  lingua  habent  radices,  ut 
arbores  quae  in  confinio  natae  in  utroque  agro  ser- 

§  73.  ^  Scaliger,  for  uiri  ius.  ^  After  ab,  Woelfflin 
deleted  honesto.         '  For  pollideuces.         *  For  nuns. 

§  74.  1  Scaliger,  for  hecralem.  ^  Mue.,  for  ea  re. 
'  Mue.,  for  floreue  dioioui. 

*  Mars  and  Mamers  go  together,  but  mares  '  males  '  is 
quite  distinct.  "  Virtus  is  in  fact  from  vir.  "*  Honos 
and  omis  are  quite  distinct.  '  Com.  Bom.  Frag.,  page  147 
Ribbeck^.  '  As  in  inscriptions,  where  such  spelHngs  are 
found.         "  Essentially  correct. 

§  74.     "  An  old  Italian  goddess,  later  identified  with  Juno. 

*  Apparently  '  new  settlers,'  from  novus  and  insidere,  used  of 
the  gods  brought  from  elsewhere  as  distinct  from  the  indigetes 
or  native  gods.         '  It  is  unlikely  that  all  the  deities  of  the 



duellum.  Mars  is  named  from  the  fact  that  he  com- 
mands the  mares  '  males  '  in  war,  or  that  he  is  called 
Mamers  ^  among  the  Sabines,  ^^ith  whom  he  is  a 
favourite.  Quirimis  is  from  Quirites.  Virtus  '  valour,' 
as  viritus,  is  from  virilitas  '  manhood.'  "  Honos  '  honour, 
office  '  is  said  from  onus  ^  '  burden  '  ;  therefore  hones- 
turn  '  honourable  '  is  said  of  that  which  is  oneratum 
'  loaded  with  burdens,'  and  it  has  been  said : 

Full  onerous  is  the  honour  which  maintains  the  state.* 

The  name  of  Castor  is  Greek,  that  of  Pollux  like^^ise 
from  the  Greeks  ;  the  form  of  the  name  which  is 
found  in  old  Latin  literature  ^  is  Polluces,  like  Greek 
IIoAi'Sei'KT/^,  not  Pollux  as  it  is  now.  Concordia  '  Con- 
cord '  is  from  the  cor  congruens  '  harmonious  heart.'  ' 
74.  Feronia,^  Minerva,  the  Xovensides  ^  are  from 
the  Sabines.  With  slight  changes,  we  say  the  follow- 
ing, also  from  the  same  people  "^  :  Pales,^  Vesta,  Salus, 
Fortune,  Fons,^  Fides  '  Faith.'  There  is  scent  of  the 
speech  of  the  Sabines  about  the  altars  also,  which  by 
the  vow  of  King  Tatius  were  dedicated  at  Rome  : 
for,  as  the  Annals  tell,  he  vowed  altars  to  Ops,  Flora, 
Vediovis  and  Saturn,  Sun,  Moon,  Vulcan  and  Summa- 
mis, ^and  likewise  to  Lariinda,^  Terminus,  Quirinus,  Ver- 
tumnus,  the  Lares,  Diana  and  Lucina  :  some  of  these 
names  have  roots  in  both  languages,''  like  trees  which 
have  sprung  up  on  the  boundary-  Une  and  creep  about 

next  two  lists  were  brought  in  from  elsewhere  ;  many  of  the 
names  are  perfectly  Roman.  •*  Goddess  of  the  shepherds, 
who  protected  them  and  their  flocks.  *  God  of  Springs  ; 
c/.  vi.  22.  '  A  mysterious  deity  who  was  considered 
responsible  for  lightning  at  night.  »  Called  also  Lara,  a 
tale-bearing  nymph  whom  Jupiter  deprived  of  the  power  of 
speech.  *  Quite  possible,  but  very  unlikely  in  the  cases 
of  Saturn  and  Diana. 



pwnt*  :  potest  enim  Saturnus  hie  de  alia  causa  esse 
dictus  atque  in  Sabinis,  et  sic  Diana,^  de  quibus  supra 
dictum  est. 

XL  75.  Quod  ad  immortalis  attinet,  haec  ;  de- 
inceps  quod  ad  mortalis  attinet  videamus.  De  his 
animaUa  in  tribus  locis  quod  sunt,  in  acre,  in  aqua, 
in  terra,  a  summa  parte  (ad)^  infimam  descendam. 
Primum  nomm(a)  ommMm^ :  alites  <ab>  ah*,'  volucres 
a  volatu.  Deinde  generatim  :  de  his  pleraeque  ab 
suis  vocibus  ut  haec  :  upupa,  cuculus,  corvus,  ^irundo, 
ulula,bubo  ;  item  haec:  pavo,  anser,galHna,columba. 

76.  Sunt  quae  ahis  de  causis  appellatae,  ut  noctua, 
quod  noctu  canit  et  vigilat,  lusci(ni>ola,*quod  luctuose 
canere  existimatur  atque  esse  ex  Attica  Progne  in 
luctu  facta  avis.  Sic  galeri^us^  et  motacilla,  altera 
quod  in  capite  habet  plumam  elatam,  altera  quod 
semper  movet  caudam.  Merula,  quod  mera,  id  est 
sola,  volitat ;   contra  ab  eo  graguli,  quod  gregatim, 

*  For  serpent.         ^  A  Idus,  for  dianae. 

§75.  ^  Added  by  G,  H.  ^  Fay ;  nomen  omnium 
Mv£.  ;  for  nomen  nominem.         '  Aug.,  for  alii. 

§  76.  ^  Victorius,  for  lusciola.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for 

♦  Saturn  in  §  64.,  Diana  in  §  68. 

§75.  "The  first  six,  except  hirundo  (of  unknown  ety- 
mology), are  onomatopoeic.  Of  the  last  four,  pavo  is 
borrowed  from  an  Oriental  language  ;  anser  is  an  old  Indo- 
European  word  ;  galllna  is  '  the  Gallic  bird  ' ;  cohimba  is 
named  from  its  colour. 

§  76.  "  Perhaps  correct,  if  from  luges-cania  '  sorrow- 
singer.'  ''  Procne,  daughter  of  Pandion  king  of  Athens 
and  wife  of  Tereus  king  of  Thrace,  killed  her  son  Itys  and 
served  him  to  his  father  for  food,  in  revenge  for  his  ill-treat- 
ment and  infidelity  ;  see  Ovid,  Metamorphoses,  vi.  424-674. 
"  Literally  '  hooded,'  wearing  a  galerum  or  hood-like  helmet. 
**  If  not  correct,  then  a  very  reasonable  popular  etymology. 


in  both  fields  :  for  Saturn  might  be  used  as  the  god's 
name  from  one  source  here,  and  from  another  among 
the  Sabines,  and  so  also  Diana  :  these  names  I  have 
discussed  above.* 

XL  75.  This  is  what  has  to  do  with  the  immortals ; 
next  let  us  look  at  that  which  has  to  do  with  mortal 
creatures.  Amongst  these  are  the  animals,  and 
because  they  abide  in  three  places — in  the  air,  in  the 
water,  and  on  the  land — I  shall  start  from  the  highest 
place  and  come  down  to  the  lowest.  First  the  names 
of  them  all,  collectively  :  alites  '  \nnged  birds  '  from 
their  alae '  wings,'  volucres  '  fliers  '  from  volatus '  flight.' 
Next  by  kinds  :  of  these,  very  many  are  named  from 
their  cries,  as  are  these  :  upupa  '  hoopoe,'  cuculus 
'  cuckoo,'  conns  '  raven,'  hirundo  '  swallow,'  ulula 
'  screech-owl,'  biiho  '  horned  owl  '  ;  likewise  these  : 
pavo  '  peacock,'  anser  '  goose,'  gallina  '  hen,'  columba 
'  dove.'  " 

76.  Some  got  their  names  from  other  reasons, 
such  as  the  noctua  '  night-owl,'  because  it  stays  awake 
and  hoots  noctu  '  by  night,'  and  the  lusciniola  '  night- 
ingale,' because  it  is  thought  to  canere  '  sing  '  luctuose 
'  sorrowfully  ' ''  and  to  have  been  transformed  from 
the  Athenian  Procne  *  in  her  luctus  '  sorrow,'  into  a 
bird.  LikcAnse  the  galeritus  '^ '  crested  lark  '  and  the 
motacilla  '  wagtail,'  the  one  because  it  has  a  feather 
standing  up  on  its  head,  the  other  because  it  is  always 
moving  its  tail.**  The  merula  '  blackbird  '  is  so  named 
because  it  flies  mera  '  unmixed,'  that  is,  alone  '  ;  on 
the  other  hand,  the  gragidi  f  'jackdaws  '  got  their 
names  because  they  fly  gregaiim  '  in  flocks,'  as  certain 

'  That  is,  without  other  birds,  like  wine  without  water  :  an 
absurd  etymology,  f  Properly  graciiU  ;  not  connected  with 



ut  quidam  Graeci  greges  yipyepa.  Ficedula(e>'  et 
miliariae  a  cibo,  quod  alterae  fico,  alterae  milio  fiunt 

XII.  77.  Aquatilium  vocabula  animalium  partim 
sunt  vernacula,  partim  peregrina.  Foris  muraena, 
quod  ^ivpaiva  Graece,  cybium^  et  thj/nnus,  cuius  item 
partes  Graecis  vocabulis  omnes,  ut  melander  atque 
uraeon.  \^ocabula  piscium  pleraque  translata  a  ter- 
restribus  ex  aliqua  parte  similibus  rebus,  ut  anguilla, 
lingulaca,  sudis^  ;  alia  a  coloribus,  ut  haec  :  asellus, 
umbra,  turdus  ;  alia  a  vi  quadam,  ut  haec  :  lupus, 
canicula,  torpedo.  Item  in  conch_?/liis  aliqua  ex 
Graecis,  ut  peloris,  ostrea,  echinus.  Vernacula  ad 
similitudinem,  ut  surenae,'  pectunculi,  ungues. 

XIII.  78.  Sunt  etiam  animalia  in  aqua,  quae  in 
terram  interdum  exeant  :  alia  Graecis  vocabulis,  ut 
polypus,  h^ppo<s>  potamios,^  crocodilos,^  alia  Latinis, 

'  Ed.  Veneta,  for  ficedula. 

§77.  ^  Aldus,  for  cytybium,  ^  Aldus,  for  lingula 
casudis.         ^  For  syrenae. 

§  78.     ^  L.  Sp.,  for  yppo  potamios.         ^  For  crocodillos. 

"  Correct ;  Varro,  De  Re  Rustica,  iii.  5.  2,  speaks  of  miliariae 
as  prized  delicacies,  raised  and  fattened  for  the  table. 

§  77.  "  The  identification  of  many  animals  and  fishes  is 
quite  uncertain,  and  the  translation  is  therefore  tentative.  But 
the  etymological  views  in  §77  and  §78  are  approximately 
correct.  ''  More  precisely,  the  flesh  of  the  young  tunny 
salted  in  cubes.  "  Seemingly  a  variant  form  for  melan- 

dryon,  Greek  yieXavhpvov  '  slice  of  the  large  tunny  called 
/leAcEvS/su?  or  black-oak.'  ''From  Greek  ovpalos  'pertain- 
ing to  the  tail  (oupa).'  «Diminutive  of  anguis  'snake.' 
f  Because  flat  like  a  lingua  '  tongue  '  ;    lingulaca  means  also 



Greeks  call  greges  '  flocks  '  yepyepa.  Ficedulae  '  fig- 
peckers  '  and  miliariae  '  ortolans  '  are  named  from 
their  food,^  because  the  ones  become  fat  on  the^^CM* 
'  fig,'  the  others  on  milium  '  millet.' 

XIL  77.  The  names  of  water  animals  are  some 
native,  some  foreign."     From  abroad  come  muraena 

*  moray,'  because  it  is  pvpaiva  in  Greek,  cyhium  '  young 
tunny  '^  and  thunnus  '  tunny,'  all  whose  parts  likewise 
go  by  Greek  names,  as  melunder" '  black-oak-piece '  and 
uraeon  ^  '  tail-piece.'  \  ery  many  names  of  fishes  are 
transferred  from  land  objects  which  are  like  them  in 
some  respect,  as  anguilla  *  '  eel,'  lingulaca  f  '  sole,' 
sudis  ^  '  pike.'  Others  come  from  their  colours,  like 
these  :  asellus  '  cod,'  umbra  '  grayling,'  turdus  '  sea- 
carp.'  ^  Others  come  from  some  physical  power,  Uke 
these  :  lupus  '  wolf-fish,'  canicula  '  dogfish,'  torpedo 
'  electric  ray.'  *  Likewise  among  the  shellfish  there 
are  some  from  Greek,  as  peloris  '  mussel,'  ostrea 
'  oyster,'  echinus  '  sea-urchin  '  ;  and  also  native  words 
that  point  out  a  likeness,  as  surenae,'  pectuncuU^ 
'  scallops,'  ungues  '■  '  razor-clams.' 

XIII.  78.  There  are  also  animals  in  the  water, 
which  at  times  come  out  on  the  land  :  some  with 
Greek  names,  like  the  octopus,  the  hippopotamus,  the 
crocodile  ;  others  with  Latin  names,  like  rana  '  frog,' 

'  chatter-box,   talkative  woman.'         '  On   land,  a   '  stake.' 

*  On    land,    respectively    '  little    ass,'    '  shadow,'    '  thrush.' 

*  On    land,   respectively    '  wolf,'   '  little    dog,'   '  numbness.' 

*  Of  unknown  meaning,  and  perhaps  a  corrupt  reading  ; 
Groth,  De  Codice  Florentino,  27  (105),  suggests  perna«  from 
Pliny,  Sat.  Hist,  xxxii.  11.  54.  154,  who  mentions  the 
perna  as  a  sea-mussel  standing  on  a  high  foot  or  stalk,  like  a 
haunch  of  ham  with  the  leg.  *  On  land,  '  little  combs,' 
diminutive  of  pecten.  ' '  Finger-nails  ' ;  perhaps  not  the 
razor-clam,  but  a  small  clam  shaped  like  the  finger-nail. 



ut  rana,  <anas),'  mergus  ;  a  quo  Graeci  ea  quae  in 
aqua  et  terra  possunt  vivere  vocant  dfj,cf)ifSta.  E  quis 
rana  ab  sua  dicta  voce,  anas  a  nando,  mergus  quod 
mergendo  in  aquam  captat  escam. 

79.  Item  alia^  in  hoc  genere  a  Graecis,  ut  quer- 
quedula,  (quod)  ^  KepKvyS}/?,'  alcedo,*  quod  ea  akKmov ; 
Latina,  ut  testudo,  quod  testa  tectum  hoc  animal, 
lolUgo,  quod  subvolat,  httera  commutata,  primo  vol- 
Hgo.  Ut  ^egypti  in  flumine  quadrupes  sic  in  Latio, 
nominati  lM(t>ra5  et  fiber.  LM(t)ra,*  quod  succidere 
dicitur  arborum  radices  in  ripa  atque  eas  dissolvere  : 
ab  (lucre)  Iwtra.^  Fiber,  ab  extrema  ora  fluminis 
dextra  et  sinistra  maxime  quod  solet  videri,  et  antiqui 
februm  dicebant  extremum,  a  quo  in  sagis  fimbr(i)ae 
et  in  iecore  extremum  fibra,  fiber  dictus. 

XIV.  80.  De  animalibus  in  locis  terrestribus  quae 
sunt  hominum  propria  primum,  deinde  de  pecore, 
tertio  de  feris  scribam.     Incipiam  ab  honore  publico. 

^  Added  by  Aug. 

§  79.  1  L.  Sp.,  with  B,  for  aliae.  ^  yidded  by  Kent. 
'  GS.,    for    cerceris.  *  Groth ;     halcedo    Laetus ;     for 

algedo.  ^  GS.  ;  lytra  Txirnehus  ;  for  lira.  *  Stroux  ; 
ab  lucre  Scaliger  ;  for  ab  litra. 

§  78.     "  Cf.  §  77,  note  a. 

§  79.     "  Conjectural  purely.  *"  An  absurd  etymology. 

'  Originally  udra  '  water-animal,'  with  I  from  association  with 
Ititum  '  mud  '  or  lutor  '  washer.'  Varro  attributes  to  the 
otter  the  tree-felling  habit  of  the  beaver.  "*  Properly  '  the 
brown  animal.'  *  Fiber,  fimbriae,  fibra  have  no  etymologi- 
cal connexion. 



anas  '  duck,'  mergiis  '  diver.'  Whence  the  Greeks 
give  the  name  amphibia  to  those  which  can  live  both 
in  the  water  and  on  the  land.  Of  these,  the  rana  is 
named  from  its  voice,  the  anas  from  nare  '  to  SAvim,' 
the  mergus  because  it  catches  its  food  bv  mergendo 
'  di\-ing  '  into  the  water." 

79-  Likewise  there  are  other  names  in  this  class, 
that  are  from  the  Greeks,  as  querquedula  '  teal,'  because 
it  is  KepKi'jSii^;,"  and  alcedo  '  kingfisher,'  because  this  is 
aAKi'oji'  ;  and  Latin  names,  such  as  testudo  '  tortoise,' 
because  this  animal  is  covered  with  a  testa  '  shell,'  and 
lolligo  '  cuttle-fish,'  because  it  volat  '  flies  '  up  from 
under,^  originally  volligo,  but  now  A^ith  one  letter 
changed.  Just  as  in  Egypt  there  is  a  quadruped 
li\ing  in  the  river,  so  there  are  river  quadrupeds  in 
Latium,  named  Intra  '  otter  '  and Jiber  '  beaver.'  The 
lutra  '^  is  so  named  because  it  is  said  to  cut  off  the  roots 
of  trees  on  the  bank  and  set  the  trees  loose  :  from 
luere  '  to  loose,'  httra.  The  beaver''  was  called ^6er 
because  it  is  usually  seen  very  far  off  on  the  bank  of 
the  river  to  right  or  to  left,  and  the  ancients  called  a 
thing  that  was  very  far  off  a  Jebrum  ;  from  which  in 
blankets  the  last  part  is  caWed  Jimbriae  '  fringe  '  and 
the  last  part  in  the  liver  is  the  Jibra  '  fibre.'  * 

XIV.  80.  Among  the  living  beings  on  the  land,  I 
shall  speak  first  of  terms  which  apply  to  human  beings, 
then  of  domestic  animals,  third  of  wiid  beasts.  I  shall 
start  from  the  offices  of  the  state.     The  Consul  °  was 

§  80.  "  Properly,  consulere  is  derived  from  consul.  Of 
consul,  at  least  four  reasonable  etymologies  are  proposed,  the 
simplest  being  that  it  is  from  com  +sed  '  those  who  sit  to- 
gether,' as  there  were  two  consuls  from  the  beginning  ;  the 
/  for  d  being  a  peculiarity  taken  from  the  dialect  of  the  Sabines 
{c/.  lingua  for  older  dingua). 



Consu  Jnominatus  qui  consuleret  populum  et  senatum, 
nisi  illinc  potius  unde  Accius^  ait  in  Bruto  : 

Qui  recte  consulat,  consul  fiatJ 
Praetor  dictus  qui  praeiret  iure  et  exercitu  ;  a  quo  id 
Lucilius  : 

Ergo  praetorum  est  ante  et  praeire. 

81.  Censor  ad  cuius  censionem,  id  est  arbitrium, 
censeretur  populus.  Aedilis  qui  aedis  sacras  et 
privatas  procuraret.  Quaestores  a  quaerendo,  qui 
conquirerent  publicas  peeunias  et  maleficia,  quae 
triumviri  capitales  nunc  conquirunt  ;  ab  his  postea 
qui  quaestionum  iudicia  exercent  quaes(i>tores^ 
dicti.  Tribuni  militum,  quod  terni  tribus  tribubus 
Ramnium,  Lucerum,  Titium  olim  ad  exercitum  mitte- 
bantur.  Tribuni  plebei,  quod  ex  tribunis  militum 
primum  tribuni  plebei  facti,  qui  plebem  defenderent, 
in  secessione  Crustumerina. 

82.  Dictator,  quod  a  consule  dicebatur,  cui  dicto 
audientes  omnes   essent.     Magister  equitum,  quod 

§  80.  ^  Later  codices,  for  tatius  F^,  H,  p^,  taccius  F^,  V,  a. 
^  Laetus,  for  consulciat. 

§  81.     ^  Mommsen,  for  quaestores. 

*  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  39  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  ii.  564-565  War- 
mington.         '  lure  is  dative.         ''1160  Marx. 

§  81.  "  The  tribunus  was  by  etymology  merely  the  '  man 
of  the  tribus  or  tribe,'  and  therefore  did  not  derive  his  name 
from    the  word    for  '  three,'  except    indirectly ;    c/.   §  55. 

*  That  is,  elected  by  the  plebeians  from  among  their  military 
tribunes  whom  they  had  chosen  to  lead  them  in  their  Seces- 
sion to  the  Sacred  Mount  (which  may  have  lain  in  the  terri- 
tory  of  Crustumerium),   in   494   b.c.     Their  persons  were 


ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  80-82 

so  named  as  the  one  who  should  consulere  '  ask  the 
advice  of '  people  and  senate,  unless  rather  from  this 
fact  whence  Accius  takes  it  when  he  says  in  the 
Brutus  ^  : 

Let  him  who  counsels  right,  become  the  Consul. 

The  Praetor  was  so  named  as  the  one  who  should 
praeire  '  go  before  '  the  law  "  and  the  army  ;  whence 
Lucilius  said  this  "^ : 

Then  to  go  out  in  front  and  before  is  tin;  duty  of 

81.  The  Censor  was  so  named  as  the  one  at  whose 
censio  '  rating,'  that  is,  arhitrium  '  judgement,'  the 
people  should  be  rated.  The  Aedile,  as  the  one  who 
was  to  look  after  aedes  '  buildings  '  sacred  and  private. 
The  Quaestors,  from  quaerere'  to  seek,' who  conquirerent 
'  should  seek  into  '  the  public  moneys  and  illegal 
doings,  which  the  triumviri  capitales '  the  prison  board  ' 
now  investigate  ;  from  these,  afterwards,  those  who 
pronounce  judgement  on  the  matters  of  investigation 
were  named  quaesitores  '  inquisitors.'  The  Tribuni" 
Militum  '  tribunes  of  the  soldiers,'  because  of  old  there 
were  sent  to  the  army  three  each  on  behalf  of  the  three 
tribes  of  Ramnes,  Luceres,  and  Tities.  The  Tribuni 
Plebei  '  tribunes  of  the  plebs,'  because  from  among  the 
tribunes  of  the  soldiers  tribunes  of  the  plebs  were  first 
created,^  in  the  Secession  to  Crustumerium,  for  the 
purpose  of  defending  the  plebs  '  populace.' 

82.  The  Dictator,  because  he  was  named  by  the 
consul  as  the  one  to  whose  dictum '  order  '  all  should 
be  obedient."     The  Magister  Equitum  '  master  of  the 

sacrosanct,  enabling  them  to  carry  out  their  dutj-  of  protect- 
ing the  plebeians  against  the  injustice  of  the  patrician  officials. 
§  82.     »  Rather,  because  he  dktat  '  gives  orders.' 



summa  potestas  huius  in  equites  et  accensos,  ut  est 
summa  populi  dictator,  a  quo  is  quoque  magister 
populi  appellatus.  Reliqui,  quod  minores  quam  hi 
magistri,  dicti  magistratus,  ut  ab  albo  albatus. 

XV.  83.  Sacerdotes  universi  a  sacris  dicti.  Pontu- 
fices,  ut^  Scaevola  Quintus  pontufex  maximus  dicebat, 
a  posse  et  facere,  ut  po<te>ntifices.^  Ego  a  ponte 
arbitror  :  nam  ab  his  SubUcius  est  factus  primum  ut 
restitutus  saepe,  cum  ideo  sacra  et  uZs'  et  cis  Tiberim 
non  mediocri  ritu  fiant.  Curiones  dicti  a  curiis,  qui 
fiunt  ut  in  his  sacra  faciant. 

84.  Flamines,  quod  in  Latio  capite  velato  erant 
semper  ac  caput  cinctum  habebant  filo,  f(i>lamines^ 
dicti.  Horum  singuli  cognomina  habent  ab  eo  deo 
cui  sacra  faciunt  ;  sed  partim  sunt  aperta,  partim 
obscura  :  aperta  ut  Martiahs,  Volcanahs  ;  obscura 
Dialis  et  Furinahs,  cum  DiaUs  ab  love  sit  (Diovis 
enim),  Furi(n>aUs   a  Furriwa,*  cuius  etiam  in  fastis 

§  83.     ^  After  ut,  Ed.    Veneta    deleted  a.  ^  OS.,  for 

pontifices,  c/.  v.  4.         *  For  uis. 

§  84,     1  Canal,  for  flamines,  cf.  Festus,  87.  15  M.  ^  /^^ 

Sp.  ;  Furina  Aldus  ;  for  furrida. 

'  Not  quite  ;  for  magistratus  is  a  fourth  declension  sub- 
stantive, '  office  of  magister,'  then  '  holder  of  such  an  office,' 
while  albatus  is  a  second  declension  adjective. 

§  83.  "  Q.  Mucins  Scaevola,  consul  95  b.c,  and  subse- 
quently Pontifex  Maximus  ;  proscribed  and  killed  by  the 
Marian  party  in  82.  He  was  a  man  of  the  highest  character 
and  abilities,  and  made  the  first  systematic  compilation  of  the 
ius  civile ;  see  i.  19  Huschke.  "  Varro  may  be  right,  though 

perhaps  it  was  the  '  bridges  '  between  this  world  and  the  next 
which  originally  the  pontifices  were  to  keep  in  repair  ;  cf. 
Class.  Philol.  viii.  317-326  (1913).  "The  wooden  bridge 
on  piles,  traditionally  built  by  Ancus  Marcius.         ^  The  curia 



cavalry,'  because  he  has  supreme  power  over  the 
cavalry  and  the  replacement  troops,  just  as  the  dictator 
is  the  highest  authority  over  the  people,  from  which 
he  also  is  called  magister,  but  of  the  people  and  not  of 
the  cavalry.  The  remaining  officials,  because  they 
are  inferior  to  these  niagistri  '  masters,'  are  called 
magistratus  '  magistrates,'  derived  just  as  albatus 
'  whitened,  white-clad  '  is  derived  from  albus  '  white.'  ^ 

XV.  83.  The  sacerdotes  '  priests  '  collectively  were 
named  from  the  sacra  '  sacred  rites.'  The  pontifices 
'  high -priests,'  Quintus  Scaevola  "  the  Pontifex  Maxi- 
mus  said,  were  named  from  posse  '  to  be  able  '  and 
facere  '  to  do,'  as  though  potentifices.  For  my  part  I 
think  that  the  name  comes  from  pons  '  bridge  '  ^  ;  for 
by  them  the  Bridge-on-Piles  '^  was  made  in  the  first 
place,  and  it  was  likewise  repeatedly  repaired  by  them, 
since  in  that  connexion  rites  are  performed  on  both 
sides  of  the  Tiber  with  no  small  ceremony.  The 
curiones  were  named  from  the  curiae  ;  they  are  created 
for  conducting  sacred  rites  in  the  curiae.'^ 

84.  The  jiamines^  '  flamens,'  because  in  Latium 
they  always  kept  their  heads  covered  and  had  their 
hair  girt  ^\ith  a  woollen^/M?«  '  band,'  were  originally 
caWeidJilamines.  Individually  they  have  distinguish- 
ing epithets  from  that  god  whose  rites  they  perform  ; 
but  some  are  obvious,  others  obscure  :  obvious,  like 
Martialis  and  VolcanaUs  ;  obscure  are  Dialis  and 
Furinalis,  since  Dialis  is  from  Jove,  for  he  is  called  also 
Diovis,  and  Furinalis  from  Furrina,''  who  even  has  a 

was  the  fundamental  political  unit  in  the  early  Roman  state  ; 
it  was  an  organization  of  gentes,  originally  ten  to  the  curia, 
and  ten  curiae  to  each  of  the  three  tribes. 

§  84.  "  Of  uncertain  etymology,  but  not  from  filamen. 
*  A  goddess,  practically  unknown  ;    cf.  vi.  19. 

VOL.  I  G  81 


feriae  Furinales  sunt.  Sic  flamen  Falacer  a  divo 
patre  Falacre. 

85.  Salii  ab  salitando,  quod  facere  in  comitiis  in 
sacris  quotannis  et  solent  et  debent.  Luperci,  quod 
Lupercalibus  in  Lupercali  sacra  faciunt.  Fratres 
Arvales  dicti  qui  sacra  publica  faciunt  propterea  ut 
fruges  ferant  arva  :  a  ferendo  et  arvis  Fratres  Arvales 
dicti.  Sunt  qui  a  fratria  dixerunt  :  fratria  est  Grae- 
cum  vocabulum  partis^  hominum,  ut  <Ne)apoli^  etiam 
nunc.  Sodales  Titii  <ab  avibus  titiantibus)*  dicti, 
quas  in  auguriis  certis  observare  solent. 

86.  Fetiales,  quod  fidei  publicae  inter  populos 
praeerant  :  nam  per  hos  fiebat  ut  iustum  concipere- 
tur  bellum,  et  inde  desitum,  ut  f<o>edere  fides  pacis 
constitueretur.  Ex  his  mittebantur,  ante  quam 
conciperetur,  qui  res  repeterent,  et  per  hos  etiam 
nunc  fit  foedus,^  quod  fidus  Ennius  scribit  dictum. 

§  85.     ^  Aug.,     for    patris.  ^  Turnebvs,    for    apoli. 

'  Added  by  A.  Sp.,  after  Laehis  (a  titiis  avibus). 
§  86.     1  For  faedus. 

"^  An  old  Italic  mythical  hero  ;  quite  obscure. 

§  85.  "  From  salire  '  to  leap,'  of  which  salitare  is  a  deriva- 
tive. *"  Priests  of  the  God  Lupercus,  who  arret  '  keeps 
away  '  the  hipi '  wolves  '  from  the  flocks.  "  Arvales  from 

arva  ;  but  fratres  has  nothing  to  do  with  ferre.  ^  Page 
116  Funaioli.  * '  Political  brotherhood,'  from  ^pdrqp  '  clan 
brother  '  ;  any  reference  to  it  is  here  out  of  place.  '  Ac- 
cording to  Tacitus,  Ann.  i.  54,  they  were  established  by  Titus 
Tatius  for  the  preservation  of  certain  Sabine  religious 

§  86.  "  Perhaps  from  an  old  word  meaning  '  law,'  from 
the  root  seen  in  feci  '  I  made,  established  '  ;  but  without 
connexion  with  the  words  in  the  text.  Foedus,  fides,  fidtts 
are  closely  connected  with  one  another.         *  In  the  early 



Furinal  Festival  in  the  calendar.  So  also  the  Flamen 
Falacer  from  the  divine  father  Falacer/ 

85.  The  Salii  were  named "  from  salitare  '  to 
dance,'  because  they  had  the  custom  and  the  duty  of 
dancing  yearly  in  the  assembly-places,  in  their  cere- 
monies. The  Luperci  ^  M-ere  so  named  because  they 
make  offerings  in  the  Lupercal  at  the  festival  of  the 
Lupercalia.  Fratres  Arvules  '  Arval  Brothers  '  was 
the  name  given  to  those  who  perform  public  rites  to 
the  end  that  the  ploughlands  mav  bear  fruits  :  from 
J'erre  '  to  bear  '  and  ana  '  ploughlands  '  they  are  called 
Fratres  Arvales.'^  But  some  have  said  <*  that  they 
were  named  from  fratria  '  brotherhood  '  :  fratria  is 
the  Greek  name  of  a  part  of  the  people,*  as  at  Naples 
even  now.  The  Sodales  Titii  '  Titian  Comrades  '  are 
so  named  from  the  titiantes  '  twittering  '  birds  which 
they  are  accustomed  to  watch  in  some  of  their  augural 

86.  The  Fetiales  "  '  herald-priests,'  because  they 
were  in  charge  of  the  state's  word  of  honour  in 
matters  between  peoples  ;  for  bv  them  it  was  brought 
about  that  a  war  that  was  declared  should  be  a  just 
war,  and  by  them  the  war  was  stopped,  that  by  a 
foedus '  treaty  '  thajides '  honesty  '  of  the  peace  might 
be  established.  Some  of  them  were  sent  before  war 
should  be  declared,  to  demand  restitution  of  the 
stolen  property,*  and  by  them  even  now  is  made  the 
foedus '  treaty,'  which  Ennius  writes  "^  was  pronounced 


days  wars  started  chiefly  as  the  result  of  raids  in  which 
property,  cattle,  and  persons  had  been  carried  off.  '  Page 

238  Vahlen- ;  R.O.L.  i.  564  Warmington  ;  Ennius  probably 
wished  by  a  pun  to  indicate  a  relation  between  foedus  and  the 
adjective  fidus  which,  in  his  opinion,  did  not  really  exist 
(though  it  did). 



XVI.  87.  In  re  militari  praetor  dictus  qui  praeiret 
exercitui.  Imperator,  ab  imperio  populi  qui  eos,  qui 
id  attemptasse(n>t,<t>i  hostis.  Legati  qui 
lecti  publice,  quorum  opera  consilioque  uteretur 
peregre  magistratus,  quive  nuntii  senatus  aut  populi 
assent.  Exercitus,  quod  exercitando  fit  melior. 
Legio,  quod  leguntur  milites  in  delectu. 

88.  Cohors,  quod  ut  in  villa  ex  pluribus  tectis 
coniungitur  ac  quiddam  fit  unum,  sic  hic^  ex  manipulis 
pluribus  copulatur* :  cohors  quae  in  villa,  quod  circa 
eum  locum  pecus  cooreretur,  tametsi  cohortem  in 
villa  //ypsicrates'  dicit  esse  Graece  xo/>toi/*  apud 
poetas  dictam.  Manipulws*  exercitus  minima"  manus 
quae  unum  sequitur  signum.  Centuria  qui''  sub  uno 
centurione  sunt,  quorum  centenarius  iustus  numerus. 

89.  Milites,  quod  trium  milium  primo  legio  fiebat 
ac  singulae  tribus  Titiensium,  Ramnium,  Lucerum 
milia   militum   mittebant.     Hastati   dicti   qui   primi 

§  87.     ^  Aug.,  vnth  B,  for  oppress!. 

§  88.     ^  Mue.,  for  his.         ^  G,  If,  Laetus,  for  populatur. 

*  ylldvs,     for      ipsicrates.         *  Turnehus,     for      cohorton. 

*  L.  Sp.,  for  nianipulos.  *  L.  Sp.,for  minimas,  '  Mue., 
for  quae. 

§  87.  "  So  named  because  he  imperat  '  gives  orders  '  ;  in 
practice,  it  was  a  title  conferred  upon  a  general  after  a  victory, 
by  spontaneous  acclamation  of  his  soldiers.  *  Meaning 

'  delegated,'  participle  of  legare  (akin  to  legere). 

§  88.  "  Prefix  co-+hort-s,  the  second  part  being  the  same 
as  hortus  '  enclosed  place  as  garden,'  and  Greek  x^P^^^- 
•"  A  grammarian,  mentioned  also  by  Gellius,  xvi.  12.  6 :  see 
Funaioli,    page     107.  "  A    '  handful,'    from    manus  +  a 

derivative  of  the  root  in  plere  '  to  fill.'  ^  This  and  the 
following  words  are  from  centum  '  hundred.' 



X\T.  87.  In  military  aiFairs,  the  praetor  was  so 
called  as  the  one  who  should  praeire  '  go  at  the  head  ' 
of  the  army.  The  imperator  "  '  commander,'  from  the 
imperium  '  dominion  '  of  the  people,  as  the  one  who 
crushed  those  enemies  who  had  attacked  it.  The 
legati  *  '  attaches,'  those  who  were  lecti  '  chosen  ' 
officially,  whose  aid  or  counsel  the  magistrates  should 
use  when  away  from  Rome,  or  who  should  be  mes- 
sengers of  the  senate  or  of  the  people.  The  exercitus 
'  army,'  because  by  exercitando  '  training  '  it  is  im- 
proved. The  legio  '  legion,'  because  the  soldiers 
leguntur  '  are  gathered  '  in  the  levy. 

88.  The  cohors  "  '  cohort,'  because,  just  as  on  the 
farm  the  cohors  '  yard  '  coniungitur  '  is  joined  together  ' 
of  several  buildings  and  becomes  a  certain  kind  of 
unity,  so  in  the  army  it  copulatiir '  is  coupled  together  ' 
of  several  maniples  :  the  cohors  which  is  on  the  farm, 
is  so  called  because  around  that  place  the  flock 
cooritur  '  assembles,'  although  Hypsicrates  *•  says 
that  the  cohors  on  the  farm,  as  said  by  the  poets,  is 
the  word  which  in  Greek  is  x'^/'tos  '  farmyard.'  The 
maniptilus  '^  '  maniple  '  is  the  smallest  manus  '  troop  ' 
which  has  a  standard  of  its  own  to  follow.  The  cen- 
turia  ^  '  century  '  consists  of  those  who  are  under  one 
centurio  '  centurion,'  whose  proper  number  is  cen- 
tenarius  '  one  hundred  each.' 

89.  Milites  "  '  soldiers,'  because  at  first  the  legion 
was  made  of  three  milia  '  thousands,'  and  the  individ- 
ual tribes  of  Titienses,  Ramnes,  and  Luceres  sent 
their  milia  '  thousands  '  of  milites  '  soldiers.'  The 
ka^tati '  spearmen  '  were  so  called  as  those  who  in  the 
first  line  fought  vt-iih  hastae  '  spears,'  the  pilani '  jave- 

§  89.  "  Milites  and  milia  are  not  connected  etymologi- 



hastis  pugnabant,  pilani  qui  pilis,  principes  qui  a 
principio  gladiis  ;  ea  post  commutata  re  militari 
minus  illustria  sunt.  Pilani  trianii  quoque  dicti,  quod 
in  acie  tertio  ordine  extremi^  subsidio  deponebantur  ; 
quod  hi  subsidebant  ab  eo  subsidium  dictum,  a  quo 
Plautus  : 

Agite  nunc,  subsich'te'  omnes  quasi  solent  triarii. 

90.  Auxilium  appellatum  ab  auctu,  cum  acces- 
serant  ei  qui  adiumento  assent  alienigenae.  Prae- 
sidium  dictum  qui  extra  castra  praesidebant  in  loco 
aliquo,  quo  tutior  regio  esset.  Obsidium  dictum 
ab  obsidendo,  quo  minus  hostis  egredi  posset.  In- 
(si)diae^  item  ab  iwsidendo,*  cum  id  ideo  facerent  quo 
facilius  deminuerent  hostis.  Duplicarii  dicti  quibus 
ob  virtutem  duplicia  cibaria  ut  darentur  institutum. 

91.  Turma  terima  (E  in  U  abiit),  quod  ter  deni 
equites  ex  tribus  tribubus  Titiensium,  Ramnium, 
Lucerum  fiebant.  Itaque  primi  singularum  de- 
curiarum  decuriones  dicti,  qui  ab  eo  in  singulis  turmis 
sunt  etiam  nunc  terni.     Quos  hi  primo  administros 

§  89.     ^  For   triani.  *  Aug.    {quoting   a  friend),  for 

extremis,         ^  Laetus,  for  subsidete. 

§  90.     ^  L.   Sp.,  for  indie.  *  Studemund  {quoted  by 

Groth),  for  ab  absidendo. 

'  By  origin,  the  '  foremost '  in  the  fight,  the  men  of  the  first 
line,  later  shifted  in  position.  "  By  origin,  '  that  which 
sits  or  remains  close  by,  under  the  outer  edge  of  some- 
thing ' ;  Varro's  etymology  is  correct,  except  for  his  inter- 
pretation of  the  verb.  ■*  Frivolaria,  frag.  V  Ritschl. 
§91.     "Etymology    uncertain,   but  not   as   in   the  text 



lin-men  '  as  being  those  who  fought  with  pila  '  jave- 
lins,' the  principes  ^  '  first-men  '  as  those  who  from  the 
principium  '  beginning  '  fought  >vith  swords  ;  these 
words  were  less  perspicuous  later,  when  tactics  had 
been  changed.  The  pilani  are  called  also  iriarii 
'  third-line-men,'  because  in  the  battle  arrangement 
they  were  set  in  the  rear,  in  the  third  Une,  as  reserves ; 
because  these  men  habitually  suhsidebant  '  sat  '  while 
waiting,  from  this  fact  the  submlium  "^ '  reserve  force  ' 
got  its  name,  whence  Plautus  says  **  : 

Come  now,  all  of  you  sit  by  as  troopers  in  reserve 
are  wont. 

90.  Aujcilium  '  auxiliaries  '  was  so  called  from 
auctus  '  increase,'  when  those  foreigners  who  were 
intended  to  give  help  had  added  themselves  to  the 
fighters.  Praesidium  '  garrison  '  was  said  of  those 
who  praesidebant '  sat  in  front  '  outside  the  main  camp 
somewhere,  that  the  district  might  be  safer.  Obsi- 
dium  '  siege  '  was  said  from  obsidere  '  to  sit  in  the 
way,'  that  the  enemy  might  not  be  able  to  sally  forth. 
Insidiae  '  ambush  '  likewise  from  insidere  '  to  sit  in  a 
place,'  since  they  did  this  that  they  might  more  easily 
diminish  the  enemy's  forces.  Duplicarii  '  doublers  ' 
were  those  to  whom  by  order  dupUcia  '  double  '  rations 
were  given  on  account  of  their  notable  valour. 

91.  Turma  "  '  squadron  '  is  from  terima  (the  E  has 
changed  to  U),  because  they  were  composed  of  ter 
'  three  times  '  ten  horsemen,  from  the  three  tribes 
of  Titienses,  Ramnes,  and  Luceres.  Therefore  the 
leaders  of  the  individual  decuriae  '  groups  of  ten  * 
were  called  decurions,  who  from  this  fact  are  even 
now  three  in  each  squadron.  Those  whom  at  first  the 
decurions   themselves    adoptabant   '  chose '    as    their 



ipsi  sibi  adoptabant,  optiones  vocari  coepti,^  quos 
nunc  propter  ambitionem  tribuni  faciunt.  Tubicines 
a  tuba  et  canendo,  similiter  liticines.*  Classic?<s*  a 
classe,  qui  item  cornu  <aut  lit>uo*  canit,  ut  turn  cum 
classes  comitiis  ad  comit<i>atum*  vocant. 

XVII.  92.  Quae  a  fortuna  vocabula,  in  his  quae- 
dam  minus  aperta  ut  pauper,  dives,  miser,  beatus,  sic 
alia.  Pauper  a  paulo  lare.  Mendicus  a  minus,  cui 
cum  opus  est  minus  nullo  est.  Dives  a  divo  qui  ut 
deus  nihil^  indigere  videtur.  Opulentus  ab  ope,  cui 
eae  opimae  ;  ab  eadem  inops  qui  eius  indiget,  et  ab 
eodem  fonte  copis*  ac  copiosus.  Pecuniosus  a  pecunia 
magna,  pecunia  a  pecu  :  a  pastoribus  enim  horum 
vocabulorum  origo. 

XVIII.  93.  Artificibus  maxima  causa  ai's,  id  est, 
ab  arte  medicina  ut  sit  medicus  dictus,  a  sutrina  sutor, 
non  a  medendo  ac  suendo,  quae  omnino  ultima  huic 
rei  :  (hae  enim)^  earum  rerum  radices,  ut  in  proxumo 

§91.     ^  For    caepti.  ^  lihol.,   for    litigines.  ^  A. 

Sp.,  for  classicos.  *  A,  Sp.,  for  cornu  uo.  *  Ver- 

tranius,  for  comitatum. 

§  92.     ^  For  nichil.         ^  Turnebits,  for  copiis. 

§  93.     ^  Added  by  Reitzenstein. 

*  That  is,  from  lUnvs  '  cornet  '  and  canere. 

§  92.     "  Pau-per  has  the  same  first  element  as  pau-lus. 

*  Derivative  of  mendum  '  error,  defect.'  "^  Quite  possibly, 
since  the  gods  were  thought  of  as  conferring  wealth  ;  dives  is 
derived  from  divus  as  caeles  is  from  caelum.  ^  From  co- 
opis.  '  The  earliest  unit  of  value  was  a  domestic  animal ; 
cf.  English  fee  and  German  Vieh  '  cattle,'  both  cognate  to 
Latin  pecu. 

§  93.     "  Properly  medicina  from  medicus,  which  is  from 
mederi,  etc. 


assistants,  were  at  the  start  called  optiones  '  choices  '  ; 
but  now  the  tribunes,  to  increase  their  influence,  do 
the  appointing  of  them.  Tubicines  '  trumpeters,'  from 
tuba  '  trumpet  '  and  canere  '  to  sing  or  play  '  ;  in  like 
fashion  liticines^  '  cornetists.'  The  classicus  '  class- 
musician  '  is  named  from  the  classis  '  class  of  citi- 
zens '  ;  he  likewise  plays  on  the  horn  or  the  cornet, 
for  example  when  they  call  the  classes  to  gather  for 
an  assembly. 

X\TI.  92.  Among  the  words  which  have  to  do 
^vith  personal  fortune,  some  are  not  verj-  clear,  such  as 
pauper  '  poor,'  dives  '  rich,'  miser  '  wretched,'  beatus 
'  blest,'  and  others  as  well.  Pauper  "  is  from  paulus 
lar  '  scantily  equipped  home.'  Mendicus  ^  '  beggar  ' 
is  from  niinus  '  less,'  said  of  one  who,  when  there  is  a 
need,  has  minus  '  less  '  than  nothing.  Dives  '  rich  '  is 
from  divus  '^  '  godlike  person,'  who,  as  being  a  deus 
'  god,'  seems  to  lack  nothing.  Opulentus  '  wealthy  ' 
is  from  ops  '  property,'  said  of  one  who  has  it  in  abun- 
dance ;  from  the  same,  inops  '  destitute  '  is  said  of 
him  who  lacks  ops,  and  from  the  same  source  copis  ^* 
'  well  supphed  '  and  copiosus  '  abundantly  furnished.' 
Pecuniosus  '  moneyed  '  is  from  a  large  amount  of 
pecunia  '  money  '  ;  pecunia  is  from  pecu  '  flock  '  :  for 
it  was  among  keepers  of  flocks  that  these  words 

XVIIL  93.  For  artisans  the  chief  cause  of  the 
names  is  the  art  itself,  that  is,  that  from  the  ars  medi- 
cina  '  medical  art  '  the  medicus  '  physician  '  should  be 
named,  and  from  the  ars  sutrina  '  shoemaker's  art  ' 
the  sutor  '  shoemaker,'  and  not  directly  from  mederi 
'  to  cure  '  and  suere  '  to  sew,'  though  these  are  the 
absolutely  final  sources  for  such  names."  For  these 
are  the  roots  of  these  things,  as  will  be  shown  in  the 



libro  aperietur.  Quare  quod  ab  arte  artifex  dicitur 
nee  multa  in  eo  obscura,  relinquam. 

Q*.  Similis  causa  quae  ab  scientia  voca<n)tur^ 
aliqua  ut  praestigiator,  monitor,  nomenclator  ;  sic 
etiam  quae  a  studio"  quodam  dicuntur,  cursor,  natator, 
pugil.  Etiam  in  hoc  genere  quae  sunt  vocabula 
pleraque  aperta,  ut  legulus,  alter  ab  oleis,  alter  ab 
uvis.  Haec  si  minus  aperta  vindemiator,  vestigator 
et  venator,  tamen  idem,  quod  vindemiator  vel  quod 
vinum  \egit^  dicitur  vel  quod  de  viti  id  demunt  ; 
vestigator  a  vestigiis  ferarum  quas  indagatur  ;  vena- 
tor  a  vento,*  quod  sequitur  cert'um^  ad  ventum  et  in 

XIX.  95.  Haec  de  hominibus  :  hie  quod  sequitur 
de  pecore,  haec.  Pecus  ab  eo  quod  perpascebant,  a 
quo  pecora  universa.  Quod  in  pecore  pecunia  tum 
pastoribus  consistebat  et  standi  fundamentum  pes 
(a  quo  dicitur  in  aedificiis  area  pes  magnus  et  qui 
negotium  instituit  pedem  posuisse),  a  pede  pecudem 
appellarunt,  ut  ab  eodem  pedicam  et  pedisequum  et 
pecul(i>flriae*  oves  aliudve  quid  :  id  enim  peculium 
primum.     Hinc     peculatum     publicum     primo     (di- 

§94.  ^  B,  M,  Aug.,  for  uocatur.  "Sciop.,for  spatio. 
*  L.  Sp.,  for  legere.  *  Aug.  {quoting  a  friend),  for 
uentu.  ^  Scaliger,  for  uerbum.  ^  Aug,  {quoting  a 
friend),  for  aduentum  et  inuentum. 

§  95.     ^  Lachmann,  for  peculatoriae. 

^  This  promise  seems  not  to  be  kept. 

§  94.  "  For  this  meaning,  c/.  Festus,  138  b  29  and  139. 
8  M.         *"  Cf.  V.  37,  where  vindemia  is  discussed. 

§  95.  "  Pecus  is  an  inherited  word  which  cannot  be 
further  analysed ;  to  it  belong  all  the  words  here  given,  which 
begin  with  pec-.  It  has  no  connexion  with  pes  '  foot.'  ''  To 
pes  '  foot '  belong  all  the  words  here  given  which  begin  with  ped-. 



next  book.^  Therefore,  because  an  artisan  is  called 
from  his  art  and  not  many  names  in  this  class  are 
obscure,  I  shall  leave  them  and  go  on. 

9i-  There  is  a  like  origin  for  those  names  which 
are  given  from  some  special  skill,  such  as  praestigiator 
'  juggler,'  monitor  '  prompter,'"  nomenclator  '  namer  ' ; 
so  also  those  which  are  derived  from  a  special  interest, 
such  as  cursor  '  runner,'  natator  '  swimmer,'  ptigil 
'  boxer.'  The  words  which  are  in  this  class  too,  are 
generally  ob\ious,  like  leguliis  '  picker,'  one  of  olives 
and  the  other  of  grapes.  If  these  are  less  obvious  in 
the  cases  of  vindemiator,  vestigatar,  and  venator,  still  the 
same  principle  holds,  that  vindemiator  '  vintager  '  is 
said  either  because  he  gathers  the  vinum  '  wine  '  or 
because  they  demunt '  take  '  this  from  the  vitis  '  grape- 
\'ine  '  *  ;  vestigator '  tracker,'  from  the  vestigia  '  tracks  ' 
of  the  beasts  which  he  trails  ;  venator  '  hunter  '  from 
venttis  '  wind,'  because  he  follows  the  stag  towards  the 
wind  and  into  the  wind. 

XIX.  95.  So  much  about  men  :  what  comes  next 
here  is  about  cattle,  as  follows.  Pecus  "  '  cattle,'  from 
the  fact  that  they  perpascebant '  grazed,'  whence  as  a 
whole  they  were  called  pecora  '  flocks  and  herds.' 
Because  the  herdsmen's  pecunia  '  wealth  '  then  lay  in 
their  pecus  '  flocks  '  and  the  base  for  standing  is  a  pes 
'  foot  '  (from  which  in  buildings  the  ground  is  called  a 
great  pe*  *  '  foot '  and  a  man  who  has  founded  a  business 
is  said  to  have  established  his  pes  '  footing  '),  from  pes 
'  foot  '  they  gave  the  name  pecus,  pecudis  '  one  head  of 
cattle,'  just  as  from  the  same  they  said pedica  '  fetter  ' 
and  pedisequus  '  footman  '  and  peculiariae  '  privately 
owned  '  sheep  or  anything  else  :  for  this  was  the  first 
private  property.  Hence  they  called  it  a  peculaius 
'  peculation  '  from  the  state  in  the  beginning,  when 



xer>u<(n>t2  cum  pecore  diceretur  multa  et  id  esse<t>' 
coactum  in  publicum,  si  erat  aversum. 

96.  Ex  quo^  fructus  maior,  hic^  est  qui  Graecis 
usus  :  <sus),  quod  h,  bos,  quod  /iJovs,  taurus,  quod 
(ravpos),  item  ovis,  quod  ois  :  ita  enim  antiqui 
dicebant,  non  ut  nunc  TrpofSarov.  Possunt  in  Latio 
quoque  ut  in  Graeeia  ab  suis  vocibus  haec  eadem  ficta. 
Armenta,  quod  boves  ideo  maxime  parabant,  ut  inde 
eligerent  ad  arandum  ;  inde  arimenta  dicta,  postea 
I  tertia  littera  extrita.  Vitulus,  quod  Graece  anti- 
quitus  tVaAos',  aut  quod  plerique  vegeti,  vegitulus.^ 
luvencus,  iuvare  qui  iam  ad  agrum  colendum  posset. 

97.  Capra  carpa,  a  quo  scriptum 

Omnicarpae  caprae. 

//ircus,^  quod  Safeini  fircus  ;  quod  illic  fedus,^  in  Latio 
rure  hedus,  qui  in  urbe  ut  in  multis  A  addito  ^aedus.^ 
Porcus,  quod  Sa6ini  dicunt*  aprunM(m>  porc?/<m>^ ; 
proi(n>de*  porcus,  nisi  si  a  Graecis,  quod  Athenis  in 
libris  sacrorum  scripta  est  TvopKi]  e<t)  7rd/3K-o(s).' 

^  Fay, /or  ut.         *  Aug.,  for  esse. 

§  96.  ^  Mue.,  for  qua.  ^  Mue.,  for  hinc.  '  Laetus, 
for  uigitulus. 

§  97.     ^  Aug.,  for  ircus.  ^  For  faedus.  ^  Aug.,  for 

aedus.  *  Laetus,  for  dicto.  ^  Kent  ;  aprinum  porcum 

L.  Sp. ;  aprum  porcum  Scaliger ;  for  apruno  porco. 
*  Turnebus,  for  poride.         '  Kent,  for  porcae  porco. 

§  96.  "  Correct  equations  ;  but  the  Latin  words  are  not 
derived  from  the  Greek  :  the  four  pairs  are  from  the  ancestral 
language,  and  only  sus  is  likely  to  be  onomatopoeic. 
*"  The  Greek  word  is  not  the  source  of  the  Latin  word,  but 
is  borrowed  from  it ;  there  is  no  satisfactory  etymology  of 
vitulus.  '  Really  '  youthful,'  a  derivative  of  iuvenis 
'  young  man,'  and  not  from  iuvare. 

§97.     "Wrong.         ''An   old   inherited   word.         '  Iden- 



a  fine  was  imposed  in  pecns  '  cattle  '  and  there  was  a 
collection  into  the  state  treasury,  of  what  had  been 

96.  Regarding  cattle  from  which  there  is  larger 
profit,  there  is  the  same  use  of  names  here  as  among 
the  Greeks  :  sus  '  swine,'  the  same  as  vs  ;  bos  '  cow,' 
the  same  as  ftov^  ;  taurus  '  bull,'  the  same  as  ravpo^  ; 
likewise  avis  '  sheep,'  the  same  as  ots  "  :  for  thus  the 
ancients  used  to  say,  not  irpo/Sarov  as  they  do  now. 
This  identity  of  the  names  in  Latium  and  in  Greece 
may  be  the  result  of  invention  after  the  natural  utter- 
ances of  the  animals.  Armenia  '  plough-oxen,'  because 
they  raised  oxen  especially  that  they  might  select 
some  of  them  for  arandum  '  ploughing  '  ;  thence  they 
were  called  arimenta,  from  which  the  third  letter  I  was 
afterwards  squeezed  out.  Vitulus  '  calf,'  because  in 
Greek  it  was  anciently  IraXos  ^  ;  or  from  vegitulus,  a 
name  given  because  most  calves  are  vegeti  '  frisky.'  A 
iuvencus  '^  '  bullock  '  was  one  which  could  now  iuvare 
'  help  '  in  tilUng  the  fields. 

97.  Capra  '  she-goat  '  was  originally  carpa  '  crop- 
per,' "  from  which  is  written 

All-cropping  she-goats. 

Ilircus  '  buck,'  which  the  Sabines  caWJircus  ;  and  what 
there  is  fedtis,  in  Latium  is  kedus  '  kid  '  in  the  country, 
and  in  the  City  it  is  haedus,  with  an  added  A,  as  is  the 
case  with  many  words.  Porous  ^  '  pig,'  because  the 
Sabines  say  aprunus  "^  porcus  '  boar  pig  '  ;  therefore 
porous  '  pig,'  unless  it  comes  from  the  Greeks,  because 
at  Athens  in  the  Books  of  the  Sacrifices  TropKq  '  female 
pig  '  is  written,  and  Trop/cos  '  male  pig.' 

tical  with  the  Plautine  aprugnus,  from  *apro-gnos  '  born  of 
the  boar.' 



98.  Aries,  (uty  quic?am*  dicebant,  <ab>'  an's* ; 
veteres  nostri  ariuga,  hinc  ariugMS.*  Haec  sunt 
quorum*  in  sacruficiis  exta  in  olla,'  non  in  veru  co- 
quuntur,  quas  et  Accius  scribit  et  in  pontificiis  libris 
videmus.  In  hosti(i>s  earn  dicunt  ariugam*  quae 
cornua  habeat  ;  quoniam  si*  cui  ovi  mari  testiculi 
dempti  et  ideo  vi*"  natura  versa,  verbex  declinatum. 

99-  Pecori  ovillo  quod  agnatus,  agnus.  Catulus  a 
sagaei  sensu  et  acuto,  (ut  Cato)^  Catulus  ;  hinc  canis  : 
nisi  quod  ut  tuba  ac  eornu,  a<li)quod^  signum  cum 
dent,'  canere  dicuntur,  quod  hie  item  et  noctulucus  in 
custodia  et  in  venando  signum  voce  dat,  canis  dictus. 

XX.  100.  Ferarum  vocabula  item  partim  pere- 
grina,  ut  panthera,  leo  :  utraque  Graeca,  a  quo  etiam 
et  rete  quoddam  panther  et  leaena  et  muliercula 
Pantheris  et  Leaena.     Tigris  qui  est  ut  leo  varius,  qui 

§98.     ^  Added     by     Kent.  'GS.,     for     qui     earn. 

^  Added    by    Kent.         *  Kent ;      areis     Fay;      for    ares. 

*  Kent,  for  ariugas.        *  Aug.,  for  quorum.         '  For  olio. 

*  Kent ;  arvigam  Mue.  ;  for  ariugem.  '  Lindemann, 
for  is.         ^"  Sciop.,  for  ut. 

§99.     ^  Added    by    G'S.  ^  3hie.,   for    cornua    quod. 

*  Victories,  for  dente. 

§98.     "An   old   word.  ""An  obscure  word,  found   in 

various  forms :  harviga  (Festus),  hariga  (Donatus  in  Phorm.), 
apixoi  (Hesychius).  Varro  takes  ariuga  as  a  derivative  of 
ara+iug-  ;  but  it  may  perhaps  better  be  taken  as  hariuga, 
from  hara  '  sty  '  (formation  like  agri-cola  and  nocti-luca), 
losing  tiie  h  by  association  with  aries.  Others  suggest  con- 
nexion with  haru-  as  in  harnspex,  which  would  give  a  form 
harviga.  At  any  rate,  ariuga  is  feminine  because  of  an 
implied  hostia,  and  the  agreements  are  feminine  in  the  next 
two  sentences  ;  ariugus  is  merely  a  masculine  form  invented 
fo  correspond  to  the  masculine  aries.  '  Rom.  Trag. 
Frag.,  page  227  Ribbeck.^  <'  Frag.  82  Rowoldt.  «  Also 
spelled  vervex  and  berbex ;   not  connected  with  versa. 

94   . 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  98-100 

98.  Aries  °  '  ram,'  as  some  used  to  say,  from  arae 
altars  '  ;  our  ancients  said  ariuga  ^  '  altar-mate,'  and 
from  this  formed  a  masculine  ariugus.  These  are 
those  whose  vital  organs  are  in  the  sacrifices  boiled  in 
a  pot  and  not  roasted  on  a  spit,  of  which  Accius  writes  " 
and  which  we  see  in  the  Pontifical  Books.^  Among 
sacrificial  \ictims,  that  victim  which  by  the  specifica- 
tions is  to  have  horns,  they  call  an  ariuga  ;  but  if  the 
testicles  are  removed  from  a  male  sheep  and  its  nature 
is  thereby  forcibly  versa  '  altered,'  the  name  verhex^ 
'  wether  '  is  derived  as  its  designation. 

99-  An  agnus  '  lamb  '  is  so  named  because  it  is 
agnatus  '  born  as  an  addition  '  "  to  the  flock  of  sheep. 
A  catuliis  '  puppy  '  is  named  from  its  quick  and  keen 
scent,  like  the  names  Cato  and  Catulus  ^  ;  and  from 
this,  canis  '^  '  dog  '  :  unless,  just  as  the  trumpet  and 
the  horn  are  said  to  canere  '  sing  '  when  they  give 
some  signal,  so  the  canis  is  named  because  it  likewise, 
both  when  guarding  the  house  day  or  night,  and  when 
engaged  in  hunting,  gives  the  signal  with  its  voice. 

XX.  100.  The  names  of  wild  beasts  are  likewise 
some  of  them  foreign,  such  as  panthera  "  '  panther,'  leo  ** 
'  lion  '  :  both  Greek,  whence  also  certain  nets  called 
panther  and  lioness,  and  there  are  courtesans  named 
Pantheris  and  Leaena.  The  tigris  '  tiger,'  which  is  as 
it  were  a  striped  lion,  which  as  yet  they  have  not  been 

§  99.  "  Wrong.  *  It  is  very  doubtful  if  catulus  '  puppy  ' 
is  a  diminutive  of  catus  '  sharp,  shrewd,'  as  is  implied  by 
Varro  ;  but  Cato  and  Catulus  as  proper  names  go  with  catus. 
'  Wrong. 

§  100.  "  Ultimately  of  Indian  origin,  transformed  into  a 
seemingly  Greek  word  (the  '  all-beast  ')  by  the  Greeks,  and 
thence  given  to  the   Romans.  ''Leo  and   leaena,  from 

Greek,  but  borrowed  by  the  Greeks  from  some  unknown 



vivus  capi  adhuc  non  potuit,  vocabulum  e  lingua 
Armenia  :  nam  ibi  et  sagitta  et  quod  vehementis- 
simum  flumen  dicitur  Tigris.  Ursi  Lucana  origo  vel, 
unde  illi,  nostri  ab  ipsius  voce.  Camelus  suo  nomine 
Syriaco  in  Latium  venit,  ut  Alexandrea  camelo- 
pardalis  nuper  adducta,  quod  erat  figura  ut  camelus, 
maculis  ut  panthera. 

101 .  Apri  ab  eo  quod  in  locis  asperis,  nisi  a  Graecis 
quod  hi  <K)a7r/Doi.^  Caprea  a  similitudine  quadam 
caprae.  Cervi,  quod  magna  cornua  gerunt,  gerxi,^ 
G  in  C  mutavit  ut  in  multis.  Lepus,  quod  Sicu<li,  ut 
Aeo>lis'  quidam  Graeci,  dicunt  XeTropw  :  a  Roma 
quod  orti  Siculi,  ut  annales  veteres  nostri  dicunt, 
fortasse  hinc  illuc  tulerunt  et  hie  reliquerunt  id 
nomen.  Volpes,  ut  Aelius  dicebat,  quod  volat 

XXI.  102.  Proxima  animalia  sunt  ea  quae  vivere 
dicuntur  neque  habere  animam,  ut  virgulta.  Vir- 
gultum  dicitur  a  viridi,  id  a  vi  quadam  humoris  ;  quae 
si  exaruit,  moritur.  Vitis,  quod  ea  vini  origo.  Malum, 
quod  Graeci  ^eolis  dicunt  jxakov.  Pinus,  .  .  . 
luglans,    quod   cum   haec   nux   antequam   purgatur 

§  101.  ^  Bentinus,  for  aproe.  ^  M,  Laetus,  for  corui. 
*  GS.,for  siculis,  c/.  Varro,  De  Re  Rust.  iii.  12.  6. 

"  Not  from  Armenian,  but  from  Persian,  through  Greek. 
Varro  forgot  that  a  tiger  was  presented  to  the  city  of  Athens 
by  Seleucus  Nicator  (c.  358-280  b.c);  see  Athenaeus,  xiii. 
6.  57  =590  a,  ■*  An  old  inherited  word.  *  Correct;  of 
Semitic  origin.  f  Through  the  Greek  ;  the  second  part 
is  pardalis,  from  an  Indian  word  which  also  denoted  the 

§  101.  "  Wrong  :  the  Greek  word  corresponds  to  Latin 
caper.         ^  Wrong.  "  Page  69  Funaioli.         ''  Wrong. 

§  102.  "  All  etymologies  in  this  paragraph  are  wrong, 
except  those  of  malum  and  iuglans. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  100-102 

able  to  take  alive,  has  its  name  from  the  Armenian 
language,*^  for  in  Armenia  both  an  arrow  and  a  very 
s^vift  river  are  named  Tigris.  The  name  of  the  ursiis'^ 
'  bear  '  is  of  Lucanian  origin,  or  our  ancestors  called  it 
from  its  voice,  and  so  did  the  Lucanians.  The  camelus 
'  camel  '  has  come  to  Latium  bringing  its  own  Syrian 
name  with  it,*  and  so  has  the  camelopardalis  ^  '  giraffe  ' 
which  was  recently  brought  from  Alexandria,  so  called 
because  it  was  in  form  like  a  camel  and  in  spots  like  a 

101.  Apri'^  'boars,'  from  the  fact  that  they 
frequent  asperd  '  rough  '  places,  unless  from  the 
Greeks,  because  in  Greek  these  are  {K)dTrpoi.  Caprea 
'  roe-deer,'  from  a  certain  likeness  to  the  capra  '  she- 
goat.'  Cervi '  stags,'  because  they  gerunt '  carry  '  big 
horns,  and  so  they  are  gervi  ^  ;  the  Mord  has  changed 
G  to  C,  as  has  happened  in  many  words.  Lepus 
'  hare,'  because  the  Sicilians,  like  certain  Aeolian 
Greeks,  say  AcTro/Dts.  Inasmuch  as  the  Sicihans 
originated  from  Rome,  as  our  old  Annals  say,  perhaps 
they  carried  the  word  from  here  to  Sicily,  but  also 
left  it  here  behind  them.  Volpes  '  fox,'  as  Aelius  " 
used  to  sav,  because  it  volat  '  flies  '  mth  its  pedes 
'  feet.'  «^ 

XXI.  102."  The  next  living  beings  to  be  discussed 
are  those  which  are  said  to  live,  and  yet  do  not  breathe, 
such  as  bushes.  Virgultum  '  bush  '  is  said  from  viridis 
'  green,'  and  viridis  from  a  certain  vis  '  power  '  of 
moisture  :  if  this  moisture  has  thoroughly  dried  out, 
the  bush  dies.  Fitis  '  grape-vine,'  because  it  is  the 
source  of  vinum  '  wine.'  Malum  '  apple,'  because  the 
Aeolian  Greeks  call  it /ittAov.  The  pinus  '  pine,'  .  .  . 
The  iuglans  '  walnut,'  because  while  this  nut  is  hke  an 
acorn  before  it  is  cleansed  of  its  hull,  the  inner  nut, 

VOL.  I  H  97 


similis  glandis,  haec  glans  optima  et  maxima  a  love 
et  glande  iuglans  est  appellata.  Eadem  nux,  quod 
ut  nox  aerem  huius  sucus  corpus  facit  atrum. 

103.  Quae  in  Aortis  nascuntur,  alia  peregrinis 
vocabulis,  ut  Graecis  ocimum,  menta,  ruta  quam  nunc 
TTz/yaiov  appellant  ;  item  caulis,  lapat/aum,  radix  : 
sic  enim  antiqui  Graeci,  quam  nunc  pa<pavov^ ;  item 
haec  Graecis  vocabulis  :  serpyllum,  rosa,  una  littera 
commutata  ;  item  ex  his  Groecis  Latina  KoKiavSpov, 
/xaXaxT],^  KVfxivov  ;  item  lilium  ab  Xeipii^^  et  malua  ab 
fjiaka)(rj*  et  sis_ymbrium  a  aio-vfj-jipic^^ 

104.  Vernacula  :   lact<u>c<a)i  a  lacte,  quod  Aolus 

id  habet  lact  ;   brassica^  ut  p(r>aesica,'  quod  ex  eius 

scapo    minutatim    praesicatur  ;     asparagi,    quod    ex 

asperis  virgultis  leguntur  et  ipsi  scapi  asperi  sunt,  non 

leves  ;     nisi    Graecum  :     illic    quoque    enim    dicitur 

acTTra/sayos.*     Cucumeres  dicuntur  a  curvore,  ut  curvi- 

meres  dicti.     Fructus  a  ferundo,  res  eae  quas*  fundus 

et   eae   <quas>   quae*  in  fundo  ferunt   ut  fruamur. 

§  103.  ^  For  raphanum.  ^  For  malachen,  *  For 
lirio.         *  For  malache.         *  A.  Sp.,  for  sysimbrio. 

§  104.     ^  M,  Laettts,  for  lacte.         "  Laetus,  for  blassica. 

*  Tumebus  ;  praeseca  A  Idas  ;  for  passica.         *  For  aspara- 
gus.        *  A.    Sp.,  for   ea   equas.         *  Mve.,  for  ea   eque. 

*  Optima  et  maxima  suggests  Jupiter  Opthnus    Maximns. 
'  The  juice  of  the  walnut-hull  does  make  a  very  dark  stain. 

§  103.  "All  the  examples  in  this  section  have  come  into 
Latin  from  Greek,  except  radix,  rosa,  malva.  Radix  is 
native  Latin,  and  its  Greek  equivalent  had  a  different  mean- 
ing. Rosa  and  malva,  and  their  Greek  equivalents,  were 
separately  derived  from  an  earlier  language  native  in  the 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  102-104 

being  best  and  biggest,*  is  called  iu-glans  from  /«-piter 
and  glans  '  acorn.'  The  same  word  ?iux  '  nut  '  is  so 
called  because  its  juice  makes  a  person's  skin  black," 
just  as  nox  '  night  '  makes  the  air  black. 

103."  Of  those  which  are  grown  in  gardens,  some 
are  called  by  foreign  names,  as,  by  Greek  names, 
ocimum  '  basil,'  menta  '  mint,'  ruta  '  rue,'  which  they 
now  call  77/)yai'oi' ;  hkewise  caulis  '  cabbage,'  lapathium 
'  sorrel,'  radix  '  radish  ' :  for  thus  the  ancient  Greeks 
called  what  they  now  call  f)d<fiavo<5 ;  like^\ise  these 
from  Greek  names  :  serpyllum  ^  '  thyme,'  rosa  '  rose,' 
each  with  one  letter  changed  ;  hkewise  Latin  names 
from  these  Greek  names  :  KoXiarBpov  "  '  coriander,' 
fjLaXdxrj,  KVfJiivoi' '  cummin  '  ;  likewise  lilium  '  lily  '  from 
Xeipioi'  and  malva  '  mallow  '  from  /xaAa;^»;  and  sisym- 
brium '  thvme  '  from  a-LO-vii/Spiov. 

104."  Native  words  :  lactiica  '  lettuce  '  from  lact 
'  milk,'  because  this  herb  contains  milk  ;  hrassica 
'  cabbage  '  as  though  praesica,  because  from  its  stalk 
praesicatur  '  leaves  are  cut  off '  one  by  one  ;  asparagi 
'  asparagus  shoots,'  because  they  are  gathered  from 
aspera  '  rough  '  bushes  and  the  stems  themselves  are 
rough,  not  smooth  :  unless  it  is  a  Greek  name,  for  in 
Greece  also  they  say  ao-Trapayos.  Cucumeres  '  cucum- 
bers '  are  named  from  their  curvor  '  curvature,'  as 
though  curvimeres.  Fructus  '  fruits  '  are  named  from 
ferre  ^  '  to  bear,'  namely  those  things  which  the  farm 
and  those  things  which  are  on  the  farm  bear,  that 

Mediterranean  region.  *  With    initial  s  rather  than   h, 

by  assimilation  to  Latin  serpere,  '  Usually  KoplavSpov, 
but  here  with  dissimilative  change  of  the  prior  r  to  I. 

§  104.  "  Correct  on  lactuca,  fructus,  mola  ;  wrong  on 
brassica,  cucumeres,  uva  ;  asparagus  Is  from  Greek.  *  C/. 

V.  37,  and  note  e. 



Hinc  declinatae  fruges  et  frumentuni,  sed  ea  e  terra  ; 
etiam  frumentum,  quod  <ad>^  exta  ollicoqua*  solet 
addi  ex  mola,  id  est  ex  sale  et  farre  molito.  Uvae 
ab  uvore. 

XXII.  105.  Quae  manu  facta  sunt  dicam,  de 
victu,  de  vestitu,  de  instrumento,  et  si  quid  aliud 
videbitur  his  aptum.  De  victu  antiquissima  puis  ; 
haec  appellata  vel  quod  ita  Graeci  vel  ab  eo  unde 
scribit  ApoUodorus,  quod  ita  sonet  cum  aqua<e>^ 
ferventi  insipitur.  Panis,  quod  primo  figura  facie- 
bant,  ut  mulieres  in  lanificio,  panus  ;  posteaquam  ei 
figuras  facere  instituerunt  alias,  a  pane  et  faciendo 
panificium  c(o>eptum  dici.  Hinc  panarium,  ubi  id 
servabant,  sicut  granarium,  ubi  granum  frumenti 
condebant,  unde  id  dictum  :  nisi  ab  eo  quod  Graeci 
id  Kpdi'oi','^  a  quo  a  Graecis  quoque  gran<ari>um^ 
dictum  in  quo  ea  quae  conduntur. 

106.  Horc^eum^  ab  Aorrido.  Triticum,  quod  tri- 
tum  e  spicis.     Far  a  faciendo,  quod  in  pistrino  fit. 

'  Added  by  Turnebus.         *  Turnebux,  for  ollico  quo, 

§  105.     ^  Turnebus,     for     aqua.         ^  Kent,    for     KpoKev. 

^  Kent,  for  granum. 
§  106.     '■  For  horreum. 

'  The  relation  of  this  to  frumentum  is  not  clear. 

§  105.  "  An  old  Latin  word,  which  probably  did  not  come 
from  Greek  ttoXtos.  **  Frag.  Hist.  Graec.  i.  462  Mueller. 
"  Panis  may  be  of  Messapian  origin  ;  Varro's  etymology  is 
certainly  wrong.  "*  The  thin,  flat  wafer-like  Oriental  bread, 
made   in   great   sheets.  *  Panus,  gen.    of  the   4th   decl. 

f  The  word  meant  originally  '  bread-making,'  but  came  to 
mean  bread  or  cake  of  any  kind  ;  note  that  in  formation 
panificium  is  modelled  on  lanificium.  '  Normally  '  bread- 
basket '  ;  but  the  context  indicates  the  meaning  '  bread- 
closet.'  *  Meaning  '  cornel  cherry  '  ;  it  may  have  denoted 
a  cereal  seed  as  well  as  the  cherry  stone. 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  104^106 

we  may  enjoy  them.  From  this  are  derived  fruges 
'  field  products  '  and  frumentum  '  com/  but  these 
come  out  of  the  earth  :  even  frumentum,  because  " 
to  the  pot-boiled  vitals  it  is  customary  to  add  some 
of  the  jnola  '  grits,'  that  is,  salt  and  spelt  molitum 
'  ground  up  '  together.  Uvae  '  grapes,'  from  uvor 
'  moisture.' 

XXIL  105.  I  shall  now  speak  of  things  which  are 
made  by  human  hands  :  food,  clothing,  tools,  and  any- 
thing else  which  seems  to  be  associated  with  them.  Of 
foods  the  most  ancient  is  puis  "  '  porridge  '  ;  this  got 
its  name  either  because  the  Greeks  called  it  thus,  or 
from  the  fact  which  Apollodorus  ^  mentions,  that  it 
makes  a  sound  like  puis  when  it  is  throwTi  into  boiling 
water.  Pants  '^ '  bread,'  because  at  first  they  made  it** 
in  the  shape  of  a  panus  * '  cloth  '  such  as  women  make 
in  weaving  ;  after  they  began  to  make  it  in  other 
shapes,  they  started  saying  panijicium  ^  '  pastry,' 
from  panis  '  bread  '  and  facere  '  to  make.'  From  this, 
panarium  ^  '  bread-closet,'  where  they  kept  it,  like 
granarium  '  granary,'  where  they  stored  the  granum 
'  grain  '  of  the  corn,  from  which  granarium  was  derived 
— unless  it  came  from  the  fact  that  the  Greeks  called 
the  grain  Kpavoi'  ^  ;  and  in  this  case  it  was  from  the 
Greeks  also  that  the  place  in  which  are  kept  the 
grains  that  are  stored,  was  called  a  granarium. 

106."  Hordeum  '  barley,'  from  horridus  '  bristling.'* 
Triticum'  wheat,' because  it  was  ^nVw/w  '  threshed  out  ' 
from  the  ears.  Far  '  spelt,'  from  facere  '  to  make,' 
because  it  is  made  into  flour  in  the  mill.     Milium 

§  106.  "  Wrong  on  hordeum,  far ;  libare  is  derived  from 
libum,  instead  of  the  reverse  ;  the  other  etymologies  in  this 
section  are  correct.  *  That  is,  with  the  awns  that  form  the 

beard  of  the  ear. 



Milium  a  Graeco  :  nam  id  neXcvr],  Libum,  quod  ut 
libaretur,  priusquam  essetur,*  erat  coctum.  Testua- 
cium,  quod  in  testu  caldo  coquebatur,  ut  etiam  nunc 
Matralibus  id  faciunt  matronae.  Circuli,  quod  mixta 
farina  et  caseo  et  aqua  circuitum  aequabiliter  funde- 

107.  Ho*^  quidam  qui  magis  incondite  faciebant 
vocabant  lixulas  et  similixulas  vocabulo  Safeino  :  quae* 
frequentia  Sabinis.  A  globo  farinae  dilatato,  item  in 
oleo  cocti,  dicti  a  globo  globi.  Crustulum  a  crusta 
pultis,  cuius  ea,  quod  ut  corium  et  uritur,  crusta  dicta. 
Cetera  fere  flper<t)a'  a  vocabulis  Graecis  sumpta,  ut 
thrion  et  placenta. 

108.  Quod  edebant  cum  pulte,  ab  eo  pulmentum, 
ut  Plautus  ;  hinc  pulmentarium  dictum  :  hoc  primum 
de/uit^  pastoribus.  Caseus  a  coacto  lacte  ut  co(a>- 
xeus*  dictus.  Dein  posteaquam  desierunt  esse  con- 
tenti  his  quae  suapte  natura  ferebat  sine  igne,  in  quo 
erant  poma,  quae  minus  cruda  esse  poterant  decoque- 

*  Tnrnebus,  for  esset  ut. 

§  107.  1  L.  Sp.  and  Mommsen,  for  hoc.  *  Kent,  for 
itaque.         '  Groth,  for  opera. 

§  108.     ^  A.  Sp.,for  debuit.        *  Aug.,  with  B,for  coxeus. 

•^  A  festival  to  the  Mater  Matuta,  celebrated  on  June  1 1 ; 
not  to  be  confused  with  the  Matronalia,  celebrated  by  the 
matrons  on  March  1,  in  honour  of  Mars. 

§  107.  °  Diminutive  to  fem.  lixa  '  boiled,'  cf.  e-lixus. 
*  For  simila-lixulae  with  haplology  (so  Pay,  Am.  Journ. 
Phil.  XXXV.  157);  simila  is  a  fine  wheat  flour.  "^The  crust 
which  forms  on  the  inside  of  the  pot  in  which  porridge 
is  regularly  cooked,  unless  the  pot  is  carefully  scraped. 
"*  An   absurd  etymology.  *  Cireek  0piov  '  fig-leaf  '  ;   also 

a  mixture  of  eggs,  milk,  lard,  flour,  honey,  and  cheese,  so 
called  because  it  was  wrapped  in  fig-leaves.  '  Greek 
irXaKovs,  a  flat  cake. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  106-108 

'  millet,'  from  the  Greek  :  for  it  is  aeklvrj.  Libum 
'  cake,'  because,  after  it  was  baked,  libabatur '  there  was 
an  offering  of  some  '  of  it  to  the  gods  before  it  was 
eaten.  Testuacium  '  pot-cake,'  because  it  was  baked 
in  a  heated  earthen  testu  '  pot,'  as  even  now  the 
matrons  do  this  at  the  Matralia.*^  Circuit  '  rings,' 
because  they  poured  into  the  pan  a  regular  circuitus 
'  circuit '  of  a  batter  made  of  flour,  cheese,  and  water. 

107.  Certain  persons  who  used  to  make  these 
rather  carelessly  called  them  lixulae  "  '  softies  '  and 
similixulae  *  '  wheat-softies,'  by  the  Sabine  name,  such 
was  their  general  use  among  the  Sabines.  Those  that 
consist  of  a  leavened  globus  '  ball  '  of  dough  and  are 
cooked  in  oil,  are  from  globus  called  globi  '  globes.' 
Crustulum  '  cookie,'  from  the  crusta  '  crust  '  of  the 
porridge,"  whose  crusta  is  so  named  because  it  is,  as  it 
were,  a  corium  '  hide  '  and  it  uriiur  '  is  burnt.'  **  The 
other  confections  are  in  general  of  obvious  origin, 
being  taken  from  Greek  words,  Uke  thrion  *  '  omelette  ' 
and  placenta  '  sand-tart.'  ^ 

108.  That  which  they  ate  with  their  puis 
'  porridge,'  was  from  that  fact  called  pulmentum " 
'  side-dish,'  as  Plautus  says  *  ;  from  this  was  said 
pulmentarium  '  relish  '  :  this  the  shepherds  lacked  in 
the  early  times.  Caseus  '^  '  cheese  '  was  named  from 
coactum  '  coagulated  '  milk,  as  though  coaxeus.  Then 
after  they  ceased  to  be  satisfied  with  those  foods 
which  nature  supplied  of  her  own  accord  \\ithout 
the  use  of  fire,  among  which  were  apples  and  like 
fruits,  they  boiled  down  in  a  pot  those  which  could 

§  108.  "  Rather  from  pulpa  '  flesh,  meat.'  *  Aulularia, 
316;  J/<7f «'.//.,  349;    Pseudolus,220;    etc.  '  A  country 

word  with  no  close  etymological  connexions. 



bant  in  olla.  Ab  olla  Solera  dicta,  quo<d  ea>rum 
<m)acerare*  cruda  Solera.  E  quis  ad  coquendum 
quod  e  terra  eru<itu>r,*  ruapa,  unde  rapa.  Olea  ab 
kkaia^  ;  olea  grandis  orchitis,  quod  earn  Attici'  opxi-v 

109.  Hinc  ad  pecudis  carnem  perventum  est. 
<Ut  ab  sue>i  suilla,  sic  ab  {a.)lt\?,^  generibus  cog- 
nominata.  Hanc^  primo  assam,  secundo  elixam, 
tertio  e  iure  uti  c(o>episse  natura  docet.  Dictum 
assum,  quod  id  ab  igni  assud<escit,  id  est  uv>escit*  : 
uvidum  enim  quod  humidum,  et  idee  ubi  id  non  est, 
sucus  abest  ;  et  ideo  sudandum  assum  destillat 
calore,*  et  ut  crudum  nimium  habet  humoris,  sic 
excoctum  parum  habet  suci.  Ehxum  e  liquore  aquae 
dictum  ;  et  ex  iure,*  quod  iucundum  magis  con- 

110.  Succidia  ab  suibus  caedendis  :  nam  id  pecus 
primum  occidere  coeperunt^  domini  et  ut  servarent 
sallere.*     Tegus  suis  ab  eo  quod  eo  tegitur.     Perna 

8  A.  Sp.,  for  quorum  agerere.  *  GS.  ;  e  terra  erueretur 
Turnebus  ;  for  eterrae  rure.  ^  Kent,  for  elea.  ^  L.  Sp., 
for  attico.         '  Canal,  for  orchen  mora. 

§  109.  ^  Added  by  A.  Sp.  ;  ut  added  by  Mne.,  with  B. 
2  Mue.,  for  ilis.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  hinc.  *  GS.,  for 
assudescit.  *  Aug.,  with  B,  for  calorem.  *  G,  Laetus, 
for  iuro. 

§110.  ^  For  caeperunt.  ^  c,  Mue.,  for  sallire  ;  cf. 
Diomedes,  i.  375.  21  Keil. 

•*  Wrong  on  holera  and  rapa,  but  right  about  olives. 

§  109.  "  For  arsum,  participle  of  ardere  '  to  be  on  fire.' 
""  Participle  of  a  compound  of  the  root  seen  in  liquor  ;  but  ius 
'  juice  '  has  nothing  to  do  with  iucundum. 

§  1 10.     "  Correct.  *  Properly  tergus,  and  without  con- 

nexion with  tegere  ;  but  in  the  form  tergoribus  it  seems  to 
have  lost  the  first  r  by  dissimilation  :   tegoribus  is  metrically 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  108-110 

be  made  less  raw.  From  olla  '  pot  '  the  holera  ** 
'  vegetables  '  were  named,  because  it  is  the  task 
of  oUae  '  pots  '  to  soften  the  raw  holera  '  vege- 
tables.' One  of  these,  because  it  entitur  '  is  dug  out  ' 
of  the  earth  for  cooking,  was  called  niapa,  from  which 
comes  rapa  '  turnip.'  Olea  '  olive  berry,'  from  eXaia  ; 
the  orchitis  is  a  large  kind  of  ohve,  so  called  because 
the  Athenians  call  it  o^x*^  /xopia  '  the  sacred  olive- 

109.  From  here  we  go  on  to  domestic  animals  as 
meat  for  the  table.  As  suilla  '  pork  '  is  said  from  *m* 
'  swine,'  so  other  meats  are  named  from  the  other 
kinds  of  animals.  The  nature  of  things  shows  us 
that  men  began  to  use  this  first  roasted,  second  boiled, 
third  cooked  in  its  own  juice.  Assvm  "  '  roasted  '  is  said 
because  as  a  result  of  the  fire  it  assudesdt  '  begins  to 
sweat,'  that  is  uvescit  '  becomes  moist ' :  for  uvidum  is 
the  same  as  humidum  '  moist,'  and  therefore  where  this 
moisture  is  not  present,  there  is  a  lack  of  juice  ;  and 
therefore  the  roast  that  is  to  sweat  drips  on  account  of 
the  heat,  and  just  as  the  raw  meat  has  an  excess  of 
moisture,  so  the  thoroughly  cooked  meat  has  very 
little  juice.  Elixum  ^  '  boiled  '  is  said  from  the  liquor 
'  fluid  '  of  the  water  ;  and  ex  iure  '  cooked  in  its  omti 
juice  '  is  said  because  this  is  more  iucundum  '  tasty  ' 
than  seasoning. 

110.  Succidia'^  'leg  of  pork'  is  said  from  sues 
caedendae  '  the  cutting  up  of  the  s\nne  '  ;  for  this  was 
the  first  domestic  animal  that  the  owners  began  to 
slaughter  and  to  salt  in  order  to  keep  the  meat  un- 
spoiled. Tegus  *  '  piece  of  the  back  '  of  s>\ine,  from 
this,  that  by  this  piece  the  animal  tegitur  '  is  covered.' 

assured  in  Plautus,  Captiri,  902,  and  is  found  also  in  Captivi 
'Mo,  Pseudolus  198. 



a  pede.  Sueris  a  nomine  eius.  OfFula  ab  ofFa, 
minima  suere.  Insicia  ab  eo  quod  insecta  caro,  ut  in 
Carmine  Saliorum  (prosicium)'  est,  quod  in  extis 
dicitur  nunc  prosectum.  Murtatum  a  murta,  quod 
ea*  ad(ditur>*  large  fartis. 

111.  Quod  fartum  intestinum  <e>^  crassundiis, 
Lucan<ic>am2  dicunt,  quod  milites  a  Lucanis  didi- 
cerint,  ut  quod  Faleriis  Faliscum  ventrem  ;  fundolum 
a  fundo,  quod  <non>'  ut  reliquae  /actes,*  sed  ex  una 
parte  sola  apertum  ;  ab  hoc  Graecos  puto  tv4>^ov 
evrepov  appellasse.  Ab  eadem  fartura  farcimina 
(in)*  extis  appellata,  a  quo  <farticulum>*  :  in  eo  quod 
tenuissimum  intestinum  fartum,  hila  ab  hilo  dicta 
i(l>lo'  quod  ait  Ennius  : 

Neque  dispendi^  facit  hilum. 

Quod  in  hoc  farcimine  summo  quiddam  eminet,  ab  eo 
quod  ut  in  capite  apex,  apexabo  dicta.  Tertium 
fartum  est  longavo,  quod  longius  quam  duo  ilia. 

3  Added  by  GS.  ;   cf.  Festus,  225.  15  3/.         *  Laetus,  for  eo. 

*  A.  Sp.y/or  ad. 

§111.  ^  Added  by  Mue.  ^Laetus,  far  lucanam. 
3  Added  by  Aldus.  *  Fay,  for  partes.  ^  Added  by 
Aug.,  with  B.         «  Added  by  GS.         ''  Lachmann,  for  hilo. 

*  For  dispendii. 

"  Perna  has  no  connexion  with  pes ;  but  the  remaining 
etymologies  of  this  section  seem  to  be  correct.  ■*  The 
precise  meaning  of  this  word  is  unknown  ;  perhaps  '  pork- 
chop,'  cf.  W.  Heraeiis,  Archiv  f.  Lat.  Lex.  14.  124-125. 
«  Meaning  assured  by  offulam  cum  duobns  costis,  Varro, 
De  Re  Rnstica,  ii.  4."  11.  '  Page  .345  Maurenbrecher  ; 
page  3  Morel. 

§111.  «The  preceding  etymologies  in  this  section  are 
correct,  but  hila  is  properly  hilla,  diminutive  of  hira  '  empty 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  110-111 

Perna  "  '  ham,'  from  pes  '  foot.'  Sueris,^  from  the 
animal's  name.  Offula  '  rib-roast,'  '  from  offa,  a  very 
small  sueris.  Insicia  '  minced  meat  '  from  this,  that 
the  meat  is  insecta  '  cut  up,'  just  as  in  the  Song  of  the 
Salii  ^  the  word  prosiciuvi  '  slice  '  is  used,  for  which, 
in  the  offering  of  the  vitals,  the  word  prosectum  is 
now  used.  Murtatum  '  myrtle-pudding,'  from  murta 
'  myrtle-beny,'  because  this  berry  is  added  plentifully 
to  its  stuffings. 

111.  An  intestine  of  the  thick  sort  that  was  stuffed, 
they  call  a  Lucanica  '  Lucanian,'  because  the  soldiers 
got  acquainted  with  it  from  the  Lucanians,  just  as 
what  they  found  at  Falerii  they  call  a  Faliscan  haggis  ; 
and  they  say  fundolus  '  bag-sausage  '  from  fundus 
bottom,'  because  this  is  not  like  the  other  intestines, 
but  is  open  at  only  one  end  :  from  this,  I  think,  the 
Greeks  called  it  the  blind  intestine.  From  the  same 
fartura  '  stuffing  '  were  called  the  farcimina  '  stuffies  ' 
in  the  case  of  the  vital  organs  for  the  sacrifice,  whence 
also  farticultim  '  stufflet  '  ;  in  this  case,  because  it  is 
the  most  slender  intestine  that  is  stuffed,  it  is  called 
hila  "  from  that  hilum  '  whit  '  which  Ennius  ^  uses  : 

And  of  loss  not  a  whit  does  she  suffer. 

Because  at  the  top  of  this  stuffy  there  is  a  little  projec- 
tion, it  is  called  an  apexaho,'^  because  the  projection  is 
like  the  apex  '  pointed  cap  '  on  a  human  head.  The 
third  kind  of  sausage  is  the  longavo,'^  because  it  is 
longer  than  those  two  others. 

intestine  ' ;    cf.  Festus,  101.  6  M.  *  Annales,  14  \'ahlen^  ; 

R.O.L.  1.  6-7  Warmington ;  quoted  also  v.  60  and  ix.  54. 
'  Apexaho  and  longavo  doubtless  have  the  same  suffix,  differ- 
ing only  through  the  late  Latin  confusion  of  6  and  r;  unless 
indeed  both  words  are  further  corrupt. 



112.  Augmentum,  quod  ex  immolata  hostia  de- 
sectum  in  iecore  <imponitur)i  in  por<ric>iendo2 
a(u>gendi'  causa.  MagTwentum*  a  magis,  quod  ad 
religionem  magis  pertinet  :  itaque  propter  hoc 
<mag>mentar«a*  fana  constituta  locis  certis  quo  id 
imponeretur.  Mattea*  ab  eo  quod  ea  Graece  yuarrw/. 
Item  (a)'  Graecis  .  .  .  singillatim  haec*  :  .  .  .* 
ovum,  bulbum. 

XXIII.  113.  Lana  Graecum,  ut  Polt/bius  et  Calli- 
machus  scribunt.  Purpura  a  purpurae  maritumae 
colore,  wti  P(o)enicum,  quod  a  Poenis  primum  dicitur 
allata.  Stamen  a  stando,  quod  eo  stat  omne  in  tela 
velamentum.  Subtemen,  quod  subit  stamini.  Trama, 
quod  tram(e)at2  frigus  id  genus  vestimenti.  Densum 
a  dentibus  pectinis  quibus  feritur.  Filum,  quod 
minimum  est  hilum  :  id  enim  minimum  est  in  vesti- 

§  112.     ^  Added  by  A.  Sp.         ^  L.  Sp.,  for  im  poriendo. 

*  Turnebtis,  for  agendi.         *  B,  M,  Aug.,  for  magnentum. 

*  Turnebus,  for  mentarea.  *  Popma,  for  mattae. 
">  Added  by  L.  Sp.  *  For  heae.  *  The  lacuna  was  noted 
by  Scaliger  ;  the  exact  arrangement  is  by  Kent,  after  Mue.'s 
indication  of  the  probable  contents. 

§  1 13.  ^  Lachmann  ;  colore  G,  Laetus  ;  for  colerent. 
"  Aug.  {quoting  a  friend),  for  tramat. 

§  112.  "  Correct,  unless  the  purpose  was  to  increase,  that 
is,  glorify  the  god.  "  Properly  connected  with  mactare 

'  to  sacrifice,'  though  popular  association  with  magis  affected 
its  meaning.         "  A  highly  seasoned  dish  of  hashed  meat, 
poultry,  and  herbs,  served  cold  as  a  dessert. 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  112-113 

112.  The  augmentum  "  '  increase-cake  '  is  so  called 
because  a  piece  of  it  is  cut  out  and  put  on  the  Uver  of 
the  sacrificed  victim  at  the  presentation  to  the  deity, 
for  the  sake  of  augendi '  increasing  '  it.  Magmenium  ^ 
'  added  offering,'  from  magis  '  more,'  because  it 
attaches  magis  '  more  '  closely  to  the  worshipper's 
piety  :  for  this  reason  magmentaria  fana  '  sanctuaries 
for  the  offering  of  magmenta  '  have  been  estabUshed 
in  certain  places,  that  the  added  offering  may  there 
be  laid  on  the  original  and  offered  ^^ith  it.  Mattea  " 
'  cold  meat-pie  '  is  so  named  because  in  Greek  it  is 
fia-Tvi],  Like\\ise  from  the  Greeks  is  another  meat- 
dish  called  .  .  .  ,  which  contains  item  by  item  the 
following  :  ....  an  egg,  a  truffle. 

XXIlL  113.  Lana '^  'wool'  is  a  Greek  word, 
as  Polybius  *  and  CalUmachus  "  write.  Purpura  <* 
'  purple,'  from  the  colour  of  the  purpura  '  purple-fish  ' 
of  the  sea  :  a  Punic  word,  because  it  is  said  to  have 
been  first  brought  to  Italy  by  the  Phoenicians. 
Stamen  '  warp,'  from  stare  '  to  stand,'  because  by  this 
the  whole  fabric  on  the  loom  stat  '  stands  '  up.  .S«6- 
temen  *  '  woof,'  because  it  subit  '  goes  under  '  the 
stamen  '  warp.'  Trama  f  *  wide-meshed  cloth,'  be- 
cause the  cold  trameat  '  goes  through  '  this  kind  of 
garment.  Densum  ^  '  close-woven  cloth,'  from  the 
dentes  '  dents  '  of  the  sley  with  which  it  is  beaten, 
Filum  3  '  thread,'  because  it  is  the  smallest  hilum 
'  shred  ' ;  for  this  is  the  smallest  thing  in  a  garment. 

§  113.  "  An  old  Italic  word  cognate  to  English  wool ;  cf. 
V,    130.  »  Frag.   inc.   99  (104)   Hultsch.  '  Frag.   408 

Schneider.  ''  Quite  possibly  a  Phoenician  word,  but 
transmitted  to  Italj-  by  the  Greeks  {nofxf>vpa).  '  From 
subtexere  '  to  weave  underneath.'  '  From  trahere  '  to 
pull.'         » Wrong. 



114.  Pannus  Graecu/?//  ubi  E  A''  fecit.  Panu- 
vellium  dictum  a  pano  et  volvendo  filo.  Tunica  ab 
tuendo  corpore,  tunica  ut  <tu)endica.^  Toga  a 
tegendo.  Cinctus  et  cingillum  a  cingendo,  alterum 
viris,  alterum  mulieribus  attributum. 

XXIV.  115.  Arma  ab  arcendo,  quod  his  arcemus 
hostem.  Parma,  quod  e  medio  in  omnis  partis  par. 
Conum,  quod  cogitur  in  cacumen  versus.  Hasta, 
quod  astans  solet^  ferri.  laculum,  quod  ut  iaciatur 
fit.  Tragula  a  traiciendo.  Scutum  <a)^  sectura  ut 
secutum,  quod  a  minute  consectt*'  fit  tabellis.  Um- 
bones*  a  Graeco,  quod  a/x/Swves.* 

116.  Gladiu7«i  C  in  G*  commutato  a  clade,  quod 
fit  ad  hostium  cladem  gladium  ;  similiter  ab  omine* 
pilum,  qui  hosti*  periret,*  ut  perilum.  Lorica,  quod 
e  loris  de  corio  crudo  pectoralia  faciebant  ;  postea 
subcidit  galli(ca>^  e  ferro  sub  id  vocabulum,  ex  anulis 

§114.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  grecus.  ^  Fay,  for  ea. 
'  OS.,  for  indica. 

§115.  ^  For  sollet.  ^  Added  by  Laetus.  ^  Aug., 
for    consectum.  *  For    umbonis.  *  Turnebus,    for 


§  116.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  gladius.  "  For  G  in  C.  *  Aug., 
for  homine.  *  Aug.  (hostis  B),  for  hostem  feriret. 
'  Mve.,for  galli. 

§114.  "Not  pannus  'cloth,'  but  pannus  'bobbin,'  in 
view  of  what  follows  ;  there  is  a  Greek  tt^vos  '  web,'  and  its 
diminutive  irqvlov  '  bobbin,'  which  in  the  Doric  form  would 
have  A  and  not  E.  ''  Possibly  right,  if,  as  A.  Spengel 
thinks,  the  word  is  really  panuvolliuvi.  '  From  Semitic, 
either  directly  or  through  Etruscan. 

§115.  '^  Arma,  parma,  conum,  hasta,  tragula,  scutum, 
umbones  :    all  wrong  etymologies.  *  Not  from  traicere, 

but  from  trahere  '  to  pull,  drag  '  ;  perhaps  because  the  thong 
wound  round  it  for  throwing  (like  the  string  used  in  starting 
a  peg-top)  '  pulls  '  the  javelin. 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  114-116 

114.  Pannus  ^  '  bobbin,'  is  a  Greek  word,  where 
E  has  become  A.  Panuvellium  *  '  bobbin  with  thread  ' 
was  said  from  panus  '  bobbin  '  and  volvere  '  to  wind  ' 
the  thread.  Tunica  "  '  shirt,'  from  tuendo  '  protect- 
ing '  the  body  *•  tunica  as  though  it  were  tuendica. 
Toga  '  toga  '  from  tegere  '  to  cover.'  Cinctus  '  belt  ' 
and  cingiltum  '  girdle,'  from  cingere  '  to  gird,'  the  one 
assigned  to  men  and  the  other  to  women. 

XXIV.  115.  Arma  "  '  arms,'  from  arcere  '  to  ward 
off,'  because  with  them  we  arcemus  '  ward  off '  the 
enemy.  Parma  '  cavalry  shield,'  because  from  the 
centre  it  is  par  '  even '  in  ever)'  direction.  Conum 
'  pointed  helmet,'  because  it  cogitur  '  is  narrowed  ' 
toward  the  top.  Hasta  '  spear,'  because  it  is  usually 
carried  a^/aw*'  standing  up.'  /acM/Mw/' javelin,'  because 
it  is  made  that  it  may  iaci  '  be  thrown.'  Tragula  ^ 
'  thong-javelin,'  from  traicere  '  to  pierce.'  Scutum 
'  shield,'  from  sectura  '  cutting,'  as  though  secutum, 
because  it  is  made  of  wood  cut  into  small  pieces. 
Umbones    '  bosses  '    from    a    Greek    word,    namely 

IIG."  Gladium  '  sword,'  from  clades  '  slaughter,' 
with  change  of  C  to  G,  because  the  gladium  *  is  made 
for  a  slaughter  of  the  enemy  ;  likewise  from  its  omen 
was  said  pilum,  by  which  the  enemy  periret  '  might 
perish,'  as  though perilum.  Lorica  '  corselet,'  because 
they  made  chest-protectors  from  lora  '  thongs  '  of 
rawhide  ;    afterwards  the  Gallic  corselet  of  iron  was 

§  116.  "  All  etymologies  wrong  except  those  of  lorica  and 
(with  reser\'es)  of  galea.  "  Varro  prefers  (c/.  viii.  45,  ix.  81, 
De  Re  Rust.  i.  48.  3)  the  unfamiliar  neuter  form,  which  may 
be  due  to  the  influence  of  the  associated  words  scutum,  pilum, 
tehim.  The  word  is  of  Celtic  origin,  but  may  have  an  ulti- 
mate connexion  with  the  root  of  clade». 



ferrea  tunica.®  Balteum,  quod  cingulum  e  corio 
habebant  bullatum,  balteum  dictum.  Ocrea,  quod 
opponebatur  ob  crus.  Galea  ab  galero,  quod  multi 
usi  antiqui. 

1 17.  Tubae  ab  tubis,  quos  etiam  nunc  ita  appellant 
tubicines  sacrorum.  Cornua,  quod  ea  quae  nunc  sunt 
ex  acre,  tunc  fiebant  bubulo  e  cornu.  Vallum  vel 
quod  ea  varicare  nemo  posset  vel  quod  singula  ibi 
extrema  6acilla  furcillata  habent  figuram  litterae  V. 
Cervi  ab  similitudine  cornuum  cervi  ;  item  reliqua 
fere  ab  similitudine  ut  vineae,  testudo,  aries. 

XXV.  118.  Mensam  escariam  cillibam  appella- 
bant ;  ea  erat^  quadrata  ut  etiam  nunc  in  castris  est ; 
a  cibo  cilliba  dicta  ;  postea  rutunda  facta,  et  quod  a 
nobis  media  et  a  Graecis  fxecra,  mensa  dic<<a)2  potest ; 
nisi  etiam  quod  ponebant  pleraque  in  cibo  mensa. 
Trulla  a  similitudine  truae,  quae  quod  magna  et  haec 

*  Turtiebus,  for  ferream  tunicam. 

§  118.     ^  For  erant.         *  Mve.,/or  dici. 

*  Rather  galerum  from  galea,  which  looks  hke  a  borrowing 
from  CJreek  yaAe'r;  '  weasel ' ;  the  objection  is  that  caps  of 
weasel-skin  are  nowhere  attested. 

§  1 17.  "  Wrong  etymology.  *  Thrust  into  the  embank- 
ment, to  increase  its  defensive  strength  ;  can  they  be  the 
stakes,  pali  or  valli,  forming  a  fence  along  its  top  ?  But 
these  are  not  elsewhere  spoken  of  as  forked.  "^  Used  by 
Caesar,  who  inserted  such  forked  branches  into  the  face  of 
his  wall  at  Alesia,  Bell.  Gall.  vii.  72.  4,  73.  2.  <«  Otherwise 
'  grape-arbours  ' ;  in  military  use,  sheds  under  the  protection 
of  which  soldiers  could  advance  up  to  the  enemy's  fortifica- 
tions.        •  A  close  formation  of  overlapping  shields. 

§118.  "Borrowed  from  Greek  KcXXi^as  'three-legged 
table,'  a  derivative  of  ki'AAo?  '  ass.'  *  Or  perhaps  mesa, 
since  n  was  weak  before  s  ;  Priscian,  i.  58.  17  Keil,  states 
that  Varro  used   both  spellings,     Mensa  seems  to  be  the 


ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  116-118 

included  under  this  name,  an  iron  shirt  made  of  links. 
Balteum  '  sword-belt,'  because  they  used  to  wear  a 
leather  belt  bullatum  '  with  an  amulet  attached,'  was 
called  balteum.  Ocrea  '  shin-guard'  was  so  called 
because  it  was  set  in  the  way  ob  cms  '  before 
the  shin.'  Galea  '^  '  leather  helmet,'  from  galerum 
'  leather  bonnet,'  because  many  of  the  ancients  used 

117.  Tubae  '  trumpets,'  from  tubi  '  tubes,'  a  name 
by  which  even  now  the  trumpeters  of  the  sacrifices  call 
them.  Cornua  '  horns,'  because  these,  which  are  now 
of  bronze,  were  then  made  from  the  cornu  '  horn  '  of 
an  ox.  Vallum  "  '  camp  wall,'  either  because  no  one 
could  varicare  '  straddle  '  over  it,  or  because  the  ends 
of  the  forked  sticks  *  used  there  had  individually  the 
shape  of  the  letter  \  .  Cervi  "  '  chevaux-de-frise,' 
from  the  likeness  to  the  horns  of  a  cervus  '  stag  '  ;  so 
the  rest  of  the  terms  in  general,  from  a  likeness,  as 
vineae  '  mantlets,'  **  tesludo  '  tortoise,'  *  aries  '  ram.' 

XXV.  118.  The  eating -table  they  used  to  call  a 
cilliba  "  ;  it  was  square,  as  even  now  it  is  in  the  camp  ; 
the  name  cilliba  came  from  cibus  '  victuals.'  After- 
wards it  was  made  round,  and  the  fact  that  it  was 
media  '  central  '  with  us  and  /xeo-a  '  central  '  with  the 
Greeks,  is  the  probable  reason  for  its  being  called  a 
mensa  ^  '  table  '  ;  unless  indeed  they  used  to  put  on, 
amongst  the  victuals,  many  that  were  mensa '  measured 
out.'  Trulla  "^  '  ladle,'  from  its  likeness  to  a  trua 
'  gutter,'  but  because  this  is  big  and  the  other  is  small, 
they  named  it  as  if  it  were  truella  '  small  triia  '  ;   this 

feminine  of  mensus  '  measured ' ;  perhaps  from  tabula 
mensa  '  measured  board.'  '  Trulla  is  of  uncertain  origin, 

and  yielded  trua  by  back-formation  ;  Greek  TpvTJXrj  seems 
to  have  been  borrowetl  from  Latin,  as  \'arro  states. 

VOL.  I  I  113 


pusilla,  ut  trwe<l)la^  ;  banc*  Graeci  Tpvi'ikiji'.^  Trua 
qu(a)  e^  culina  in  lavatrinam  aquam  fundunt'  ;  trua, 
quod  travolat  ea  aqua.  Ab  eodem  est  appellatum 
truleum  :  simile  enim  figura,  nisi  quod  latius  est, 
quod  concipiat  aquam,  et  quod  manubrium  cavum 
non  est  nisi  in  vinario  truleo.* 

119-  Accessit  mate/lio^  a  matula  dictus  et  Rictus, * 
qui,  posteaquam  longius  a  figura  matulae  discessit,  et 
ab  aqua  aqualis  dictus.  V^as  aquarium  vocant  futim, 
quod  in  triclinio  allatam  aquam  infundebant  ;  quo 
postea  accessit  nanus^  cum  Graeco  nomine  et  cum 
Latino  nomine  Graeca  figura  barbatus.  Pelvis  pede- 
<l)uis*  a  pedum  lavatione.  Candelabrum  a  candela  : 
ex  his  enim  funiculi  ardentes  figebantur.  Lucerna 
post  inventa,  quae  dicta  a  luce  aut  quod  id  vocant 
Xv)(vov^  Graeci. 

120.  Vasa  in  mensa  escaria  :  ubi  pulte7?ji  aut 
iurulenti  quid  ponebant,  a  capiendo  catinum  nomi- 
narunt,  nisi  quod  Siculi  dicunt  K-axtiov  ubi  assa  pone- 

^  Klotz,  for  troula.  *  //.  Sp.,  for  hinc.  *  L.  Sp.,  for 
trullan.  '  Mue.,  for  truae  que.  '  Here  begins  the  lost 
quaternion  in  F,  running  to  vi.  61  finit/  but  before  its  loss 
Victorius  collated  it,  and  his  readings  are  cited  as  Fv. 
There  is  also  a  careful  copy  of  F  extant  in  Laurent.  51.  5, 
cited  as  f.         *  Christ,  for  uinaria  trulla  Fv. 

§  119.  ^  Aldus,  for  matiolio  Fv.  ^  A.  Sp.,  for  dictus 
et  dictus.  '  Turnebus,  for  magnus.  *  Scaliger  ;  pede- 
lauis  Aldus  ;  for  pedeuis.         *  For  licnon. 

§  120.     1  For  pultes  Fv. 

**  The  next  statements  seem  to  eliminate  from  this  passage  the 
usual  meaning  of  trua  :    '  ladle,  stirring-spoon.'  *  Vari- 

ously spelled,  but  clearly  a   derivative   of  trulla.         *  Ap- 
parently the  wine  truletim  had  a  channelled  handle  which 
could  be  used  as  a  spout  in  pouring. 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  118-120 

the  Greeks  call  a  rpnyA?/.  A  trua  '  gutter  '  "*  is  that 
by  which  they  pour  the  water  from  the  kitchen  into 
the  privy  :  trua,  because  by  it  the  water  iravolat '  flies 
across.'  From  the  same  is  named  the  truleum  * 
'  basin  '  ;  for  it  is  like  in  shape,  except  that  it  is 
broader  because  it  is  to  hold  water,  and  that  the  handle 
is  not  channelled  except  in  the  case  of  a  win^-triileumJ 

119-  There  was  also  the  matelUo  '  pot,'  named  as 
well  as  modelled  after  the  matula  '  chamber-pot,' 
which,  after  it  had  got  quite  far  away  from  the  shape 
of  a  matula,  was  called  also  an  aqualis  '  wash-basin,' 
from  aqua  '  water.'  A  jar  for  water  they  called  a 
futis,'^  because  with  it  in  the  dining-room  they  infunde- 
hant  '  poured  on  '  the  guests'  hands  the  water  that 
had  been  brought  ;  for  the  performance  of  this  same 
service  there  was  afterward  added  a  vessel  ^  with  the 
Greek  name  of  names  '  dwarf '  and  the  Latin  name 
harbatus  '  bearded  man,'  because  of  the  Greek  figure. 
Pelvis  "^  '  basin  '  was  earlier  pedeluis,  from  the  lavatio 
'  washing  '  of  the  pedes  '  feet.'  Candelabrum  '  candle- 
stick,' from  candela  '  taper  '  ;  for  from  these  blazing 
cords  were  hung.  The  lucerna  ^  '  lamp  '  was  invented 
later  ;  it  was  named  from  lux  '  light  '  or  because  the 
Greeks  call  it  Ai'^vos. 

120.  Vessels  on  the  eating-table  :  The  vessel  in 
which  they  set  on  the  table  porridge  or  anything  with 
a  great  deal  of  juice,  they  called  a  catinus  '  pot,'  from 
capere  "  '  to  contain,'  unless  it  is  because  the  Sicilians 
call  that  in  which  they  put  their  roasts   a   KctTtj'os. 

§  119.  "  Wrong  etymology.  *  A  jar  in  the  form  of  a 
bearded  dwarf.  '  Wrong  etj'mology.  ''  A  native  word, 
from  the  root  of  lux. 

§  120.  "  Wrong ;  and  the  Sicilian  word  was  borrowed 
from  Latin. 



bant  ;  magidam  aut  langulam  alterum  a  magnitudine 
alterum  a  latitudine  finxerunt.  Patenas  a  patulo 
dixerunt,  ut  pusillas,quod  his  libarentcenam,patellas. 
Tn/Wia^  et  canistra  quod  putant  esse  Latina,  sunt 
Graeca  :  rpuySAioi'*  enim  et  Kavovv*  d(i)c(untur)° 
Graece.*  Reliqua  quod  aperta  sunt  unde  sint 

XXVI.  121.  Mensa  vinaria  rotunda  nominabatur 
ci(l>liba  <a>nte,i  ut  etiam  nunc  in  castris.  Id  videtur 
declinatum  a  Graeco  kvXik€uo,^  (id)'  a  poculo  cylice 
qui  (in)'  ilia.  Capi(/(es)*  et  minores  capulae  a 
capiendo,  quod  ansatae  ut  prehendi  possent,  id  est 
capi.  Harum  figuras  in  vasis  sacris  ligneas  ac  fictiles 
antiquas  etiam  nunc  videmus. 

122.  Praeterea  in  poculis  erant  paterae,  ab  eo 
quod  late  (pate)n<i  ita^  dictae.  Hisce  etiam  nunc  in 
publico  convivio  antiquitatis  retinendae  causa,  cum 
magistri  fiunt,  potio  circumfertur,  et  in  sacrificando 
deis  hoc  poculo  magistratus  dat  deo  vinum.  Pocula  a 
potione,  unde  potatio  et  etiam  posca.'  Haec  possunt 
a  TTOTO),*  quod  ttotos  potio  Graece. 
^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  triplia.         '  Aug.,  with  B,  for  triplion. 

*  L.  Sp.,  for  c&nunun  Fv.  ^  GS.,  for  de.  ^  Canal,  for 

§  121.  ^  GS.,  for  cilibantum.  ^  Turnebiis,  for  culiceo. 
'  Added  by  Mue.         *  L.  Sp.  ;  capis  Turnebits  ;  for  capit. 

§  122.  ^  GS.  ;  patent  L.  Sp.  ;  pateant  latine  Aldus  ;  for 
latini.  ^  After  ita,  A  Idus  deleted  dicunt.  '  Turnebus, 
for  postea.         *  Mue.,  for  poto. 

*  From  Greek  jitayis  '  a  round  pan.'  "  Better  lancula, 
diminutive  of  lanx  '  platter.'  "^  Correct,  except  that  canis- 
truin  is  from  Greek  Kaviarpov  '  bread-basket,'  made  of  Kawai 
'reeds  '  ;  page  117  Funaioli. 

§  121.     "  Cf.  §  118,  where  a  different  etymology  is  given. 

§  122.  "  Not  from  Greek,  but  from  an  Indo-European 
root  inherited  by  Latin  as  well  as  by  Greek.  *"  The  Greek 
word  means  properly  not  a  '  draught,'  but  a  '  drinking-bout.' 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  120-122 

The  magida  ^  and  the  langula,"  both  meaning  '  platter/ 
they  named  from  the  magnitudo  '  size  '  of  the  one  and 
the  latitudo  '  width  '  of  the  other.  Patenae  '  plates  ' 
they  called  from  patulum  '  spreading,'  and  the  Uttle 
plates,  with  which  they  offered  the  gods  a  preliminary 
sample  of  the  dinner,  they  called  patellae  '  saucers.' 
Tryblia  '  bowls  '  and  canistra  '  bread-baskets,'  though 
people  think  that  they  are  Latin,  are  really  Greek  <*  : 
for  TpvBXiov'  and  navovv  are  said  in  Greek.  The 
remaining  terms  I  pass  by,  since  their  sources  are 

XXVL  121.  A  round  table  for  wine  was  formerly 
called  a  cilliba,"  as  even  now  it  is  in  the  camp.  This 
seems  to  be  derived  from  the  Greek  KvXtKeiov 
'  buffet,'  from  the  cup  cylij:  which  stands  on  it.  The 
capides  '  bowls  '  and  smaller  capulae  '  cups  '  were 
named  from  capere  '  to  seize,'  because  they  have 
handles  to  make  it  possible  for  them  prekendi  '  to  be 
grasped,'  that  is,  capi  '  to  be  seized.'  Their  shapes  we 
even  now  see  among  the  sacred  vessels,  old-fashioned 
shapes  in  wood  and  earthenware. 

122.  In  addition  there  were  among  the  drinking- 
cups  the  paterae  '  libation-saucers,'  named  from  this, 
that  they  patent  '  are  open  '  wide.  For  the  sake  of 
preserving  the  ancient  practice,  they  use  cups  of  this 
kind  even  now  for  passing  around  the  potio  '  draught  ' 
at  the  public  banquet,  when  the  magistrates  enter 
into  their  office  ;  and  it  is  this  kind  of  cup  that  the 
magistrate  uses  in  sacrificing  to  the  gods,  when  he 
gives  the  wine  to  the  god.  Pocula  '  drinking-cups,' 
from  potio  '  draught,'  whence  potatio  '  drinking  bout  ' 
and  also  posca  '  sour  wine.'  °  These  may  however 
come  from  ttotos,  because  ttotos  is  the  Greek  for 
potio. ^ 



123.  Origo  potionis  aqua,  quod  oequa  summa. 
Fons  unde  funditur  e  terra  aqua  viva,  ut  fistula  a  qua 
fusus  aquae.  Vas  vinarium  grandius  sinum  ab  sinu, 
quod  sinum  maiorem  cav(a>tionem^  quam  pocula 
habebant.  Item  dictae  lepestae,^  quae  etiam  nunc 
in  diebus  sacris  Sabinis  vasa  vinaria  in  mensa  deorum 
sunt  posita  ;  apud  antiquos  scriptores  Graecos  inveni 
appellari  poeuli  genus  St-ea-rav^  :  quare  vel  inde 
radices  in  agrum  Sabinum  et  Romanum  sunt  pro- 

124.  Qui  vinum  dabant  ut  minutatim  funderent, 
a  guttis  guttum  appellarunt  ;  qui  sumebant  minu- 
tatim, a  sumendo  simpmum^  nominarunt.  In  huiusce 
locum  in  conviviis  e  Graecia  successit  ep«ch^sis  et 
cyathus  ;  in  sacruficiis  remansit  guttus  et  sim- 

125.  Altera  vasaria^  mensa  erat^  lapidea  quadrata 
oblonga  una  columella  ;  vocabatur  cartibulum.  Haec 
in  aedibus  ad  compluvium  apud  multos  me  puero 
ponebatur  et  in  ea  et  <cir)cum  ea<m)'  aenea  vasa :  a 
gerendo  cartibulum*  potest  dictum. 

§123.  ^  Aldus,  for  cautionem.  ^  Mue.  ;  dicta  lepeste 
Sciop.  ;  for  dicta  flepeste  /.         '  For  depestam  Fv. 

§  124.     ^  Brinkmann,  for  simpulum. 

§  125.  ^  For  uasaria,  ic'dh  uin  icritten  above,  both  in 
Fv  and  in  f.  ^  For  erant  /.  *  Christ,  for  cum  ea. 
*  cartibum  /,  //,  V,  a,  p  (cartibum  unde  cartibulum  Laetus  ; 
gertibulum  unde  cartibulum  B,  Aug.), 

§  123.  "  Wrong  on  aqua,  fons,  fistula,  sinum  (note  the 
quantities  in  sinum  and  sinus).  *  From  Greek  AeTraoriy,  a 
drinking-cup  shaped  like  a  Acttcij   '  limpet.'  '  Not  else- 

where attested  with  d. 

§  124.     "  From  a  Greek  word,  but  popularly  remodelled  to 
resemble  gutta  '  drop.' 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  123-125 

123."  The  source  of  a  drink  is  aqua  '  water,'  so 
called  because  its  surface  is  aequa  '  level.'  A  Jons 
'  spring  '  is  that  from  which  running  water  Junditur 
'  is  poured  '  out  of  the  earth,  just  as  &  fistula  '  pipe  '  is 
that  from  which  there  is  afiusus  '  outpour  '  of  water. 
The  sinum  is  a  \Wne-jar  of  a  larger  sort,  called  from 
sinus  '  belly,'  because  the  sinum  had  a  greater  cavity 
than  cups.  Likewise  there  are  those  called  lepestae,^ 
the  kind  of  wine-jars  that  are  even  now,  on  the  days  of 
the  Sabine  festivals,  placed  on  the  table  of  the  gods  ; 
I  have  found  in  ancient  Greek  writers  a  kind  of  cup 
called  6€7recrTa,'^  for  which  reason  the  source  of  the 
name  quite  certainly  set  out  from  there  into  the 
Sabine  and  Roman  territory. 

121.  Those  who  were  giving  wine  in  such  a  way  as 
to  pour  it  little  by  little,  called  the  vessel  a  guttus  " 
'  cruet,'  from  the  guttae  '  drops  '  ;  those  who  were 
taking  it  little  by  little  from  a  larger  container,  called 
the  instrument  a  simpuvium  '  dipping  ladle,'  from 
sumere  '  to  take  out.'  Into  its  place,  in  banquets, 
there  came  from  Greece  the  epichysis  '  pouring  ladle  ' 
and  the  cyathus  '  dipping  ladle  '  ;  but  in  the  sacrifices 
the  guttus  and  the  simpuvium  remained  in  use. 

125.  A  second  kind  of  table  for  vessels  was  of 
stone,  an  oblong  rectangle  with  one  pedestal  ;  it  was 
called  a  cartihulum.  When  I  was  a  boy  this  used  to  be 
placed  in  many  persons'  houses  near  the  opening  in 
the  roof  of  the  court,  and  on  and  around  it  were  set 
bronze  vessels  ;  perhaps  cartibulum  "  was  said  from 
gerere  '  to  carry.'  ^ 

§  1-25.  "  Of  unknown  etymology ;  commonly  spelled 
gartibulum  (for  early  C  in  value  of  g,  cf.  v.  6-t,  note/),  but 
not  connected  with  gerere.  *  That  is,  from  carrying  the 



XXVII.  126.  Praeterea  erat  tertium  genus  mensae 
it{emy  quadratae  vasorum  ;  voca<ba>tur2  urnarium, 
quod  urnas  cum  aqua  positas  ibi  potissimum  habebant 
in  culina.  Ab  eo  etiam  nunc  ante  balineum  locus  ubi 
poni  solebat  urnarium  vocatur.  Urnae  dictae,  quod 
urinant  in  aqua  Aaurienda  ut  wrinator.  C7rinare'  est 
mergi  in  aquam. 

127.  Ainburvo(my  fictum  ab  urt^o,^  quod  ita 
flexum  ut  redeat  sursum  versus  ut^  in  aratro  quod  est 
wrvum.*  Calix  a  caldo,  quod  in  eo  calda  puls^  appone- 
batur  et  caldum  eo  bibebant.  Vas  ubi  coquebant 
cibum,  ab  eo  caccabum  appellarunt.  Very*  a  ver- 

XXVIII.  128.  Ab  sedendo  appellatae  sedes, 
sedile,  so/mm/  sellae,  siliquastrum  ;  deinde  ab  his 
subsellium  :  ut  subsipere  quod  non  plane  sapit,  sic 
quod  non  plane  erat  sella,  subsellium.  Ubi  in  eius- 
modi  duo,  bisellium  dictum.     Area,  quod  arcebantur 

§  126.  ^  GS.,  for  et.  "  uocabatur,  icUh  ba  expunged, 
V ;   uocatur  other  MSS.         ^  Bentinus,  for  orinator  orinare. 

§127.  ^  Kent  ;  imburvom  Mue.  ;  imburum  Aldus,  with 
B  ;  for  impurro.  ^  Mue.,  for  urbo.  ^  Aldus,  for  est. 
*  B,  for  aruum.         *  Laetus,  for  plus.         *  Aldus,  for  uera. 

§  128.     ^  Aug.,  for  souum. 

§  126.  "  Wrong  etymology.  *  Derivative  of  urina  at 
an  early  date  when  urina  still  meant  merely  '  water,'  and  not 
specifically  '  urine.' 

§  127.  "  '  Bent  about,'  a  vessel  shaped  like  a  gravy-boat  ; 
if  my  conjecture  as  to  the  spelling  of  the  word  is  right,  there 
is  basis  for  Varro's  etymology.  *  Of  uncertain  etymology, 

but  popularly  derived  by  the  Romans  from  Greek  /cu'Ai^ 
'  cup,'  the  normal  meaning  also  of  Latin  calix,  but  not  the 
meaning  in  this  passage.  "  P'rom  Greek  KaKKa^os,  a  pot 

M'ith  three  legs,  to  stand  over  the  fire.         **  Wrong. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  126-128 

XXVIL  126.  Besides  there  was  a  third  kind  of 
table  for  vessels,  rectangular  like  the  second  kind  ;  it 
was  called  an  urnarium,  because  it  was  the  piece  of 
furniture  in  the  kitchen  on  which  by  preference  they 
set  and  kept  the  iirnae  '  urns  '  filled  with  water.  From 
this  even  now  the  place  in  front  of  the  bath  where 
the  urn-table  is  wont  to  be  placed,  is  called  an 
urnarium.  Umae  '  urns  '  got  their  name  "  from  the 
fact  that  they  urinant  *  '  dive  '  in  the  drawing  of 
water,  like  an  urinator  '  diver.'  Urinare  means  to  be 
plunged  into  water. 

127.  Amburvum,'^  a  pot  whose  name  is  made  from 
urvum  '  curved,'  because  it  is  so  bent  that  it  turns  up 
again  like  the  part  of  the  plough  which  is  named  the 
urvum  'beam.'  Calix^  'cooking-pot,'  from  caldum 
'  hot,'  because  hot  porridge  was  served  up  in  it,  and 
they  drank  hot  liquid  from  it.  The  vessel  in  which 
they  coquebajit  '  cooked  '  their  food,  from  that  they 
called  a  caccabus.'^  Veru  '  spit,'  from  versare  '  to 
turn.'  ** 

XXVIIL  128.  From  sedere  '  to  sit  '  were  named 
sedes  '  seat,'  sedile  '  chair,'  solium  '  throne,'  seltae  " 
'  stools,'  siliquastrum  *  '  wicker  chair  '  ;  then  from 
these  stibsellium  '  bench  '  :  as  subsipere  is  said  a  thing 
does  not  sapit  '  taste  '  clearly,  so  subsellium  because 
it  was  not  clearly  <^  a  sella  '  stool.'  Where  two  had 
room  on  a  seat  of  this  sort,  it  was  called  a  bisellium 
'  double  seat.'  An  area  '  strong-chest,'  because 
thieves  areebantur  '  were  kept  away  '  from  it  when  it 

§  128.  "  With  II  from  dl.  *  Probably  seliquastrum  (or 
selli-),  as  in  Festus,  340  b  10,  341.  5  ;  Fay  suggests  '  seat- 
basket  '  {sella  +  qualum  +  suffix),  citing  certain  tj-pes  of  Mexi- 
can chairs.  '  Rather  '  under-seat,'  that  is,  a  seat  under 
the  sitter. 



fures  ab  ea  clausa.  Armarium  et  armamentarium  ab 
eadem  origine,  sed  declinata  aliter. 

XXIX.  129.  Mundus  <ornatus>i  muliebris  dictus 
a  munditia.  Ornatus  quasi  ab  ore  natus  :  hinc  enim 
maxime  sumitur  quod  eam  deceat,  itaque  id  paratur 
speculo."  Calamistrum,  quod  his  calfactis  in  cinere 
capftllus  ornatur.  Qui  ea  ministrabat,  a  cinere  cinera- 
rius  est  appellatus.  Discerniculum,  quo  discernitur 
capillus.  Pecten,  quod  per  eum  explicatur  capillus. 
Speculum  a  speciendo,^  quod  ibi  <s>e  spectant.* 

130.  Vestis  a  vellis  vel^  ab  eo  quod  vellus  lana 
tonsa  universa  ovis :  id  dictum,  quod  vellebant.2 
Lan<e)a,'  ex  lana  facta.  Quod  capillum  contineret, 
dictum  a  rete  reticulum  ;  rete  ab  raritudine  ;  item 
texta  fasciola,qua  capillum  in  eapite  alligarent,  dictum 
capital  a  eapite,  quod  sacerdotulae  in  eapite  etiam 
nunc  Solent  habere.  Sic  rica  ab  ritu,  quod  Romano 
ritu  sacrificium  feminae  cum  faciunt,  capita  velant. 

§  129.  1  Added  by  GS.  ;  cf.  Festus,  143.  1  J/.  ^  A. 
Sp.,  for  speculum.  '  Laetus,  for  spiciendo.  *  a,  b, 
Turnebus,  for  espectant. 

§  130.  ^  Laetus,  for  uela.  ^  B,  Laetus,  for  uellabant. 
'  Turnebus,  for  lana. 

■^  Both  area  and  arcere  are  derived  from  arx  '  stronghold.' 
«  Not  connected  with  area ;   but  belonging  together. 

§  129.  "  Munditia  is  derived  from  mundus.  *  Wrong 

§  130.  "  Both  etymological  suggestions  for  vestis  are 
wrong  ;   for  the  meaning,  see  A.  Spengel,  Bemerkungen,  264. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  128-130 

was  locked.''  Armarium  '  closet  '  and  armamentarium 
'  warehouse,'  from  the  same  somxie,*  but  with  different 

XXIX.  129.  yiundus  is  a  woman's  toilet  set, 
named"  from  munditia  'neatness.'  Ornatus  'toilet 
set,'  as  if  naius  *  born  '  from  the  os  '  face  '  *"  ;  for 
from  this  especially  is  taken  that  which  is  to 
beautify  a  woman,  and  therefore  this  is  handled 
with  the  help  of  a  mirror.  Calamistrum  '  curling- 
iron,'  because  the  hair  is  arranged  with  irons  when 
they  have  been  calfacta  '  heated  '  in  the  embers.* 
The  one  who  attended  to  them  was  called  a  cinerarius 
'  ember-man,'  from  cinis  '  embers.'  Discerniculum 
'  bodkin,'  \\ith  which  the  hair  discernitur  '  is  parted.' 
Pecten  '  comb,'  because  by  it  the  hair  expUcatur  '  is 
spread  out.'  *  Speculum  '  mirror,'  from  specere  '  to 
look  at,'  because  in  it  they  spectant  '  look  at '  them- 

130.  Vestis  '  garment '  "  from  velU  *  '  shaggy  hair,' 
or  from  the  fact  that  the  shorn  wool  of  a  sheep,  taken 
as  a  whole,  is  a  vellus  '  fleece  '  :  this  was  said  because 
they  formerly  vellebant '  plucked  '  it.  Lanea  '  woollen 
headband,'  "^  because  made  from  lana  '  wool.'  That 
which  was  to  hold  the  hair,  was  called  a  reticulum  '  net- 
cap,'  from  rete  '  net  '  ;  rete,  from  rariiudo  '  looseness 
of  mesh.'  **  Likewise  the  woven  band  vrith  which 
they  were  to  fasten  the  hair  on  the  head,  was  called 
a  capital  '  headband,'  from  caput  '  head  '  ;  and  this 
the  sub-priestesses  are  accustomed  to  wear  on  their 
heads  even  now.  So  rica  '  veil,'  from  ritus  '  fashion,'  ^ 
because  according  to  the  Roman  ritus,  when  women 
make  a  sacrifice,  they  veil  their  heads.     The  mitra 

"  Vellig,  dialectal  for  villis.  *  For  meaning,  see  A.  Spen- 
gel,  Bemerkungen,  264.         '*  Wrong  etymologies. 



Mitra  et  reliqua  fere  in  capite  postea  addita  cum 
vocabulis  Graecis. 

XXX.  131.  Prius  deinde  (ind)utui,i  turn  amictui 
quae  sunt  tangam.  Capitium  ab  eo  quod  capit  pec- 
tus, id  est,  ut  antiqui  dicebant,  comprehendit.  In- 
dutui  alterum  quod  subtus,  a  quo  subucula ;  alterum 
quod  supra,  a  quo  supparus,  nisi  id  quod  item  dicunt 
Osce.  Alterius  generis  item  duo,  unum  quod  foris 
ac  palam,  palla ;  alterum  quod  intus,  a  quo  (indusium, 
ut)^  intusium,  id  quod  Plautus  dicit  : 

Indusiatam'  patagiatam  caltulam*  ac  crocotulam. 

Multa  post  luxuria  attulit,  quorum  vocabula  apparet 
esse  Graeca,  ut  asbest(in>on.* 

132.  Amictui  dictum  quod  a(m>biectum^  est,  id 
est  circumiectum,2  a  quo  etiam  quo^  vestitas  se  invol- 
vunt,  circumiectui  appellant,  et  quod  amictui  habet 
pui'puram  circum,  vocant  circumtextum.  Antiquis- 
simi  amictui  ricinium  ;  id  quod  eo  utebantur  duplici, 

§  131.  ^  B,  Turnebus,  for  deinde  utui  Fv,  /.  "  Added 
by  GS.  ^  GS.,  for  intusiatam  ;  after  the  text  of  Plautus. 
*  Laetus,  for  caltuluni  ,•  after  the  text  of  Plautus.  *  GS., 
for  asbeston  ;  cf.  Pliny,  Nat.  Hist.  xix.  4.  20. 

§132.  ^  il/«e.,/orabiectum.  ^  ^'/(;/)'., /or  circumlectum. 
^  G,  Aug.,  for  quod. 

§  131 .  "  The  datives  indutui,  amictui,  and  circumiectui,  are 
used  in  §  131  and  §  132  as  indeclinables,  XWaefrugi  '  thrifty,' 
cordi '  pleasant,'  original  datives  of  purpose  that  have  become 
stereotyped.  *  from  caput  '  head,'  because  it  was  put  on 

over  the  head  like  a  sweater.  *  From  sub  and  the  verb  in 
ind-uere,  '  to  put  on,'  ex-uere  '  to  take  off.'  "*  Probably 
Oscan.  «Of   unknown    etymology.  ^From    induere 

'to  put  on.'         '  Epidicus,  231.         *  The  Latin  words  are 
adjectives  modifying  tunicam  in  the  preceding  line.       •  Made 
of  a  mineral  substance  called  aa^earos. 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  130-132 

'  turban  '  and  in  general  the  other  things  that  go  on 
the  head,  were  later  importations,  along  with  their 
Greek  names. 

XXX.  131.  Next  I  shall  first  touch  upon  those 
things  which  are  for  putting  on,"  then  those  which  are 
for  wrapping  about  the  person.  Capitium  *  '  vest,' 
from  the  fact  that  it  capit '  holds  '  the  chest,  that  is,  as 
the  ancients  said,  it  comprehendit  '  includes  '  it.  One 
kind  of  put-on  goes  subtus  '  below,'  from  which  it  is 
called  subucula  *=  '  underskirt  '  ;  a  second  kind  goes 
supra  '  above,'  from  which  it  is  called  supparus  ^ 
'  dress,'  unless,  this  is  so  called  because  they  say  it  in 
the  same  way  in  Oscan.  Of  the  second  sort  there  are 
like^\ise  two  varieties,  one  called /)a//a  ^  '  outer  dress,' 
because  it  is  outside  and  palam  '  openly  '  visible  ;  the 
other  is  intus  '  inside,'  from  which  it  is  called  indusium  ^ 
'  under-dress,'  as  though  intusium,  of  which  Plautus 
speaks  ^  : 

Under-dress,  a  bordered  dress,  of  marigold  and  saffron 
There    are     many    garments    which    extravagance 
brought   at  later   times,   whose    names    are    clearly 
Greek,  such  as  asbestinon  '  '  fire-proof.' 

132.  Amictid  '  wrap  '  is  thus  named  because  it  is 
ambiectum  '  thrown  about,'  that  is,circu)fiiectum  '  thrown 
around,'  from  which  moreover  they  gave  the  name  of 
circnmiectid  '  throw-around  '  to  that  with  which  women 
envelop  themselves  after  they  are  dressed  ;  and  any 
wrap  that  has  a  purple  edge  around  it,  they  call 
circumtextum  '  edge-weave.'  Those  of  very  long  ago 
called  a  wrap  a  ricinium  '  mantilla  '  ;  it  was  called 
ricinium  from  reicere  '  to  throw  back,'  "  because  they 

§  132.  "  Properly  from  rlca  (§  130)  ;  it  was  a  square  piece 
of  cloth  worn  folded  over  the  head  in  sign  of  mourning. 



ab  eo  quod  dimidiam  partem  retrorsum  «aciebant,*  ab 
reiciendo  ricinium  dictum. 

133.  (Pallia)!  hinc,  quod  facta  duo  simplicia  paria, 
parilia  primo  dicta,  R  exclusum"  propter  levitatem. 
Parapechia,*  chlami/des,*  sic  multa,  Graeca.  Laena/ 
quod  de  lana  multa,  duarum  etiam  togarum  instar  ; 
ut  antiquissimum  mulierum  ricinium,  sic  hoc  duplex 

XXXI.  134.  Instrumenta  rustica  quae  serendi  aut 
colendi  fructus  causa  facta.  Sarculum  ab  serendo  ac 
san'endo.!  Ligo,  quod  eo  propter  latitudinem  quod 
sub  terra  facilius  legitur.  Pala  a  pangendo,  (Ly 
GL  quod  fuit.     Rutrum  ruitrum  a  ruendo. 

135.  Aratrum,  quod  a(r>ruit!  terram.  Eius  fer- 
rum  vomer,  quod  vomit  eo  plus  terram.  Dens,  quod 
eo  mordetur  terra  ;  super  id  regula  quae  stat,  stiva 
ab  stando,  et  in  ea  transversa  regula  manicula,  quod 
manu   bubulci   tenetur.     Qui   quasi   temo   est  inter 

*  Laetus,  for  faciebant. 

§  138.  !  Added  by  Canal.  '  Mue. ;  R  esclusum 
Turnebus  ;  for  resclusum  /,  resculum  Fv.  '  For  para- 
pecchia  Ft'.  ^  Ed.  Fe«e<a, /or  clamides.  ^  Aldus,  for 

§  134.     1  Aldus,  for  sarcendo.         "  Added  by  Ellis. 

§  135.  1  Turnebus,  for  aruit ;  cf.  Varro,  De  Re  Rustica,  i. 
35,  terra  adruenda. 

§  133.     "  Probably  of  Greek  origin.  ^  Greek  napaTnjxvs 

'  beside  the  elbow,'  also  '  woman's  garment  with  purple 
border  on  each  side.'  The  Latin  word  seems  to  come  from 
the  diminutive  irapaTrrjxtov  '  radius,  small  bone  below  the 
elbow,'  which  however  may  also  have  denoted  the  woman's 
garment,  though  this  is  not  attested.  "  Probably  from 
Greek  x^aTva,  perhaps  with  an  Etruscan  intermediary. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  132-135 

«ore  it  doubled,  throwing  back  one  half  of  it  over 
the  other. 

133.  Pallia  "  '  cloaks  '  from  this,  that  they  con- 
sisted of  two  single  paria  '  equal  '  pieces  of  cloth, 
called  ^anVm  at  first,  from  which  R  was  ehminated  for 
smoothness  of  sound.  Parapechia  ^  '  elbow-stripes,' 
chlamydes  '  mantles,'  and  many  others,  are  Greek. 
Laena  "  '  overcoat,'  because  they  contained  much  lana 
wool,'  even  like  two  togas  :  as  the  ridnium  was  the 
most  ancient  garment  of  the  women,  so  this  double 
i^arment  is  the  most  ancient  garment  of  the  men. 

XXXL  131.  Farming  tools  which  were  made  for 
planting  or  cultivating  the  crops.  Sarculum  "  '  hoe,' 
from  severe  '  to  plant  '  and  sarire  '  to  weed.'  Ligo  ^ 
'  mattock,'  because  with  this,  on  account  of  its  width, 
what  is  under  the  ground  legitur  '  is  gathered  '  more 
easily.  Pala  '^  '  spade  '  from  pangere  '  to  fix  in  the 
earth  '  ;  the  L  was  originally  GL.  Rutrum  '  shovel,' 
previously  ruitrum,  from  mere  '  to  fall  in  a  heap.' 

135."  Aratrum  '  plough,'  because  it  arruit  *  '  piles 
up  '  the  earth.  Its  iron  part  is  called  vomer  '  plough- 
share,' because  with  its  help  it  the  more  vomit '  spews 
up  '  the  earth.  The  dens  '  colter,'  because  by  this  the 
earth  is  bit  ;  the  straight  piece  of  wood  which  stands 
above  this  is  called  the  stiva  '  handle,'  from  stare  '  to 
stand,'  and  the  wooden  cross-piece  on  it  is  the  mani- 
cula  '  hand-grip,'  because  it  is  held  by  the  manus 
'  hand  '  of  the  ploughman.  That  which  is  so  to  speak 
a  wagon-tongue  between  the  oxen,  is  called  a  bura 

§134.  "  Yrom  sarire.  *  Of  uncertain  origin.  «'Cor- 
rect ;  but  from  pag  +  sld,  with  loss  of  the  extra  consonants  in 
the  group. 

§  135.  "  Wrong  on  aratrum,  vomer,  stiva,  bura,  urvum. 
''  Really  from  arat  '  it  ploughs.' 


\  ARRO 

boves,  bura  a  bubus  ;  alii  hoc  a  curvo  urvum^  appel- 
lant. Sub  iugo  medio  caviim,  quod  bura  extrema 
addita  oppilatur,  vocatur  couw'  a  eavo.*  lugum  et 
iumentum  ab  iunctu. 

136.  Irpices  regula  compluribus  dentibus,  quam 
item  ut  plaustrum  boves  trahunt,  ut  eruant  quae  in 
terra  ser<p>unti  ;  sirpices,  postea  (irpices)^  S  detrito. 
a  quibusdam  dicti.  Rastelli  ut  irpices  serrae  leves  ; 
itaque^  homo  in  pratis  per  feniseci'a*  eo  festucas 
corradit,  quo  ab  rasu  rastelli  dicti.  Rastri,  quibus 
denta<is*  penitus  eradunt  terram  atque  eruunt,  a  quo 
rutu  n/a(s>tri^  dicti. 

137.  Falces  a  farre  littera^  commutata  ;  hae  in 
Campania  seculae  a  secando  ;  a  quadam  similitudine 
harum  aliae,  ut  quod  apertum  unde,  falces  fenariae 
et  arbor(ar)iae2  et,  quod  non  apertum  unde,  falces 
lumaria(e>'  et  sirpiculae.  Lumariae  sunt  quibus 
secant  lumecta,  id  est  cum  in  agris  serpunt  spinae  ; 
quas  quod  ab  terra  agricolae  solvunt,  id  est  luunt, 
lumecta.     Falces  sirpiculae  vocatae  ab  sirpando,  id 

*  Turnebus,  for  curuum.         ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  cous  Fi\ 

*  Rhol.,  for  couo. 

§  136.  ^  Turnebus,  for  serunt.  ^  Added  by  Mue. 
^  Aug.,    with    B,  for    ita    qua.  *  Aug.,  for    fenisecta. 

^  Turnebus,  for  dentalis.  ^  Kent  ;  rutu  rastri  Scaliger  : 
erutu  rastri  Turnebus  ;  for  ruturbatri  Fo. 

§  137.  ^  For  litera  in  Fv,  as  often.  ^  Georges,  for 
arboriae  ,•  cf.  Varro,  De  Re  Bust.  i.  22.  5,  and  Cato,  De  Agric. 
10.    3.         *  For   lumaria. 

"  The  earlier  form  of  cavus  '  hollow  '  was  in  fact  covos. 

§  13().  "  Properly  hirpices,  from  hirpus,  the  Samnite  word 
for  '  wolf.'  *"  Roots  of  weeds  and  grasses.  "  Diminu- 

tive of  rastrum ;  therefore  ultimately  from  radere.  ^  Mas- 

culine plural  of  neuter  singular  rastrum,  from  radere  '  to 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  135-137 

'  beam,'  from  botes  '  oxen  '  ;  others  call  this  an  urvum, 
from  the  curvuin  '  curve.'  The  hole  under  the  middle 
of  the  yoke,  which  is  stopped  up  by  inserting  the 
end  of  the  beam,  is  called  count,  from  cavum  '  hole.'  " 
lugum  '  yoke  '  and  iumentum  '  yoke-animal,'  from 
iunctus  '  joining  or  yoking.' 

136.  Irpices  "  '  harrows  '  are  a  straight  piece  of 
wood  with  many  teeth,  which  oxen  draw  just  like 
a  wagon,  that  they  may  pull  up  the  things  *  that 
serpunt  '  creep  '  in  the  earth  ;  they  were  called  sir- 
pices  and  afterwards,  by  some  persons,  irpices,  with 
the  S  worn  off.  Rastelli  '^  '  hay -rakes,'  Uke  harrows, 
are  saw-toothed  instruments,  but  light  in  weight  ; 
therefore  a  man  in  the  meadows  at  haying  time 
corradit '  scrapes  together '  with  this  the  stalks, 
from  which  rasus  '  scraping '  they  are  called  rastelli. 
Rastri^  '  rakes  '  are  sharp-toothed  instruments  by 
which  they  scratch  the  earth  deep,  and  eruunt  '  dig 
it  up,'  from  which  rutus  '  digging  '  they  are  called 

137.  Falces  '  sickles,'  itom.  far  '  spelt,'  **  with  the 
change  of  a  letter  ;  in  Campania,  these  are  called 
seculae,  from  secare  '  to  cut  '  ;  from  a  certain  Ukeness 
to  these  are  named  others,  the  falces  fenariae  '  hay 
scythes  '  and  arborariae  '  tree  pruning-hooks,'  of 
obvious  origin,  and  falces  lumariae  and  sirpiculae, 
whose  source  is  obscure.  Lumariae  *  are  those  with 
which  lumecta  are  cut,  that  is  when  thorns  grow  up  in 
the  fields  ;  because  the  farmers  solvunt '  loosen,'  that 
is,  luunt  '  loose,'  them  from  the  earth,  they  are  called 
lumecta  '  thorn-thickets.'    Falces  sirpiculae ^  are  named 

§  137.  "  Wrong.  ^  Possibly  for  dumariae  and  dumeeta, 
with  Sabine  I  for  d  ;  c/.  Festus,  67.  10  M.  'Apparently 
from  sirpus  '  rush,'  collateral  form  of  scirpus. 

VOL.  I  K  129 


est  ab  alligando  ;  sic  sirpota*  dolia  quassa,  cum 
alligata  his,  dicta.  Utuntur  in  vinea  alligando  fasces, 
incisos  fustes,  faculas.     Has  iiranclas*  Cher5o<ne>sice.* 

138.  Pilum,  quod  eo  far  pisunt,  a  quo  ubi  id  fit 
dictum  pistrinum  (L^  et  S  inter  se  saepe  locum  com- 
mutant),  inde  post  in  Urbe  Lucili  pistrina  et  pistrix. 
Trapetes^  molae  oleariae  ;  vocant  trapetes  a  terendo, 
nisi  Graecum  est  ;  ac  molae  a  mol<l>iendo^  :  harum 
enim  motu  eo  coniecta  mol(l>iuntur.*  Vallum  a 
volatu,  quod  cum  id  iactant  volant  inde  levia.  Ven- 
tilabrum,  quod  ventilatur  in  acre  frumentum. 

139-  Quibus  conportatur  fructus  ac  necessariae 
res  :  de  his  fiscina  a  ferendo  dicta.  Corbes  ab  eo 
quod  eo  spicas  aliudve  quid  corruebant  ;  hinc  minores 
corbulae  dictae.  De  his  quae  iumenta  ducunt, 
tragula,  quod  ab  eo  trahitur  per  terram  ;  sirpea,  quae 
virgis  sirpatur,  id  est  colligando  implicatur,  in  qua 
stercus  aliudve  quid  vehitur. 

*  Auff.,    with   B,  for   sirpita.  ^  Mue.,  for  phanclas  /, 

G,  fanclas  H,  V,  p.  *  Aug.,  with  B,  for  chermosie  /, 
chermosioe  G,  a. 

§  138.  1  Aug.,  for  R.  "  For  trapetas  Fv.  '  Scaliger, 
for  moliendo.         *  Scaliger,  for  moliuntiir. 

•*  Cf.  the  fiaschi  vestiti  or  '  clothed  wine-flasks  '  of  modern 
Italy.  *  Messana  in  Sicily  was  before  the  Greek  coloniza- 
tion named  Zancle  '  sickle,'  from  the  shape  of  the  cape  on 
which  it  stood.  There  is  no  other  evidence  that  this  cape  was 
called  a  Chersonesus,  but  as  over  twenty  peninsulas  are 
referred  to  by  this  name,  it  is  possible  that  the  name  was 
applied  here  also. 

§  138.  "  Varro's  basis  for  this  statement  is  not  apparent. 
*  Cf.  521  and  1250  Marx  ;  one  must  assume  that  one  of  the 
Satires   of  Lucilius   was   entitled    Urbs.  "  From   Greek. 

"*  From  molere  '  to  grind.'         *  Diminutive  of  vannu.i  '  fan.' 

§  139.      "Wrong  on  fiscina  and  corbes.         "  Cf.   §   137, 
note  c. 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  137-139 

from  sirpare  '  to  plait  of  rushes,'  that  is,  alUgare  '  to 
fasten  '  ;  thus  broken  jars  are  said  to  have  been 
sirpata  '  rush-covered,'  when  they  are  fastened  to- 
gether with  rushes.**  They  use  rushes  in  the  vine- 
yard for  tying  up  bundles  of  fuel,  cut  stakes,  and 
kindling.  These  sickles  they  call  zanclae  in  the 
peninsular  dialect.* 

138.  The  pilum  '  pestle  '  is  so  named  because  with 
it  they  pisunt '  pound  '  the  spelt,  from  which  the  place 
where  this  is  done  is  called  a  pistrinum  '  mill  '- — L 
and  S  often  change  places  with  each  other" — and  from 
that  afterwards  pistrina  '  bakery  '  and  pistrix  '  woman 
baker,'  words  used  in  LuciUus's  City.^  Trapetes  "  are 
the  mill-stones  of  the  olive-mill  :  they  call  them 
trapetes  from  terere  '  to  rub  to  pieces,'  unless  the  word 
is  Greek  ;  and  molae  ^  from  mollire  '  to  soften,'  for 
what  is  thrown  in  there  is  softened  by  their  motion. 
Vallum  "  '  small  winnowing-fan,'  from  volatus  '  flight,' 
because  when  they  swing  this  to  and  fro  the  Ught 
particles  volant  '  fly  '  away  from  there.  Ventilahrum 
'  winnowing-fork,'  because  with  this  the  grain  venti- 
latur  '  is  tossed  '  in  the  air. 

139.  Those  means  with  which  field  produce  and 
necessary  things  are  transported.     Of  these, ^*c/na  " 

rush-basket '  was  named  from  Jerre  '  to  carry ' ;  corbes 
'  baskets,'  from  the  fact  that  into  them  they  corrue- 
hant  '  piled  up  '  corn-ears  or  something  else  ;  from 
this  the  smaller  ones  were  called  corbtdae.  Of 
those  which  animals  draw,  the  tragula  '  sledge,' 
because  it  trahitur  '  is  dragged  '  along  the  ground  bv 
the  animal ;  sirpea  ^  '  wicker  wagon,'  which  sirpatur 
'  is  plaited  '  of  osiers,  that  is,  is  woven  by  binding 
them  together,  in  which  dung  or  something  else  is 



140.  Vehiculum,  in  quo  faba  aliudve  quid  vehitur, 
quod  e^  viminibus  veetur^  aut  eo  vehitur.  BreviMs^ 
vehiculum  dictum  est  aliis  ut*  arcera,  quae  etiam 
in  Duodecim  Tabulis  appellatur  ;  quod  ex  tabuhs 
vehiculum  erat  factum  ut  area,*  arcera  dictum.  Plaus- 
trum  ab  eo  quod  non  ut  in  his  quae  supra  dixi  (ex 
quadam  parte),*  sed  ex  omni  parte  palam  est,  quae 
in  eo  vehuntur  quod  perluce(n>t,^  ut  lapides,  asseres, 

XXXII.  141,  Aedificia  nominata  a  parte  ut 
multa  :  ab  aedibus  et  faciendo  maxime  aedificium. 
Et  oppidum  ab  opi  dictum,  quod  munitur  opis  causa 
ubi  sint  et  quod  opus  est  ad  vitam  gerendam  ubi 
habeant  tuto.  Oppida  quod  opere^  muniebant, 
moenia  ;  quo  moenitius  esset  quod  exaggerabant, 
aggeres  dicti,  et  qui  aggerem  contineret,  moeru^.^ 
Quod  muniendi  causa  portabatur,  mwnus^  ;  quod 
sepiebant  oppidum  eo  moenere,*  moerus.^ 

142.     Eius   summa  pinnae   ab   his   quas   insigniti 

§140.  ^GS.;  ex  Laetus ;  for  est.  ^  Turnebus,  for 
utetur.         '  A.    Sp.,  for  breui   est.         *  A.    Sp.,  for  uel. 

*  Laetus,  for  arcar  Fv.  *  Added  by  L.  Sp.  '  Aug.,  for 

§141.  ^  Aug.,  for  operi.  ^  Sciop.,  for  moerum  Fv. 
'  Laetus,  for  manus.         *  Turnebus,  for  eae  omoenere  Fv. 

*  Sciop.,  for  murus. 

§  140.     "  From  vehere  '  to  carry.'         *  Page  116  Schoell. 

*  From  plaudere  '  to  creak.' 

§  141,  "  Whence  '  temple  '  in  the  singular,  '  house  '  in  the 
plural.  Trom  prefix  ob  +  pedom  'place';   cf.  neSov,  San- 

skrit padam.  "  Munire,  moenia,  murus,  munus  all  belong 

together  ;  oe  is  the  older  spelling,  preserved  in  moenia  in 
classical  Latin.  It  is  a  question  how  far  we  ought  to 
restore  7noe-  for  mu-  in  this  passage  ;  possibly  in  all  the 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  140-142 

140.  Vehiculum  "  '  wagon,'  in  which  beans  or  some- 
thing else  is  conveyed,  because  it  vietur  '  is  plaited  '  or 
because  vehitur  '  camming  is  done  '  by  it.  A  shorter 
kind  of  wagon  is  called  by  others,  as  it  were,  an  arcera 
covered  wagon,'  which  is  named  even  in  the  Twelve 
Tables  ^  ;  because  the  wagon  was  made  of  boards  like 
an  area  '  strong  box,'  it  was  called  an  arcera.  Plaus- 
irum  "  '  cart,'  from  the  fact  that  unlike  those  which  I 
have  mentioned  above  it  is  palam  '  open  '  not  to  a 
certain  degree  but  ever\- where,  for  the  objects  which 
are  conveyed  in  it  perlucent '  shine  forth  to  \iew,'  such 
as  stone  slabs,  wooden  beams,  and  building  material. 

XXXIL  141.  Jerfi^a'a  '  buildings  '  are,  like  many 
things,  named  from  a  part  :  from  aedes  "  '  hearths  ' 
&n6.facere '  to  make  '  comes  certainly  aedtficium.  Op- 
pidum  ^  '  town '  also  is  named  from  ops  '  strength,' 
because  it  is  fortified  for  ops  '  strength,'  as  a  place 
where  the  people  may  be,  and  because  for  spending 
their  lives  there  is  opus  '  need  '  of  place  where  they 
may  be  in  safety.  Moenia  <=  '  walls  '  were  so  named 
because  they  muniehant  '  fortified  '  the  towns  with 
opus  '  work.'  What  thev  exaggerabant  '  heaped  up  ' 
that  it  might  be  moenitius  '  better  fortified,'  was  called 
aggeres  '^  '  dikes,'  and  that  which  was  to  support  the 
dike  was  called  a  moerus  '  wall.'  Because  carrying 
was  done  for  the  sake  of  muniendi  '  fortifying,'  the 
work  was  a  munus  '  duty  '  ;  because  they  enclosed 
the  town  by  this  moenus,  it  was  a  moerus  '  wall.' 

142.  Its  top  was  called  pinnae'^  '  pinnacles,'  from 
those  feathers  which  distinguished  soldiers  are  accus- 

words,  since  Varro  had  a  fondness  for  archaic  spellings. 
•*  Exaggerare  is  from  agger,  which  is  from  ad  '  to  '  and 
gerere  '  to  carry.' 

§  142.     "  Literally, '  feathers.' 



milites  in  galeis  habere  solent  et  in  gladiatoribus 
Samnites.  Turres  a  torvis,  quod  eae  proiciunt  ante 
alios.  Qua  viam  relinquebant  in  muro,  qua  in  op- 
pidum  portarent,  portas. 

143.  Oppida  condebant  in  Latio  Etrusco  ritu 
multi,  id  est  iunctis  bobus,  tauro  et  vacca  interiore, 
aratro  circumagebant  sulcum  (hoc  faciebant  religionis 
causa  die  auspicato),  ut  fossa  et  muro  essent  muniti. 
Terram  unde  exculpserant,  fossam  vocabant  et  intror- 
sum  «actami  murum.  Post  ea''  qui  fiebat  orbis,  urbis 
principium  ;  qui  quod  erat  post  murum,  postmoerium 
dictum,  eo  usque*  auspicia  urbana  finiuntur.  Cippi 
pomeri  stant  et  circum  Anc«am  et*  circum^  Romam. 
Quare  et  oppida  quae  prius  erant  circumducta  aratro 
ab  orbe«  et  urvo  urb<e>s  ;  et'  ideo  coloniae  nostrae 
omnes  in  litteris  antiquis  scribuntur  urbes,*  quod  item 
conditae  ut  Roma  ;  et  ideo  coloniae  et  urbes  con- 
duntur,  quod  intra  pomerium  ponuntur. 

144.  Oppidum  quod  primum  conditum  in  Latio 
stirpis   Romanae,   Lavinium  :    nam  ibi   dii   Penates 

§  143.  ^  Mue.,  for  factam  Fv.  ^  Mue.,  for  postea. 
*  Mommsen,  for  eiusque.  *  Sciop.,for  ars  clamet.  ^  B, 
Laetus,  for  circoum  Fv.  *  Laetus,  for  urbe.  '  Aldus, 
for  urbs  est.         *  For  urbis. 

''  Heavy-armed  fighters  who  were  matched  against  Hght- 
armed  plnnirapi  '  feather-snatchers.'  '  An  Asiatic  word 

brought  by  the  Etruscans.         "*  Portare  is  from  porta. 

§  143.  "  That  is,  with  the  cow  between  the  bull  and  the 
wall;  but  GS.  take  interiore  with  aratro,  interpreting, 
"  with  the  plough  throwing  up  the  earth  on  the  inside." 
*■  The  old  form  o{ pomerium.  "  An  ancient  L.atin  town  on 

the  Appian  Way  between  the  Alban  Lake  and  the  Lake  of 
Nemi.  "*  An  attempt  to  explain  the  phrase  urbes  con- 
duntur  ;    in  reality,  condere  means  merely  to  set  down  in  a 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  142-144 

tomed  to  wear  on  their  helmets,  and  among  the 
gladiators  the  Samnites  *  wear.  Turres  "^  '  towers,' 
from  torxi  '  fiercely  staring  eyes,'  because  they  stand 
out  in  front  of  the  rest.  Where  they  left  a  way  in  the 
wall,  by  which  they  might  portare  '  carry  '  goods 
into  the  town,  these  they  called  portae  •*  '  gates.' 

143.  Many  founded  towns  in  Latium  by  the 
Etruscan  ritual  ;  that  is,  ^Wth  a  team  of  cattle,  a  bull 
and  a  cow  on  the  inside,"  they  ran  a  furrow  around 
with  a  plough  (for  reasons  of  religion  they  did  this  on 
an  auspicious  day),  that  they  might  be  fortified  by  a 
ditch  and  a  wall.  The  place  whence  they  had  ploughed 
up  the  earth,  they  called  ajbssa  '  ditch,'  and  the  earth 
thrown  inside  it  they  called  the  murus  '  wall.'  The 
orbis  '  circle  '  which  was  made  back  of  this,  was  the 
beginning  of  the  urbs  '  city  '  ;  because  the  circle  was 
post  murum  '  back  of  the  wall,'  it  was  called  a  post- 
moerium  * ;  it  sets  the  limits  for  the  taking  of  the 
auspices  for  the  city.  Stone  markers  of  the  pomerium 
stand  both  around  Aricia  '^  and  around  Rome.  There- 
fore towns  also  which  had  earlier  had  the  plough  drawn 
around  them,  were  termed  urbes  '  cities,'  from  orbis 
'  circle  '  and  vrvum  '  curved  '  ;  therefore  also  all  our 
colonies  are  mentioned  as  urbes  in  the  old  wTitings, 
because  they  had  been  founded  in  just  the  same  way 
as  Rome  ;  therefore  also  colonies  and  cities  conduntur 
'  are  founded,'  because  they  are  placed  inside  the 

144."  The  first  town  of  the  Roman  line  which  was 
founded  in  Latium,  was  Lavinium  ;  for  there  are  our 

secure  place  where  there  is  no  danger  of  displacement  or  of 

§  144.  "  This  section  embodies  the  old  Roman  tradition ; 
the  etymologies  in  it  are  purely  aetiological. 



nostri.  Hoc  a  Latini  filia,  quae  coniuncta  Aeneae, 
Lavinia,  appellatM(m>.i  Hinc  post  triginta  annos 
oppidum  alterum  conditur,  Alba  ;  id  ab  sue  alba 
nominatum.  Haec  e  navi  Aeneae  cum  fu(g>isset* 
Lavinium,  triginta  parit  porcos  ;  ex  hoc  prodigio  post 
Lavinium  conditum  annis  triginta  haec  urbs  facta, 
propter  colorem  suis  et  loci  naturam  Alba  Longa  dicta. 
Hinc  mater  Romuli  Rhea,  ex  hac  Romulus,  hinc 

145.  In  oppido  vici  a  via,  quod  ex  <u>traque^  parte 
viae  sunt  aedificia.  Fundulae^  a  fundo,  quod  exitum 
non  habe(n>t^  ac  pervium  non  est.  Angiportum, 
si(ve  quod)  id*  angustum,  (sive)*  ab  agendo  et  portu. 
Quo  conferrent  suas  controversias  et  quae  vende- 
rentur  vellent  quo  ferrent,  forum  appellarunt. 

146.  Ubi  quid  genera tim,  additum  ab  eo  cog- 
nomen, ut  Forum  Bovarium,  Forum  //olitorium  :  hoc 
erat  antiquum  Macellum,  ubi  Aolerum  copia  ;  ea  loca 
etiam  nunc  Lacedaemonii  vocant  /za/<eAAov,  sed  lones 
ostia^    Aortorum    /«a/<eAAwTas    Aortorum,    et    castelli 

§  144.  ^  Stanley,  for  appellata.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for 

§  145.  ^  Auff.,  with  B,  for  dextra  qui.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for 
fundullae.  ^  B,  for    habet.  *  Mue.,  for   si    id. 

^  Added  by  Mue. 

§  146.     1  For  hostia. 

*  It  lay  on  the  edge  of  the  old  volcanic  crater  containing  the 
Alban  Lake. 

§  145.  "  A  vicus  is  apparently  a  street  on  the  ridge  of  a 
hill,  with  houses  on  each  side  ;  this  forms  virtually  the  entire 
village.  The  word  is  not  connected  with  via.  *  From  the 
first  part  of  angustum,  +portus  in  its  old  meaning  of  '  pas- 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  144r-146 

Penates.  This  was  named  from  the  daughter  of 
Latinus  who  was  wedded  to  Aeneas,  Lavinia.  Thirty 
years  after  this,  a  second  town  was  founded,  named 
Alba  ;  it  was  named  from  the  alba  '  white  '  sow. 
This  sow,  when  she  had  escaped  from  Aeneas 's  ship 
to  La\inium,  gave  birth  to  a  Utter  of  thirty  young  : 
from  this  prodigy,  thirty  years  after  the  founding  of 
Lavinium,  this  second  city  was  established,  called  Alba 
Longa  ^  '  the  Long  White  City,'  on  account  of  the 
colour  of  the  sow  and  the  nature  of  the  place.  From 
here  came  Rhea,  mother  of  Romulus  ;  from  her, 
Romulus  ;  from  him,  Rome. 

lio.  In  a  town  there  are  rid  '  rows,'  from  via 
'  street,'  because  there  are  buildings  on  each  side  of  the 
I'm."  Fundulae  '  blind  streets,'  ^rova  fundus  '  bottom,' 
because  they  have  no  way  out  and  there  is  no  passage 
through.  Angiportum  *  '  alley,'  either  because  it  is 
angustum  '  narrow,'  or  from  agere  '  to  drive  '  and 
partus  '  entrance.'  The  place  to  which  they  might 
conferre  '  bring  '  their  contentions  and  might  Jerre 
'  carry  '  articles  which  they  wished  to'  sell,  they  called 
a.  forum.'' 

Ii6.  WTiere  things  of  one  class  were  brought,  a 
denomination  was  added  from  that  class,  as  the  Forum 
Boarium  '  Cattle  Market,' the  Forum  HoUtoriuvi '  ^'ege- 
table  Market  '  :  this  was  the  old  Macellum,'^  where 
holera  '  vegetables  '  in  quantity  were  brought  ;  such 
places  even  now  the  Spartans  call  a  macellum,  but  the 
lonians  call  the  entrances  to  gardens  "  the  macellotae 
of  gardens,"  and  speak  of  the  macella  '  entrances  '  to 

sage-way.'    But  c/.  P.  W.  Harsh,  "  Angiportum,  Platea,  and 
Vicus,"  in  Class.  Philol.  xxxii.  44-58.         '  Wrong. 

§  146.  «  An  old  borrowing  from  Greek,  where  /xajceAAov 
meant  '  latticed  screen.' 



fiaKeXXa."  Secundum  Tiberim  ad  (Por>^unium'  Forum 
Piscarium  vocant  :  ideo  ait  Plautus  : 

Apud  (Forum)*  Piscarium. 

Ubi  variae  res  ad  Corneta  Forum  Cuppedinis  a  (cup- 
pedio,  id  est  a)^  fastidio,  quoc?^  multi  Forum  Cup?dinis' 
a  cupiditate. 

147.  Haec  omnia  posteaquam  contracta  in  unum 
locum  quae  ad  victum  pertinebant  et  aedificatus 
locus,  appellatum  Macellum,  ut  quidam  scribunt, 
quod  ibi  fuerit  Aortus,  alii  quod  ibi  domus  furi*,^  cui 
cognomen  fuit  Macellus,  quae  ibi  publice  sit  diruta, 
e  qua  aedificatum  hoc  quod  vocetur  ab  eo  Macellum. 

148.  In  Foro  Lacum  Curtium  a  Curtio  dictum 
constat,  et  de  eo  triceps  historia  :  nam  et  Procilius 
non  idem  prodidit  quod  Piso,  nee  quod  is  Cornelius^ 
secutus.  A  Procilio  relatum  in  eo  loco  dehisse  terram 
et  id  ex  S.  C.  ad  Aaruspices  relatum  esse  ;  responsum 
deum  ManiM<m)2  postilionem  postulare,  id  est  civem 
fortissimum  eo  demitti.*  Tum  quendam  Curtium 
virum  fortem  armatum  ascendisse  in  equum  et  a  Con- 
cordia versum  cum  equo  eo*  praecipitatum  ;   eo  facto 

^  macella  Scaliger,  for  macelli.  ^  Jordan,  for  iunium. 
*  Added  by  GS.,  from  Plautus,  Cure.  474.  *  Added  by 
GS.         *  Laetus,  for  quern.         '  For  cuppedinis. 

§  147.     ^  Stowasser,  for  fuerit  ;  cf.  Festus,  125.  7  M. 

§  148.     ^  After  Cornelius,  Mue.  deleted  Stilo.  *  Laetus, 

for  manio.  *  Turnebus,  for  eodem  mitti.  *  A.  Sp., 
with  H,  for  eum. 

">  Cnrculio,  474.  "  Page  115  Funaioli. 

§147.     "Page  116  Funaioli.  *  Seemingly  only  an 

aetiological  story  ;  the  cognomen  is  not  otherwise  known. 
Could  it  here  be  a  corruption  of  Marcellus  ? 

§  148.  "  A  writer  on  historical  topics,  possibly  the  Pro- 
cilius who  was  tribune  of  the  plebs  in  56  b.c.  ^  L.  Cal- 
purnius  Pise  Frugi,  consul  133  b.c,  adversary  of  the  Gracchi  ; 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  146-148 

small  fortified  villages.  Along  the  Tiber,  at  the 
sanctuary  of  Portunus,  they  call  it  the  Forum  Pis- 
carium  '  Fish  Market  '  ;  therefore  Plautus  says  ^  : 

Down  at  the  Market  that  sells  the  fish. 

Where  things  of  various  kinds  are  sold,  at  the  Cornel- 
Cherry  .  Groves,  is  the  Forum  Cuppedinis  '  Luxury 
Market,'  from  cuppedium  '  delicacy,'  that  is,  from 
fastidium  '  fastidiousness  '  ;  many  '^  call  it  the  Forum 
Cupidinis  '  Greed  Market,'  from  cupiditas  '  greed.' 

147.  After  all  these  things  which  pertain  to  human 
sustenance  had  been  brought  into  one  place,  and  the 
place  had  been  built  upon,  it  was  called  a  Macellum, 
as  certain  writers  say,"  because  there  was  a  garden 
there  ;  others  say  that  it  was  because  there  had  been 
there  a  house  of  a  thief  with  the  cognomen  Macellus,* 
which  had  been  demolished  by  the  state,  and  from 
which  this  building  has  been  constructed  which  is 
called  from  him  a  Macellum. 

148.  In  the  Forum  is  the  Locus  Curtius  '  Pool  of 
Curtius  '  ;  it  is  quite  certain  that  it  is  named  from 
Curtius,  but  the  story  about  it  has  three  versions  :  for 
Procilius  "  does  not  tell  the  same  story  as  Piso,''  nor 
did  Cornelius  '  follow  the  story  given  by  ProciUus. 
Procilius  states  '^  that  in  this  place  the  earth  yawned 
open,  and  the  matter  was  by  decree  of  the  senate 
referred  to  the  haruspices  ;  they  gave  the  answer  that 
the  God  of  the  Dead  demanded  the  fulfilment  of  a 
forgotten  vow,  namely  that  the  bravest  citizen  be  sent 
down  to  him.  Then  a  certain  Curtius,  a  brave  man, 
put  on  his  war-gear,  mounted  his  horse,  and  turning 
away  from  the  Temple  of  Concord,  plunged  into  the 

author  of  a  work  on  Roman  history.  '  Identity  quite 
uncertain.         <*  Hist.  Bom.  Frag.,  page  198  Peter. 



locum  coisse  atque  eius  corpus  divinitus  humasse  ac 
reliquisse  genti  suae  monumentum. 

149.  Piso  in  Annalibus  scribit  Sabino  bello,  quod 
fuit  Romulo  et  Tatio,  virum  fortissimum  Met(t>ium 
Currium^  Sabinum,  cum  Romulus  cum  suis  ex  su- 
periore  parte  impressionem  fecisset,^  in  locum^  palus- 
trem,  qui  tum  fuit  in  Foro  antequam  cloacae  sunt 
factae,  secessisse  atque  ad  suos  in  Capitolium  re- 
cepisse  ;  ab  eo  lacum  (Curtium)*  invenisse  nomen. 

150.  Cornelius  et  Lutatius^  scribunt  eum  locum 
esse  fulguritum  et  ex  S.  C.  septum  esse  :  id  quod 
factum  es<se>t''  a  Curtio  consule,  cui  M.  Genucius' 
fuit  collega,  Curtium  appellatum. 

151.  Arx  ab  arcendo,  quod  is  locus  munitissimus 
Urbis,  a  quo  facillime  possit  hostis  prohiberi.  Career 
a  coercendo,  quod  exire  prohibentur.  In  hoc  pars 
quae  sub  terra  Tullianum,  ideo  quod  additum  a 
Tullio  rege.  Quod  Syracusis,  ubi  de<licti>i  causa 
custodiuntur,    vocantur   latomiae,    <in)de*   lautumia 

§  149.  1  For  curcium  Fv.  ^  After  fecisset,  Popma  de- 
leted curtium.         '  Laetus,  for  lacum.         *  Added  by  GS. 

§  150.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  luctatius.  "  3fue.,  for  est. 
'  For  genutius. 

§151.  ^  Bergmann,  for  dc.  ^  Mue.  ;  exmde  Turnebus  ; 
for  et  de. 

§  149.  "  Hist.  Bom.  Frag.,  page  79  Peter.  *  Tradition- 
ally built  by  the  first  Tarquin  ;  ef.  Livv,  i.  38.  6,  "  Cf. 
Livy,  i.  10-13,  especially  i.  12.  9-10  andl  13.  5. 

§  150.  "  Q.  Lutatius  Catulus,  152-87  b.c,  consul  102  as 
colleague  of  Marius  in  the  victory  over  the  Cimbri  at  Ver- 
cellae  ;    a  writer  on  etymology  and   antiquities.  *  Hist. 

Bom.  Frag.,  page  126  Peter  ;  Gram.  Bom.  Frag.,  page  105 
Funaioli.  '  C.  Curtius  Chilo  and  M.  Genucius  Augurinus 

were  colleagues  in  the  consulship  in  445  b.c. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  148-151 

gap,  horse  and  all  ;  upon  which  the  place  closed  up 
and  gave  his  body  a  burial  divinely  approved,  and 
left  to  his  clan  a  lasting  memorial. 

149.  Piso  in  his  Annah  "  MTites  that  in  the  Sabine 
War  between  Romulus  and  Tatius,  a  Sabine  hero 
named  Mettius  Curtius,  when  Romulus  with  his  men 
had  charged  down  from  higher  ground  and  driven  in 
the  Sabines,  got  away  into  a  swampy  spot  which  at 
that  time  was  in  the  Forum,  before  the  sewers  *  had 
been  made,  and  escaped  from  there  to  his  own  men 
on  the  Capitoline  '^ ;  and  from  this  the  pool  found  its 

150.  Cornelius  and  Lutatius  "  >\Tite  *  that  this 
place  was  struck  by  lightning,  and  by  decree  of  the 
senate  was  fenced  in  :  because  this  was  done  by  the 
consul  Curtius, "^  who  had  \L  Genucius  as  his  colleague, 
it  was  called  the  Lacus  Curiius. 

151.  The  arx  "  '  citadel,'  from  arcere  '  to  keep  off,' 
because  this  is  the  most  strongly  fortified  place  in  the 
City,  from  which  the  enemy  can  most  easily  be  kept 
away.  The  career  ^  '  prison,'  from  coercere  '  to  con- 
fine,' because  those  who  are  in  it  are  prevented  from 
going  out.  In  this  prison,  the  part  which  is  under  the 
ground  is  called  the  Tullianum,  because  it  was  added 
by  King  TulUus.  Because  at  Syracuse  the  place 
where  men  are  kept  under  guard  on  account  of 
transgressions  is  called  the  Latomiae  "  '  quarries,'  from 

§  151.  "The  northern  summit  of  the  Capitoline,  on  which 
stood  the  temple  of  Juno  Moneta.  *  Beneath  the  Arx,  at 

the  corner  of  the  Forum  ;    etymology  wrong.  '  Greek 

Xarofuai,  contracted  from  Aooro/iiat,  which  gave  the  Latin 
word  ;  there  were  old  tufa-quarries  on  the  slopes  of  the 
Capitoline,  and  the  excavation  which  formed  the  dungeon  was 
probably  a  part  of  the  quarry. 



translatum,  quod  hie  quoque  in  eo  loco  lapidicinae 

152.  In  <Aventi)wo^  Lauretum  ab  eo  quod  ibi 
sepultus  est  Tatius  rex,  qui  ab  Laurentibus  inter- 
fectus  est,  (aut>*  ab  silva  laurea,  quod  ea  ibi  excisa  et 
aedificatus  vicus  :  ut  inter  Sacram  Viam  et  Macellum 
editum  Corneta  <a  cornis),^  quae  abscisae  loco  re- 
liquerunt  nomen,  ut  ^esculetum  ab  aesculo*  dictum 
et  Fagutal  a  fago,  unde  etiam  lovis  Fagutalis,  quod 
ibi  sacellum. 

153.  Armilustr(i>umi  q})  ambitu  lustri  :  locus 
idem  Circus  Maximus^  dictus,  quod  circum  spectaculis 
aedificatus  wbi^  ludi  fiunt,  et  quod  ibi  circum  metas 
fertur  pompa  et  equi  currunt.  Itaque  dictum  in 
Cornicula<ria>*  militis^  adventu,  quem  circumeunt 
ludentes  : 

Quid  cessamus  ludos  facere  ?     Circus  noster  ecce 

§152.     ^  Groth,    for     in      eo.  ^  Added     by     Sciop. 

'  Added  by  Aug.,  with  B.         *  Laetits,  for  escula. 

§  153.  ^  For  armilustrum.  "  Laetus,  for  mecinus. 
'  Aug.,  with  B,  for  ibi.  *  Vertranius,  for  cornicula. 
'  Turnebits,  for  milites. 

§  152.  "  There  is  here  a  lacuna,  or  else  the  in  eo  of  the 
manuscripts  stands  for  in  Aventino  ;  for  the  Lauretum  was 
on  the  Aventine. 

§  153.  "  The  word  denotes  both  the  ceremony,  held  on 
October  19,  and  the  place  where  it  Mas  performed,  which 
seems  originally  to  have  been  on  the  Aventine  ;  according  to 
Varro,  it  was  later  held  in  the  Circus,  in  the  valley  between 
the  Aventine  and  the  Palatine.  According  to  Servius,  in 
Aen.  i.  283,  the  name  was  ambilustrum,  so  called  because  the 
ceremony  was  not  legal  unless  performed  by  both  (ambo) 
censors  jointly  ;  it  is  possible  that  the  word  should  be  so 
emended  here  and  at  vi.  22.  "  Circum  is  merely  the  ac- 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  151-153 

that  the  word  was  taken  over  as  lautumia,  because 
here  also  in  this  place  there  were  formerly  stone- 

1 52.  On  the  Aventine  "  is  the  Lauretiim  '  Laurel- 
Grove,'  called  from  the  fact  that  King  Tatius  was 
buried  there,  who  was  killed  by  the  Laurentes  '  Lauren- 
tines,'  or  else  from  the  laurea  '  laurel  '  wood,  because 
there  was  one  there  which  was  cut  down  and  a  street 
run  through  with  houses  on  both  sides  :  just  as 
between  the  Sacred  Way  and  I  he  higher  part  of  the 
Macellum  are  the  Corneta  '  Cornel-Cherry  Groves,' 
from  corni  'cornel-cherry  trees,'  which  though  cut 
away  left  their  name  to  the  place  ;  just  as  the  Aescu- 
letum  '  Oak-Grove '  is  named  from  aesculus  '  oak-tree,' 
and  the  Fagutal  '  Beech-tree  Shrine  '  from  fagus 
'  beech-tree,'  whence  also  Jupiter  Fagutalis  '  of  the 
B&ech-tree,'  because  his  shrine  is  there. 

153.  Armilustrium  "  '  purification  of  the  arms,'  from 
the  going  around  of  the  lustrum  '  purificatory  offering'; 
and  the  same  place  is  called  the  Circus  Maximus, 
because,  being  the  place  where  the  games  are 
performed,  it  is  built  up  circum  ^  '  round  about '  for 
the  shows,  and  because  there  the  procession  goes 
and  the  horses  race  circum  '  around '  the  turning-posts. 
Thus  in  The  Story  of  the  Helmet-Horn  «^  the  following 
is  said  at  the  coming  of  the  soldier,  whom  they  en- 
circle and  make  fun  of : 

Why  do  we  refrain  from  making  sport  ?      See,  here's 
our  circus-ring. 

cusative  of  circus.  «  Frag.  I  of  Plautus's  Cornicularia, 

which  may  be  taken  as  the  Story  of  the  Corniculiim,  a  horn- 
shaped  ornament  on  the  helmet,  bestowed  for  bravery  ;  here 
apparently  assumed  by  a  braggart  soldier,  the  miles  of  the 



In  circo  primum  unde  mittuntur  equi,  nunc  dicuntur 
carceres,  Naevius  oppidum  appellat.  Carceres  dicti, 
quod  coercentur^  equi,  ne  inde  exeant  antequam 
magistratus  signum  misit.  Quod  a(d>  muri  spmem' 
pmnis*  turribusque*  carceres  olim  fuerunt,  scripsit 
poeta  : 

Dictator  ubi  currum  insidit,  pervehitur  usque  ad 

154.  Intumus  circus  ad  Murciae^  vocatur,*  ut 
Procilius  aiebat,  ab  urceis,  quod  is  locus  esset  inter 
figulos  ;  alii  dicunt  a  murteto  declinatum,  quod  ibi  id 
fuerit ;  cuius  vestigium  manet,  quod  ibi  est  sacellum 
etiam  nunc  Murteae  Veneris.  Item  simiU  de  causa 
Circus  Flaminius  dicitur,  qui  circum  aedificatus  est 
Flaminium  Campum,  et  quod  ibi  quoque  Ludis 
Tauriis  equi  circum  metas  currunt. 

155.  Comitium  ab  eo  quod  coibant  eo  comitiis 
curiatis  et  litium  causa.  ^  Curiae  duorum  generum  : 
nam  et  ubi  curarent  sacerdotes  res  divinas,  ut^  curiae 

*  p,  Ed.  Veneta  (cohercentur  Laetus),  for  coercuntur. 
'  Mue.,    for    a     muris     partem.         *  Laetus,    for    pennis. 

*  Aug.,  for  turribus  qui. 

§  154.     ^  L.  Sp.,for  murcim  Fv.         ^  Sciop.,for  uocatum. 
§  155.     ^  Mue.  ;  caussa  Aug.,  with  B  ;  causae  Fv.       ^  For 

**  Merely  the  plural  of  career  '  prison  '  ;  not  related  to 
coercere.  *  Naevius,  Comic.  Rom.  Frag.,  inc.  fab.  II  Rib- 
beck»  ;  R.O.L.  ii.  148-149  Warmington. 

§  154.  "  Hist.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  3  Peter.  *  Page  116 
Funaioli.  "  In  the  level  ground  of  the  Campus  Martius, 
through  which  C.  Flaminius  Nepos  as  censor  in  220  b.c. 
built  the  Via  Flaminia,  the  great  highway  from  Rome  to  the 
north,  and  near  it  the  Circus  Flaminius  ;  he  was  consul  in 
217  and  was  killed  in  the  battle  with  Hannibal  at  Lake 


In  the  Circus,  the  place  from  which  the  horses  are  let 

go  at  the  start,  is  now  called  the  Carceres  '  Prison- 
stalls,'  but  Nae\ius  called  it  the  Town.  Carceres  ^ 
was  said,  because  the  horses  coercentur  '  are  held  in 
check,'  that  they  may  not  go  out  from  there  before 
the  official  has  given  the  sign.  Because  the  Stalls 
were  formerly  adorned  with  pinnacles  and  towers 
like  a  wall,  the  poet  -v^Tote  '  : 

When  the  Dictator  mounts  liis  car,  he  rides  the  whole 
way  to  the  Town. 

154.  The  very  centre  of  the  Circus  is  called  ad 
Murciae  '  at  Murcia's,'  as  Procilius  ^*  said,  from  the 
urcei  '  pitchers,'  because  this  spot  was  in  the  potters* 
quarter  ;  others  *  say  that  it  is  derived  from  murtetum 
'  myrtle-grove,'  because  that  was  there  :  of  which  a 
trace  remains  in  that  the  chapel  of  Venus  Murtea  '  of 
the  Myrtle  '  is  there  even  to  this  day.  Likewise  for  a 
similar  reason  the  Circus  Flaminius  '  Flaminian  Circus ' 
got  its  name,  for  it  is  built  '  circum  '  around  '  the 
Flaminian  Plain,  and  there  also  the  horses  race 
circum  '  around '  the  turning-posts  at  the  Taurian 

155.  The  Comitium  '  Assembly-Place  '  was  named 
from  this,  that  to  it  they  coibant  '  came  together  '  for 
the  comitia  curiata  "  '  curiate  meetings  '  and  for  law- 
suits. The  curiae  *  '  meeting-houses  '  are  of  two 
kinds  :  for  there  are  those  where  the  priests  were  to 
attend  to  affairs  of  the  gods,  like  the  old  meeting- 

Trasumennus.  ''  Games  in  honour  of  the  deities  of  the 

§  155.  "  Long  before  Varro's  time,  practically  replaced  by 
the  comitia  centuriata.  *  Curia  denoted  first  a  group  of 
gentes  ;  then  a  meeting-place  for  such  groups  ;  then  any 

VOL.  I  L  145 


veteres,  et  ubi  senatus  humanas,  ut  Curia  Hostilia, 
quod  primus  aedificavit  Hostilius  rex.  Ante  banc 
Rostra  ;  cuius  id  vocabulum,  ex  hostibus  capta  fixa 
sunt  rostra  ;  sub  dextra  huius  a  Comitio  locus  sub- 
structus,  ubi  nationum  subsisterent  legati  qui  ad 
senatum  essent  missi  ;  is  Graecostasis  appellatus  a 
parte,  ut  multa. 

156.  Senaculum  supra  Graecostasim,  ubi  Aedis 
Concordiae  et  Basilica  Opimia  ;  Senaculum  vocatum, 
ubi  senatus  aut  ubi  seniores  consisterent,  dictum  ut 
yepova-M^  apud  Graecos.  Lautolae  ab  lavando,  quod 
ibi  ad  lanum  Geminum  aquae  caldae  fuerunt.  Ab 
his  palus  fuit  in  Minore  Velabro,  a  quo,  quod  ibi 
vehebantur  Imtribus,^  velabrum,  ut  illud  de  quo  supra 
dictum  est. 

157.  Aequimaelium,  quod  a<e>quata^  Maeli  domus 
publics,^  quod  regnum  occupare  voluit  is.  Locus  ad 
Busta  Gallica,  quod  Roma  recuperata  Gallorum  ossa 

§  156.  ^  RhoL,  for  ierusia  (gerusia  G).  ^  Ijaetus,  for 
luntribus  Fv. 

§157.     *  iJAoL, /or  aquata.         *  ^^/dw*, /or  publico. 

"  The  third  king  of  Rome  ;  for  his  building  of  the  curia, 
see  Livy,  i.  30.  2.  "*  This  was  the  old  stand,  erected  at 
least  one  hundred  years  before  it  was  decorated  in  338  by 
C.  Maenius  with  six  beaks  of  war-vessels  taken  in  a  battle 
with  Antium  ;  c/.  Livy,  viii.  14.  8.  *  Presumably  because 
the  Greeks  were  the  first  to  send  such  embassies ;  when 
other  nations  began  to  send  them,  the  name  of  the  place 
had  been  established. 

§  1 56.  "  As  the  two  stands  were  at  the  foot  of  the  Capito- 
line  and  the  end  of  the  Forum,  the  senaculum  must  have  lain 
just  in  front  of  them.  "  Those  over  forty-six  years  of  age, 

in  distinction  from  the  iuniores.  "^  This  temple  lay  appar- 

ently a  little  to  the  east  of  the  Comitium,  at  the  side  of  the 
Forum  or  slightly  away  from  it.  ''The  tense  of  fuerunt 
a.ndi  fuit  indicates  that  the  hot  springs  and  the  pool  were  no 
longer  there  in  Varro's  time.         •  Cf.  v.  43-44. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  155-157 

houses,  and  those  where  the  senate  should  attend  to 
affairs  of  men,  like  the  Hostilian  Meeting-House,  so 
called  because  King  Hostilius  '^  was  the  first  to  build 
it.  In  front  of  this  is  the  Rostra  '  Speaker's  Stand '  <* : 
of  which  this  is  the  name — the  rostra  '  beaks  '  taken 
from  the  enemy's  ships  have  been  fastened  to  it. 
A  little  to  the  right  of  it,  in  the  direction  of  the 
Comitium,  is  a  lower  platform,  where  the  envoys  of 
the  nations  who  had  been  sent  to  the  senate  were 
to  wait  ;  this,  like  many  things,  was  called  from  a 
part  of  it,  being  named  the  Graecostasis  '  Stand  of 
the  Greeks.'  * 

156.  Above  the  Graecostasis  was  the  Senaculum  " 
'  Senate-Stand,'  where  the  Temple  of  Concord  and 
the  Basilica  Opimia  are  ;  it  was  called  Senaculum  as 
a  place  where  the  senate  or  the  seniores  **  '  elders  ' 
were  to  take  their  places,  named  like  yepoiKria 
'  assembly  of  elders  '  among  the  Greeks.  Lautolae 
'  baths,'  from  lavare  '  to  wash,'  because  there  near 
the  Double  Janus  '^  there  once  were  "^  hot  springs. 
From  these  there  was  ^  a  pool  in  the  Lesser  Velabrum, 
from  which  fact  it  was  called  velabrum  because  there 
they  vehebantur  '  were  conveyed '  by  skiffs,  like  that 
greater  Velabrum  of  which  mention  has  been  made 

157.  The  Aequimaelium '  Maelius-Flat,'  because  the 
house  of  Maelius  was  aequata  '  laid  flat  '  by  the  state 
since  he  wished  to  seize  the  power  and  be  king."  The 
place  Ad  Busta  Gallica  '  At  the  Gauls'  Tombs,'  because 
on  the  recovery  of  Rome  the  bones  of  the  Gauls  who 

§  157.  °  Spurius  Maelius,  suspected  of  aiming  at  royal 
power,  was  slain  by  C.  Servilius  Ahala,  magister  equitum,  in 
439  B.C.,  by  direction  of  the  dictator  L.  Quinctius  Cincin- 
natus  ;  c/.  Livy,  iv.  13-14. 



qui  possederunt  urbem  ibi  coacei'vata  ac  consepta. 
Locus  qui  vocatur  Doliola  ad  Cluacam  Maxumam,  ubi 
non  licet  despuere,  a  doliolis  sub  terra.  Eorum  duae 
traditae  historiae,  quod  alii  inesse  aiunt  ossa  cada- 
verum,  alii  Numae  Pompilii  religiosa  quaedam  post 
mortem  eius  infossa.  Argzletum^  sunt  qui  scrip- 
serunt  ab  Argo  La<ri>saeo,*  quod  is  hue  venerit 
ibique  sit  sepultus,  alii  ab  argilla,  quod  ibi  id  genus 
terrae  sit. 

158.  Clivos  Public<i>usi  ab  aedilibus  plebei  Pu- 
blici<i>s  qui  eum  publice  aedificarunt.  Simili  de  causa 
Pullius  et  Cosconius,  quod  ab  his  viocuris  dicuntur 
aedificati.  Clivus  Proximus  a  Flora  susus''  versus 
Capitolium  vetus,  quod  ibi  sacellum  lovis  lunonis 
Minervae,  et  id  antiquius  quam  aedis  quae  in  Capi- 
tolio  facta. 

159.  Esquiliis^  Vicus  Africus,  quod  ibi  obsides  ex 
Africa  bello  Punico  dicuntur  custoditi.  Vicus  Ct/prius 
a  cj/pro,  quod  ibi  Sabini  cives  additi  consederunt,  qui 

*  Laetus,  for  argeletum.         *  Kent,  for  argola  seu. 

§158.  ^  ^w(/., /or  publicum.  ^  Victorius  andTurnehus, 
for  a  floras  usus. 

§  159.     ^  For  exquiliis. 

*  In  390  (or  388  ?)  b.c.  ;  cf.  Livy,  v.  37  flF.  '  Livy,  v.  40.  8, 
and  Festus,  69.  8  M.,  say  that  the  burial  of  the  sacred  objects 
was  at  the  time  of  the  Gallic  invasion.  "^  A  street  along- 
side the  Comitium  ;  clearly  '  Clay-pit,'  from  argiUa,  but 
commonly  understood  as  Argi  letum  'death  of  Argus.' 
According  to  Servius  in  Jen.  viii.  345,  Argus  was  murdered 
while  he  was  a  guest  of  Evander  ;  Evander  gave  him  honour- 
able burial.  «  Page  115  P'unaioli.  f  My  suggestion  for 
the  impossible  argola  seu  of  the  text  is  based  on  the  fact 
that  both  Argus  the  guardian  of  lo  and  Argus  the  son  of 
Niobe  were  connected   with  the  city  Argos,  whose  citadel 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  157-159 

had  held  Rome  *  were  heaped  up  there  and  fenced  in. 
The  place  near  the  Cloaca  Maxima  which  is  called 
Doliola  '  The  Jars,'  where  spitting  is  prohibited,  from 
some  doliola  '  jars  '  that  were  buried  under  the  earth. 
Two  stories  about  these  are  handed  down  :  some  say 
that  bones  of  dead  men  were  in  them,  others  that 
certain  sacred  objects  belonging  to  Numa  Pompilius 
were  buried  in  them  after  his  death.  "^  The  Argile- 
tum,**  according  to  some  writers,*  was  named  from 
Argus  of  Larisa,^  because  he  came  to  this  place  and 
was  buried  there  ;  according  to  others,  from  the 
argilla  '  clav,'  because  this  kind  of  earth  is  found  at 
this  place. 

158.  The  Cliviis'^  Publictus  '  Pubhcian  Incline,' 
from  the  members  of  the  PubUcian  gens  ^  who  as 
plebeian  aediles  constructed  it  by  state  authority. 
For  like  reasons  the  Cltvus  Pullius  and  the  Clivus  Cos- 
conius,  because  they  are  said  to  have  been  constructed 
by  men  of  these  names  as  Street-Overseers.  The 
Incline  Xext-To-Flora  is  up  towards  the  old  Capitol, 
because  there  is  in  that  place  a  chapel  of  Jupiter, 
Juno,  and  Minerva,  and  this  is  older  than  the  temple 
which  has  been  built  on  the  Capitol. 

159.  On  the  Esquiline  there  is  a  Vicus  Africus 
*  African  Row,'  because  there,  it  is  said,  the  hostages 
from  Africa  in  the  Punic  War  were  kept  under  guard. 
The  Vicus  Cyprius  '  Good  Row,'  from  cuprum,  because 
there  the  Sabines  who  were  taken  in  as  citizens 
settled,  and  they  named  it  from  the  good  omen  : 

was  named  Larisa  or  Larissa  ;  and  Evander's  guest  may 
well  have  been  represented  as  coming  thence. 

§  158.  "  A  street  running  steeply  up  a  hill.  *  Two 
brothers  Lucius  and  Marcus  Publicius  Malleolus,  according 
to  Festus,  238  b  28  M. 



a  bono  omine  id  appellarunt  :  nam  cj/prum  Sabine 
bonum.  Prope  hunc  Vicus  Sceleratus,  dictus  a  Tullia 
Tarquini  Superbi  uxore,  quod  ibi  cum  iaceret  pater 
occisus,  supra  eum  carpentum  mulio  ut  inigeret^ 

XXXIII.  160.  Quoniam  vicus  constat  ex  domibus, 
nunc  earum^  vocabula  vide(a>mus.^  Domus  Graecum 
at  ideo  in  aedibus  saci-is  ante  cellam,  ubi  sedes  dei 
sunt,  Graeci  dicunt  tt/joSo/xov,^  quod  po<s>t  est,* 
o7rio-^o8o/Li<ov>.*  Aedes^  ab  aditu,  quod  piano  pede 
adibant.  Itaque  ex  aedibus  efFerri  indjctivo'  funere 
praeco  etiam  eos  dicit  qui  ex  tabernis  efferuntur,  et 
omnes  in  censu  villas  inde  <de)dicamus*  aedes. 

161.  Cavum  aedium  dictum  qui  locus  tectus  intra 
parietes  relinquebatur  patulus^  qui  esset  ad  com- 
<m)unem  omnium  usum.  In  hoc  locus  si  nullus 
relictus  erat,  sub  divo  qui  esset,  dicebatur  testudo  ab 
testudinis  similitudine,  ut  est  in  praetorio  et  castris. 
Si  relictum  erat  in  medio  ut  lucem  caperet,i  deorsum 
quo  impluebat,  dictum  impluium,  susum  qua  com- 
pluebat,  compluium  :  utrumque  a  pluvia.  Tuscani- 
cum   dictum   a   Tuscis,   posteaquam   illorum   cavum 

*  Ursinus,  for  iniceret. 

§  160.  ^ p,  Aug.,  for  eorum.  ^  For  uidemus  Fv. 
'  For  prodomum  Fv.  *  GS.  ;  post  Vicforius  ;  for  potest. 
'  Victorius,  for  opisthodum  Fv.  *  For  aedis.  '  Aug., 
with  B,  for  inductiuo.         *  Mue.,  for  inde  dicamus. 

§  161.     ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  carperet  Fv. 

§  159.  "  The  Sabine  word  for  '  good  '  was  cupro-  ;  and 
Vicus  Cyprius,  if  correctly  written,  must  mean  '  Cyprian 
Row  '  or  '  Copper  Row.'  *  C/.  Livy,  i.  48.  7. 

§  160.  "  Latin  domus  is  akin  to,  not  derived  from,  Greek 
So/xos.  '■  Wrong  ;   an  aedes  is  a  building  with  a  fireplace, 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  159-161 

for  cyprum  means  *  good  '  in  Sabine."  Near  this  is 
the  Vicus  Sceleraius  '  Accursed  Row,'  named  from 
Tullia  wife  of  Tarquin  the  Proud,  because  when  her 
father  was  lying  dead  in  it  she  ordered  her  muleteer 
to  drive  her  carriage  on  over  his  body.^ 

XXXIIL  160.  Since  a  Row  consists  of  houses,  let 
us  now  look  at  the  names  of  these.  Domus  '  house  ' 
is  a  Greek  word,"  and  therefore  in  the  temples  the 
room  in  front  of  the  hall  where  the  abode  of  the  god 
is  the  Greeks  call  77po8o/xos  '  front  room,'  and  that 
which  is  behind  they  call  oTrio-yoSo/xo?  '  back  room.' 
Aedes  '  house,'  from  adittis  '  approach,'  because  they 
adihant '  approached  '  it  on  level  footing.*  Therefore 
the  herald  at  an  announced  funeral  says  that  those 
who  are  carried  out  of  any  building  made  of  boards, 
are  carried  ex  aedibus  '  from  the  house  '  ;  and  all  the 
country-houses  in  the  census-list  we  from  that  fact  '^ 
call  aedes. 

161.  The  cavum  aedium  '  inner  court  '  is  said  of  the 
roofed  part  which  is  left  open  ^\'ithin  the  house-walls, 
for  common  use  by  all.  If  in  this  no  place  was  left 
which  is  open  to  the  sky,  it  was  called  a  testudo 
'  tortoise  '  from  the  likeness  to  the  testudo,  as  it  is  at 
the  general's  headquarters  and  in  the  camps.  If 
some  space  was  left  in  the  centre  to  get  the  light, 
the  place  into  which  the  rain  fell  down  was  called 
the  impluvium,  and  the  place  where  it  ran  together 
up  above  was  called  the  compluvium  ;  both  from 
pluiia  '  rain.'  The  Tuscanicum  '  Tuscan-style  '  was 
named  from  the  Tusci '  Etruscans,'  after  the  Romans 

c/.  Greek  'a'deiv  '  to  blaze.'  "  Because  such  villae  were 
wooden  buildings,  and  normally  owned  by  Romans  whose 
prominence  would  authorize  them  to  have  publicly  announced 



aedium  simulare  coeperunt.  Atrium  appellatum  ab 
Atriatibus  Tuscis  :  illinc  enim  exemplum  sumptum. 
162.  Circum  cavum  aedium  erat  unius  cuiusque 
rei  utilitatis  causa  parietibus  dissepta  :  ubi  quid  con- 
ditum  esse  volebant,  a  celando  cellam  appellarunt ; 
penariam  ubi  penus  ;  ubi  cubabant  cubieulum  ;  ubi 
cenabant  cenaculum  voeitabant,  ut  etiam  nunc 
Lanuvi  apud  aedem  lunonis  et  in  cetero  Latio  ac 
Faleri<i>s  et  Cordubae  dicuntur.  Posteaquam  in 
superiore  parte  cenitare  coeperunt,  superioris  domus 
universa  cenacula  dicta  ;  posteaquam  ubi  cenabant 
plura  facere  coeperunt,  ut  in  castris  ab  hieme  hiberna, 
hibernum  domus  vocarunt  ;  contraria  .  .  . 


XXXIV.  163.  .  .  .  <quam  re)ligionem^  Porcius 
designat  cum  de  Ennio  scribens  dicit  eum  coluisse 
Tutilinae  loca.  Sequitur  Porta  Naevia,  quod  in 
nemoribus  Naevi«s^  :    etenim  loca,  ubi  ea,  sic  dicta. 

§  162.     1  Thus  Ft: 

§163.     ^  All ff.,  for  ligionem.         ^  Laehis,  for  naevms. 

§161.  "  AtriutH  either  from  Atria,  as  Varro  states,  or 
from  ater  '  black,'  because  the  roof  was  blackened  by  the 
smoke  from  the  hearth-fire,  which  originally  had  to  escape 
by  the  opening  in  the  roof. 

§  162.  "  In  Spain,  the  modern  Cordova.  *  Varro 
doubtless  stated  that  a  dining-room  for  summer  use  was 
called  an  aestiviim. 

§  163.  "  The  lost  passage  concluded  with  an  account  of 
the  gates  of  the  wall  of  Servius  Tullius  ;  the  extant  text 
resumes  just  at  the  end  of  this  description,  giving  the  gates 
on  the  Aventine.  *  Page  44  Huschke.  Porcius  Licinus 
was  a  poet  who  flourished  about  100  b.c.  or  slightly  earlier. 
*  Ennius  lived  on  the  Aventine  ;    according  to  Varro,  near 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  161-163 

began  to  imitate  their  style  of  inner  court.  The 
atrium  '  reception  hall '  was  named  "  from  the  Etrus- 
cans of  Atria  ;  for  from  them  the  model  was  taken. 

162.  Around  the  inner  court  the  house  was  divided 
by  walls,  making  rooms  useful  for  different  purposes  : 
where  they  \*ished  something  to  be  stored  away,  they 
called  it  a  cella  '  store-room,'  from  celare  '  to  conceal  '  ; 
a  penaria  '  food-pantry,'  where  penus  '  food  '  was 
kept  ;  a  atbiailum  '  sleeping-chamber,'  where  they 
cuhabant  '  lay  down  '  for  rest  ;  where  they  cenabant 
'  dined,'  they  called  it  a  cenaciilum  '  dining-room,'  as 
even  now  such  rooms  are  named  at  Lanu\ium  in  the 
Temple  of  Juno,  in  the  rest  of  Latium,  at  Falerii,  and 
at  Corduba."  After  they  began  to  take  dinner  up- 
stairs, all  the  rooms  of  the  upper  story  were  called 
cenacula  ;  still  later,  when  they  began  to  have  several 
rooms  for  dining,  they  called  one  the  hibernuni  '  \\in- 
ter-room  '  of  the  house,  as  in  camps  they  speak  of  the 
hibema  '  ^Wnter  camp,'  from  hiems  '  winter  '  ;  and  on 
the  other  hand  .  .  .  ^ 


XXXIV.  163."  .  .  .  which  worship  Porcius " 
means  when,  speaking  of  Ennius,  he  says  that  he 
dwelt  in  the  locality  of  Tutihna.'^  Next  comes  the 
Nae\'ian  Gate,**  so  called  because  it  is  in  the  Nae\ian 
Woods  :  for  the  locality  where  it  is,  is  called  by  this 
name.     Then  the  Porta  Rauduscula  *  '  Copper  Gate,' 

the  sanctuary  of  Tutilina,  a  goddess  of  protection.  This 
must  be  near  the  Porta  Capena  or  somewhat  to  the  west  of 
it,  in  the  circuit  of  the  Servian  walls,  before  reaching  the 
Porta  yaevia.  *  On  the  south-east  slope  of  the  Aventine. 
'  Or  Raudusculana,  whereby  the  road  led  over  the  central 
depression  of  the  Aventine  to  the  Ostian  road. 



Deinde  Rauduscula,  quod  aerata  fuit.  Aes  raudus 
dictum  ;   ex  eo'  veteribus  in  mancipiis  scriptum  : 

Raudusculo  libram  ferito. 

Hinc  Lavernalis  ab  ara  Lavernae,  quod  ibi  ara  eius. 

164.  Praeterea  intra  mures  video  portas  dici  in 
Palatio  Mucionis  a  mugitu,  quod  ea  pecus  in  buceta 
turn  (ante)  antiquum^  oppidum  exigebant  ;  alteram 
Romanulam,  ab  Roma  dietam,  quae  habet  gradus  in 
Nova  Fia*  ad  Volupiae  sacellum. 

165.  Tertia  est  lanualis,  dicta  ab  lano,  et  ideo  ibi 
positum  lani  signum  et  ius  institutum  a  Pompilio,  ut 
scribit  in  Annalibus  Piso,  ut  sit  aperta  semper,  nisi 
cum  bellum  sit  nusquam.  Traditum  est  memoriae 
Pompilio  rege  fuisse  opertami  et  post  Tito  Manlio" 
consule  bello  CartAaginiensi  primo  confecto,  et  eodem 
anno  apertam. 

XXXV.  166.  Super  lectulis  origines  quas  adverti, 
hae  :    lectica,   quod    legebant    unde    eam^    facerent 

'  After  eo,  L.  Sp.  deleted  in. 

§  164.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  bucitatuni  antiquum  (bucita  turn 
Scaliger).         ^  ScaUffer,  for  noualia. 

§  165.  ^  Scaliger,  for  apertam.  ^  Aug,  (manlio  B), 
for  titio  manilio. 

§  166.     ^  Victorius,  for  iam. 

f  The  oldest  "  money  "  consisted  of  slabs  or  bars  of  aes  rude 
'  rough  copper,'  to  which  reference  is  here  made.  "  A 
goddess  of  the  netherworld,  patroness  of  thieves ;  the 
location  of  the  gate  with  her  altar  is  not  known. 

§  164.  "  The  three  gates  in  the  old  walls  of  the  Palatine. 
*  Or  Porta  Mugonia  ;  in  the  divine  name  Mucio  the  C  has 
the  early  value  of  g.  This  gate  was  at  the  top  of  the  Nova 
Via.  "  Leading  up  from  the  foot  of  the  Nova  Via.  ''  A 
goddess  of  pleasure. 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  163-166 

because  it  was  at  one  time  covered  with  copper. 
Copper  is  called  raudus  ;  from  this  the  ancients  had 
it  ^mtten  in  their  formula  for  symbolic  sales  : 

Let  him  strike  the  balance-pan  with  a  piece  of 

From  here,  the  Lavemal  Gate,  from  the  altar  of 
Laverna,^  because  her  altar  is  there. 

164.  Besides,  inside  the  walls,  I  see,  there  are 
gates  "  on  the  Palatine  :  the  Gate  of  Mucio,**  from 
miigitus  '  lowing,'  because  by  it  they  drove  the  herds 
out  into  the  cow-pastures  which  were  then  in  front 
of  the  ancient  town  ;  a  second  called  the  Romanula 
'  Little  Roman,'  named  from  Rome,  which  has  steps  '^ 
in  New  Street  at  the  Chapel  of  ^'olupia.'* 

165.  The  third  gate  is  the  Janual  Gate,  named 
from  Janus,  and  therefore  a  statue  of  Janus  "  was  set 
up  there,  and  the  binding  practice  was  instituted  by 
Pompilius,  as  Piso  ^  writes  in  his  Annals,  that  the  gate 
should  always  be  open  except  when  there  was  no  war 
anywhere.  The  story  that  has  come  down  to  us  is 
that  it  was  closed  when  Pompilius  was  king,  and  after- 
wards when  Titus  Manlius  was  consul,  at  the  end  of 
the  first  war  ^\-ith  Carthage,  and  then  opened  again  in 
the  same  year." 

XXXV.  166.  On  the  subject  of  beds,"  the  origins 
of  the  names,  so  far  as  I  have  observed  them,  are 
the  following  :  Lectica  '  couch,'  because  they  legebant 

§  1 65.  "  The  archway  of  Janus,  placed  at  the  end  of  the 
Argiletum  where  it  debouched  into  the  Forum  ;  cf.  Livy,  i. 
19.3.  * /fi«<.  iJoOT.  Fra^.,  page  79  Peter.  "'In^SoB.c; 

but  it  was  closed  three  times  in  the  reign  of  Augustus. 

§  166.  "  Lectus,  lectuius,  lectica,  all  from  a  root  meaning 
'  to  lie,'  not  otherwise  found  in  Latin,  but  seen  in  English  lie 
and  lay,  and  in  Greek. 



stramenta  atque  herbam,  ut  etiam  nunc  fit  in  castris  ; 
lecticas,  ne  essent  in  terra,*  sublimis  in  his  ponebant ; 
nisi  ab  eo  quod  Graeci  antiqui  dicebant  AeKxpov 
lectum  potius.  Qui*  lecticam  involvebant,  quod  fere 
stramenta  erant  e  segete,  segestria  appellarunt,  ut 
etiam  nunc  in  castris,  nisi  si  a  Graecis  :  nam  crreya- 
arpov  ihi.*  Lectus  mortui  (quod)^  fertur,  dicebant 
feretrum  nostri,  Graeci  (fyeperpov. 

167.  Posteaquam  transierunt  ad  culcitas,  quod  in 
eas  acus^  aut  tomentum  aliudve  quid  calcabant,  ab 
inculcando  culcita  dicta.  Hoc  quicquid  insternebant 
ab  sternendo  stragulum  appellabant.  Pulvinar  vel  a 
pluffjis  vel  a  pdlulis*  declinarunt.  Quibus  operiban- 
tur,  operimenta,  et  pallia  opercula  dixerunt.  In  his 
multa  peregrina,  ut  sagum,  reno  Gallica,  uP  gaunaca^ 
et  amphimallum  Graeca  ;  contra  Latinum  toral,^ 
ante  torum,  et  torus  a  torto,*  quod  is  in  promptu. 

*  Aug.,  for  terras.  *  Ed.  Veneta,  for  quam.  *  L.  Sp., 
for  ubi.         *  Added  by  L.  Sp. 

§  167.  ^  Ttirnebus,  for  ea  sagus.  *  Aldus,  for  a 
pluribus  uel  a  pollulis.  *  GS.  ;  gallica  Turnebus  ;  for 
galli  quid.  *  GS.  ;  gaunacum  Scaliger,  for  gaunacuma. 
^  A.  Sp.  ;  toral  quod  Aug.;  torale  quod  Aldus  ;  for  tore 
uel.         ^  Meursius,  for  toruo. 

*  That  is,  on  additional  straw  and  grass  (if  the  text  be 
correct).  '^  From  the  Greek,  with  dissimilative  loss  of  the 
prior  t.  <*  The  standing  grain  ;  then,  the  stems  of  the 
grain-plants,  not  merely  of  wheat.  *  From  the  Greek 
word,  which  is  from  <f>epco  '  I  bear.' 

§167.  "Wrong.  "  Hoc -hue  'into  this.'  «^  From 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  16&-167 

'  gathered  '  the  straw-coverings  and  the  grass  vrith 
which  to  make  them,  as  even  now  is  done  in  camp  ; 
these  couches,  that  they  might  not  be  on  the  earth, 
they  raised  up  on  these  materials  *  ; — unless  rather 
from  the  fact  that  the  ancient  Greeks  called  a  bed  a 
AeK-Tpov.  Those  who  covered  up  a  couch,  called  the 
coverings  segestria,'^  because  the  coverings  in  general 
were  made  from  the  seges  ^  '  wheat-stalks,'  as  even 
now  is  done  in  the  camp  ;  unless  the  word  is  from  the 
Greeks,  for  there  it  is  a-Tkyacrrpov.  Because  the  bed 
of  a  dead  raanfertur  '  is  carried,'  our  ancestors  called 
it  a  feretrum  '  '  bier,'  and  the  Greeks  called  it  a 

167.  After  they  had  passed  to  the  use  of  culcitae 
'  mattresses  and  pillows,'  because  into  them  they 
calcabant '  pressed  '  chaff  or  stuffing  or  something  else, 
the  article  was  called  a  culcita  from  inculcare  '  to  press 
in.'  "  Whatever  they  spread  upon  this,*  they  called 
a  stragulum  '  cover  '  from  sternere  '  to  spread.'  The 
pulvinar  '^  '  cushioned  seat  of  honour  '  they  derived 
either  from  plumae  '  feathers  '  or  from  pellulae  '  furs.' 
That  '\\'ith  which  they  operibantur  '  were  covered,' 
they  called  (yperimenta  '  covers,'  and  pallia  '  covers  of  a 
Greek  sort  '  they  called  apercula.  Among  these  there 
are  many  foreign  words,  such  as  saguin  '  soldier's 
blanket  '  and  reno  '  cloak  of  reindfeer  skin,'  which  are 
Gallic,  and  gaunaca  ^  '  heavy  Oriental  cloak  '  and 
amphimallum  '  cloak  shaggy  on  both  sides,'  which  are 
Greek  ;  and  on  the  other  hand  toral '  valance,'  in  front 
of  the  torus  '  bolster,'  is  Latin,  and  so  in  torus  '  bol- 
ster,' from  iortum  '  twisted,'  because  it  is  ready  for 

pulvinut  '  pillow,'  a  word  of  undetermined  origin. 
''  Correct  sources ;  but  gaunaca  came  into  Greek  from 



Ab  hac  similitudine  toruZus'  in  mulieris  capita 

168.  Qua  simplici  scansione  scandebant  in  lectum 
non  al<um,i  scabellum  ;  in  altiorem,  scamnum.  Dupli- 
cata  scansio  gradus  dicitur,  quod  gerit  in  inferiore^ 
superiorem.  Graeca  sunt  peristromata  et  peripetas- 
mata,  sic  ali(a)  quae^  item  convivii  causa  ibi  multa. 

XXXVI.  169.^  Pecuniae  signatae  vocabula  sunt 
aeris  et  argenti  haec  :  as  ab  aere  ;  dupondius  ab^ 
duobus  ponderibus,  quod  unum  pondus  assipondium 
dicebatur  ;  id  ideo  quod  as  erat  libra  pondo.^  Deinde 
ab  numero  reliquum  dictum  usque  ad  centussis,*  ut 
as*  singulari  numero,  ab  tribus  assibus  tressis,  et  sic 
proportione  usque  ad  nonussis. 

170.  In  denario  numero  hoc  mutat,  quod  primum 
est  ab  decem  assibus  decussis,  secundum  ab  duobus 
decussibus  vicessis,!  quod  dici  sol(it>um*  a  duobus 

'  Aug.,  for  toruius. 

§168.  ^  M,  LaeUis,  for  aAmrn.  '^  Laetus,  for  inferiora.. 
'  L.  Sp.,  for  aliquid. 

§  169.  ^  Priscian,  iii.  410.  10  Keil,  quotes  from  this  point, 
beginning  with  multa  at  the  end  of  §  168,  placed  with  §  169 
hy  wrong  division  ;  he  continues  through  decuma  libella  in 
the  first  line  of  §  174.  As  the  best  manuscript  of  Priscian  is 
at  least  three  centuries  older  than  F  of  Varro,  his  text  is 
useful  here,  though  it  omits  some  icords  and  phrases,  and  has 
one  considerable  insertion.  *  Priscian,  for  a.  '  Gronov., 
for  pondus.  *  Priscian  has  centussem.  *  After  as, 
Laetus  deleted  a. 

§170.     ^  Turnebus,  for  hicessis.         ^  Turnebus,  for  solum. 

'  Wrong  ;  he  apparently  means  that  the  torus,  a  bolster 
originally  of  twisted  rushes,  was  ready  when  it  was  properly 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  167-170 

use.'  From  likeness  ^  to  this  is  named  the  iorulus 
'  knob,'  ^  an  ornament  on  a  woman's  head. 

168.  That  by  which  they  scandehant  '  mounted  ' 
by  a  single  scansio  '  step  '  into  a  bed  that  was  not  high, 
they  called  a  scabelluf/i  '  bed  step  '  ;  that  by  which 
they  mounted  into  a  higher  bed,  a  scamnum  '  bed 
steps.'  "  A  double  step  is  called  a  gradus  '  pace,' 
because  it  gerit '  carries  '  a  higher  step  on  the  lower.* 
Peristromata  '  bedspreads  '  and  peripetasmata  '  bed- 
curtains  '  are  Greek  words,  so  are  other  things  which 
are  used  for  banquets  as  well — and  of  them  there  are 
quite  a  number. 

XXX\T.  169.  The  names  of  stamped  money  of 
bronze  and  silver  are  the  follo\nng  :  as  "  from  aes 
'  copper  '  ;  dupondius  '  two-a*  piece  '  from  duo  pondera 
'  two  weights,'  because  one  weight  was  called  an 
assipondium  '  as  piece  '  ;  this  for  the  reason  that  an  as 
was  a  libra  '  unit  '  pondo  '  by  weight.'  From  this  the 
rest  were  named  from  the  number  up  to  centussis  '  one 
hundred  asses,'  as  as  when  the  number  is  one,  tressis 
from  three  asses,  and  so  by  regular  analogy  up  to 
nonussis  '  nine  asses.' 

170.  At  the  number  ten  this  changes,  because  first 
there  is  the  decussis  from  decern  asses '  ten  asses,'  second 
the  vicessis  **  '  twenty  asses  '  from  two  decusses,  which 

twisted,  like  a  torment um  or  piece  of  artillery  which  was 
ready  to  fire  when  the  ropes,  its  source  of  propulsion,  had 
been  twisted.  '  That  is,  similarity  in  shape.  '  The 
shape  in  which  the  hair  was  arranged. 

§  168.  »  Wrong  etymologj- ;  but  scabellum  is  a  diminu- 
tive of  »ca>n  num.  ''Wrong. 

§  169.  "  Not  from  aes,  but  a  word  borrowed  from  some 
unknown  source.  The  etymologies  from  here  on  through 
§  174  are  correct  except  as  noted. 

§  170.  "  Pro{>erly  from  viginti  '  twenty,'  vicies  '  twenty 



bicessis  ;  reliqua  conveniunt,  quod  est  ut  trice*sis^ 
proportione  usque  ad  centussis,  quo  maius  aeris 
proprium  vocabulum  non  est  :  nam  ducenti<s>  et  sic* 
proportione  quae  dicuntur  non  magis  asses  quam 
denarii  aliaeve  quae^  res  significantur. 

171.  Aeris  minima  pars  sextula,  quod  sexta  pars 
unciae.  Semuncia,  quod  dimidia  pars  unciae  :  se^ 
valet  dimidium,  ut  in  selibra  et  semodio.  Uncia  ab 
uno.  Sextans  ab  eo  quod  sexta  pars  assis,  ut  qua- 
drans  quod  quarta,  et  triens  quod  tertia  pars.  Semis, 
quod  semi<a>s,2  id  est^  dimidium  assis,  ut  supra 
dictum  est.     Septunx  a  septem  et  uncia  conclusum. 

172.  Reliqua  obscuriora,  quod  ab  deminutione,  et 
ea  quae  deminuuntur  ita  sunt,  ut  extremas  syllabas 
habeant  :     ut    <un)de    una^    dempta    uncia    deunx, 

^  Priscian,  for  tricensis.         *  L.  Sp.  ;  ducenti  et  sic  Priscian  ; 
for  ducenti  in.         *  alieuae  quae  Fk  ;  aliaeque  Priscian. 
§171.     ^  Bentinus,    for    sic.         ^  Turnebus,    for    semis. 

*  lifter  est,  Laetus  deleted  ut,  which  Priscian  also  omits. 

§  172.  1  ut  unde  una  Kent  ;  unde  una  Mue.  ;  for  ut  de 
una  {Priscian  omits  ut  de). 

*  It  is  hardly  likely  that  vicessis  became  bicessis  (influenced 
by  '  two  '  in  the  form  bi-  as  prefix)  until  the  confusion  of  B 
and  V  in  pronunciation  ;  this  began  about  a  century  after 
Varro  wrote  this  work.  The  clause  therefore  seems  to  be 
an  interpolation.  «  After  centussis,  Priscian  inserts :  quod 
et  Persius  ostendit  "  et  centum  Graecos  uno  centusse  licetur" 
'  and  on  one  hundred  Greeks  he  sets  the  value  of  just  one 
hundred  asses."  The  quotation  is  Persius,  5.  191,  where 
the  text  has  curto  '  clipped  '  instead  of  uno. 

§171.  "Apparently  named  as  the  smallest  coin,  one 
seventy-second  of  the  as  ;  but  no  such  coin  is  actually  at- 
tested. ^  Really  semi-,  with  the  vowel  elided  :  sem-uncia. 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  170-172 

is  customarily  pronounced  hicessis,  from  duo  '  two  '  '  ; 
the  rest  harmonize,  in  that  the  formation  is  Uke  tri- 
cessis  regularly  up  to  centuss^is,'^  after  which  there  is  no 
special  word  for  larger  sums  of  copper  money  :  for 
ducenti  '  two  hundred  '  and  higher  numbers  which  are 
made  analogically  do  not  indicate  asses  any  more  than 
they  do  denarii  or  any  other  things. 

171.  The  smallest  piece  of  copper  is  a  sextula,'*  so 
named  because  it  is  the  sexta  '  sixth  '  part  of  an  ounce. 
The  semuncia  '  half-ounce,'  because  it  is  the  half  of  an 
ounce  :  se  equals  dimidium  '  half,'  *  as  in  selihra  *= '  half- 
pound  '  and  semodius  '  half-peck.'  Uncia  '  ounce,' 
from  unum  '  one.'  **  Sextans  '  sixth,'  from  the  fact  that 
it  is  the  sixth  part  of  an  as,  as  the  quadrans  '  fourth  ' 
is  that  which  is  a  fourth,  and  the  iriens  '  third  '  that 
which  is  a  third.*  Semis  '  half-a*,'  because  it  is  a  semi- 
as,  that  is,  the  half  of  an  as,  as  has  been  said  above. 
The  septunx  '  seven  ounces,'  contracted  from  septem 
and  uncia. 

172.  The  remaining  words  are  less  clear,  because 
they  are  expressed  by  subtraction,  and  those  elements 
from  which  the  subtraction  is  made  are  such  that  they 
keep  their  last  syllables  "  :  as  that  from  which  one 
dempta  uncia  '  ounce  is  taken,'  is  a  deunx  '  eleven 
twelfths  '  ;  if  a  sextans  is  taken  away,  it  is  a  dextans 

'  Se-libra  after  the  model  of  se-modius,  which  is  for  semi- 
modius,  with  loss  of  one  of  the  two  similar  syllables.  ''  For 
oinikia,  as  units  is  from  oinos  ;  the  ounce  was  one  twelfth  of 
the  as  '  pound.'  *  Quincunx,  from  quinque  and  uncia,  is 
expected  here,  and  may  have  fallen  out  of  the  text. 

§  172.  "The  "  keeping  of  the  last  syllables  "  is  seen  in 
de-{se)xtans,  in  de-{qua)drans  becoming  dodrans,  in  de- 
(tri)es  becoming  des.  In  reality,  des  or  bes  is  for  duo  assis, 
short  for  duo  partes  assis  '  two  parts  (that  is,  two  thirds)  of  an 
as,'  with  various  phonetic  changes. 

VOL.  I  M  161 


dextans  dempto  sextante,  dodrans  dempto  quadrante, 
bes,  ut  olim  des,  dempto  triente. 

173.  In  argento  nummi,  id  ab  Sjculis  :  denarii, 
quod^  denos  aeris  valebant  ;  quinarii,  quod  quinos  J 
sestertius, 2  quod  semis  tertius.  Dupondius  enim  et 
semis  antiquus  sestertius*  :  est  et  veteris  consuetu- 
dinis,  ut  retro  aere  dicerent,  ita  ut  semis  tertius, 
<semis)*  quartus,  semis  (quintus)'  pronuntiarent. 
Ab  semis  tertius  (sestertius)*  dictus. 

174.  Nummi  denarii  decuma  libella,  quod  libram 
pondo  as  valebat  et  erat  ex  argento  parva.  Simbella, 
quod  libellae  dimidium,  quod  semis  assis.  Terruncius 
a  tribus  unciis,  quod  libellae  ut  haec  quarta  pars,  sic 
quadrans  assis, 

175.  Eadem  pecunia  voeabulum  mutat  :  nam 
potest  item  dici  dos,  arrabo,  merces,  corollarium. 
Dos,  si  nuptiarum  causa  data  ;  haec  Graece  SwrtV»/  : 
ita  enim  hoc  Siculi.     Ab  eodem  donum  :  nam  Graece 

§  173.  ^  After  quod,  Ed.  Veneta  deleted  a  repeated  de- 
narii quod  {omitted  by  Priscian).  ^  For  sextertius  Fv. 
*  Added  by  OS.,  following  Priscian.  *  Added  by  L.  Sp., 
following  Priscian. 

§  1 73.  "  Not  connected  with  as  or  aes.  *  The  custom- 
ary unit  of  Roman  business  ;  in  Varro's  time,  worth  about 
3^d.  sterling,  or  §0.07  (standard  of  1936).  «After  a 
number  of  reductions,  the  copper  as  was  in  217  b.c.  reduced 
to  one  ounce  of  metal ;  at  the  same  time  the  silver  denarius 
was  fixed  at  ten  asses,  and  the  sestertius  at  four  asses, 
**  "  The  third  half-as  "  implies  that  the  first  two  asses  were 
complete  while  the  third  was  not,  as  though  "  two  asses  and 
the  third  half-a*  "  ;  c/.  German  drittehalb  '  2J,'  and  similar 

§  174.     "  Diminutive  of  libra,  because  of  small  bulk  as 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  172-175 

'  five  sixths  '  ;  if  a  quadrans  is  taken  away,  it  is  a 
dodrans  ;  it  is  a  hes  '  two  thirds,'  or  as  it  once  was,  a 
des,  if  a  triens  is  demptus  '  taken  off.' 

173.  In  silver,  there  are  coins  called  nummi,  this 
word  from  the  Sicilians  :  denarii,'^  because  they  were 
worth  deni  aeris  '  ten  asses  of  copper  '  ;  quinarii, 
because  they  were  worth  quini '  five  asses  each  '  ;  and 
the  sestertius ''  '  sesterce,'  so  called  because  it  is  semis 
tertius  '  the  third  half-a*.'  For  the  old-time  sesterce  " 
was  a  dupondius  and  a  semis  ;  it  is  also  a  part  of  ancient 
practice,  that  they  should  speak  of  coin  in  reverse 
order,  so  that  they  named  them  the  semis  tertius  '  two 
and  a  half  asses,'  **  semis  quartus  '  the  fourth  half,  three 
and  a  half  asses  '  semis  quintus  '  the  fifth  half,  four  and 
a  half  asses. '     From  semis  tertius  they  said  sestertius. 

m.  The  tenth  part  of  a  nummus  denarius  '  silver 
coin  of  ten  asses  '  is  a  libella,"'  because  the  as  was 
worth  a  pound  by  weight,  and  the  as  of  silver  was  a 
small  one.  The  simbella  *  is  so  called  because  it  is  the 
half  of  a  libella,  as  the  semis  is  half  of  an  as.  The 
ierruncius  <^ '  three-ounce  piece,'  from  tres  unciae  '  three 
ounces,'  because  as  this  is  the  fourth  part  of  a  libella, 
so  the  quadrans  is  the  fourth  of  an  as. 

175.  This  same  money  changes  its  name  :  for  it 
can  likewise  be  called  dos  '  dower,'  arrabo  '  earnest- 
money,'  merces  '  wages,'  corollarium  '  bonus.'  Dos '^ 
'  dower,'  if  it  is  given  for  the  purpose  of  a  marriage  ; 
this  in  Greek  is  Scotivi],  for  thus  the  Sicilians  call  it. 
From  the  same  comes  donum  '  gift  '  ;  for  in  Greek  it 

compared  with  the  libra  of  aes.  *  Or  perhaps  sembella  ; 
for  sem(i-li)bella.  '  The  first  element  is  ter  '  three  times  ' 
(earlier  terr  if  before  a  vowel). 

§  175.  "A  native  Latin  word,  akin  to  donum  and  the 
Greek  words. 



ut  <Aeol)is  Soi'ftov^  et  ut  alii  5o/xa  et  ut  Attici  Soo-iv. 
Arrabo  sic  data,  ut  reliquum  reddatur  :  hoc  verbum 
item  a  Graeco  dppafSwi'.  Reliquum,  quod  ex  eo  quod 
debitum  reliquum. 

176.  Damnum  a  demptione,  cum  minus  re  factum 
quam  quanti  constat.  Lucrum  ab  luendo,  si  amplius 
quam  ut  exsolveret,  quanti  esset,  (re>ceptum.^ 
Detrimentum  a  detritu,  quod  ea  quae  trita  minoris 
pretii.  Ab  eodem  {tri)mento,2  intertrimentum  ab 
eo,  quod  duo  quae  inter  se  trita,  et  deminuta  ;  a 
quo  etiam  in<ter>trigo'  dicta. 

177.  Multa  (e>ai  pecunia  quae  a  magistratu  dicta, 
ut  exigi  posset  ob  peccatum  ;  quod  singulae  dicuntur, 
appellatae  eae  multae,^  <et>'  quod  olim  v(i>num* 
dicebant  multaw*  :  itaque  cum  (in)"  dolium  aut 
culleum  vinum  addunt  rustici,  prima  urna  addita 
dicunt  etiam  nunc.  Poena  a  poeniendo  aut  quod  post 
peccatum  sequitur.  Pretium,  quod  emptionis  aesti- 
mationisve  causa  constituitur,  dictum  a  peritis,  quod 
hi  soli  facere  possunt  recte  id. 

§  175.  ^  Bergk,  for  issedonion. 

§  176.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  ceptuin.         ^  ^/.  Sp.^  for  ab  eadem 

mente.  ^  Bentinus,  for  intrigo  (intrigo  dicta  et  intertrigo 
B  and  Aug.). 

§177.  ^  Groth,  for  a..         ^  Aug.,  for  muMas.         ^  Added 

by  Mite.  *  B,  Laetus,  for  ununi.             ^  Goeschen,  for 

multae.  *  Added  by  Aug.,  with  B. 

§  176.     «  Wrong. 

§  177.  "  Multa  'fine,'  possibly  taken  from  Sabine,  but 
probably  from  the  root  in  mtilcare  '  to  beat.'  Varro  seems 
to  identify  it  with  multae  '  many,'  supply  perhaps  pecuniae  : 
the  magistrate  imposed  one  multa  after  another,  just  as  the 
countrymen   poured   one  multa  of  wine  after  another  into 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  175-177 

is  Sdvciov  "with  the  Aeolians,  and  Sofia  as  others  say  it, 
and  86<Tis  of  the  Athenians.  Arrabo  '  earnest-money,' 
when  money  is  given  on  this  stipulation,  that  a 
balance  is  to  be  paid  :  this  word  likewise  is  from 
the  Greek,  where  it  is  appafttav.  Reliquum  '  balance,' 
because  it  is  the  reliquum  '  remainder  '  of  what  is  owed. 

176.  Damnum  '  loss,'  from  demptio  '  taking  away,'  " 
when  less  is  brought  in  by  the  sale  of  the  object  than 
it  cost.  Lucrum  '  profit  '  from  luere  '  to  set  free,'  if 
more  is  taken  in  than  will  exsolvere  '  release  '  the  price 
at  which  it  was  acquired.  Detrimentum  '  damage,' 
from  detritus  '  rubbing  off,'  because  those  things  which 
are  trita  '  rubbed  '  are  of  less  value.  From  the  same 
trimentum  comes  intertrimentum  '  loss  by  attrition,' 
because  two  things  which  have  been  trita  '  rubbed  ' 
inter  se  '  against  each  other  '  are  also  diminished  ; 
from  which  moreover  intertrigo  '  chafing  of  the  skin  ' 
is  said. 

177.  A  multa  '  fine  '  is  that  money  named  by  a 
magistrate,  that  it  might  be  exacted  on  account  of 
a  transgression  ;  because  the  fines  are  named  one  at 
a  time,  they  are  called  multae  as  though  '  many,'  and 
because  of  old  they  called  wine  multa  :  thus  when  the 
countrymen  put  wine  into  a  large  jar  or  >vine-skin, 
they  even  now  call  it  a  multa  after  the  first  pitcherful 
has  been  put  in."  Poena  '  penalty,'  from  poenire  *  '  to 
punish  '  or  because  it  follows  post '  after  '  a  transgres- 
sion." Pretium  '  price  '  is  that  which  is  fixed  for  the 
purpose  of  purchase  or  of  evaluation  ;  it  is  named 
from  the  periti  **  '  experts,'  because  these  alone  can 
set  a  price  correctly. 

the  storage  jars  or  skins.  *  Poena  from  Greek  :  poenire 
(classical  punire)  from  poena.  '  As  though  from  pone 
'  behind,'  =post.         ^  Wrong  etymology. 



178.  Si  quid  datum  pro  opera  aut  opere,  merces, 
a  merendo.  Quod  manu  factum  erat  et  datum  pro 
eo,  manupretium,  a  manibus  et  pretio.  Corollarium, 
si  additum  praeter  quam  quod  debitum  ;  eius  voca- 
bulum  fictum  a  corollis,  quod  eae,  cum  placuerant 
actores,  in  scaena  dari  solitae.  Praeda  est  ab  hosti- 
bus  capta,  quod  manu  parta,  ut  parida  praeda.  Prae- 
mium  a  praeda,  quod  ob  recte  quid  factum  concessum. 

179.  Si  datum  quod  reddatur,  mutuum,  quod 
Siculi  fjLOLToi'  :  itaque  scribit  Sophron 

MoiTOV  dt>Ti,ixo<y'>.^ 
Et  munus  quod  mutuo  animo  qui  sunt  dant  officii 
causa  ;  alterum  munus,  quod  muniendi  causa  impera- 
tum,  a  quo  etiam  municipes,  qui  una  munus  fungi 
debent,  dicti. 

180.  Si  es(t>^  ea  pecunia  quae  in  i?^dicium^  venit 
in  litibus,  sacramentum  a  sacro  ;  qui^  petebat  et  qui 
infiiiabatur,*  de  aliis  rebus  ut<e>rque^  quingenos  aeris 
ad  pont<ific)em^  deponebant,  de  aliis  rebus  item  certo 

§179.  ^  Fay,  with  haplology,  for  Scaliger's  avriTiixov , 
for  moeton  antimo  ;  c/.  Hesychius,  s.v.  iioItoi. 

%  180.     ^  A.  Sp.,/or  is.         *  For  indicium.         ^  For  quis, 

*  GS.,   for    inficiabatur.         *  Aug.,    with    B,   for    utrique. 

*  Aug.,  for  pontem. 

§  178.  "  Dubious  etymology.  *  From  the  elements  in 
pre-hendere  'to  grasp.'  "^  From  prae  +  emere  'to  take 
before  (some  one  else).' 

§  1 79.  "  The  two  words  are  connected,  but  the  Latin  is 
not  from  the  Sicilian.  *"  Fragment  168  Kaibel ;  the  text 
is  uncertain.  "  Munus,  mutuus,  munire,  municeps  all  have 

the  same  root.         **  Including  (kind)  services  and  favours. 

*  Apparently  obligatory  citizen  service  on  streets  and  walls. 
'  Citizens  of  a  munlcipium. 

§  180.  "  Probably  because  each  party  took  a  sacramentum 
'  oath  '  to  the  justice  of  his  case  when  he  made  the  deposit. 

*  This  depositing  with  the  pontifex  is  not  known  from  other 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  178-180 

178.  If  any  payment  is  made  for  services  or  for 
labour,  it  is  merces  '  wages,'  from  merere  '  to  earn.*  <» 
What  was  done  by  hand  and  what  was  paid  for  the 
work,  were  both  called  jnanupretium  '  workmanship  ' 
and  '  workman's  pay,'  from  mantis  '  hands  '  and 
prettum  '  price.'  CoroUarium  '  bonus,'  if  anything  is 
added  beyond  what  is  due  ;  this  word  was  made  from 
coroUae  '  garlands,'  because  the  spectators  were  in  the 
habit  of  thro^nng  flowers  on  the  stage  when  they 
Uked  the  actors'  performance.  Praeda  *  '  booty  '  is 
that  which  has  been  taken  from  the  enemy,  because 
it  is  porta  '  won  '  by  the  work  of  the  hands  :  praeda  as 
though  parida.  Praemium  «  '  reward,'  from  praeda 
'  booty,'  because  it  is  granted  for  something  well  done. 

179.  If  money  is  given  which  is  to  be  paid  back,  it 
is  a  muiuum  '  loan,'  so  called  because  the  SiciUans  call 
it  a  /xoiTos  "  ;  thus  Sophron  writes  ^ 

Loan  to  be  repaid. 

Also  munus  <^  '  present,'  because  those  who  are  on 
terms  of  mutuus  '  mutual  '  affection  give  presents  <*  out 
of  kindness  ;  a  second  munus  '  duty,'  «  because  it  is 
ordered  for  the  muniendum  '  fortification  '  of  the  town, 
from  which  moreover  the  munidpes  '  to^^Tispeople  '  ^ 
are  named,  who  must  jointly  perform  the  munut, 

180.  If  it  is  that  money  which  comes  into  court  in 
lawsuits,  it  is  called  sacramentum  '  sacred  deposit,' « 
from  sacrum  '  sacred  ' :  the  plaintiff  and  the  defendant 
each  deposited  -vnth  the  pontifex  ^  five  hundred 
copper  asses  for  some  kinds  of  cases,  and  for  other 
kinds  the  trial  was  conducted  like^Wse  under  a  deposit 

sources,  and  here  rests  upon  an  emendation,  but  may  have 
been  regular  in  early  times  ;  in  Varro's  time,  the  deposit  was 
made  with  the  praetor  who  acted  as  judge. 



alio  legitime  numero  adum'  ;  qui  iudicio  vicerat, 
suum  sacramentum  e  sacro  auferebat,  victi  ad  aera- 
rium  redibat. 

181.  Tributum  dictum  atribubus,quod  ea  pecunia, 
quae  populo  imperata  erat,  tributim  a  singulis  pro 
portione  census  exigebatur.^  Ab  hoc  ea  quae  assig- 
nata  erat  attributum  dictum ;  ab  eo  quoque  quibus 
attributa  erat  pecunia,  ut  militi  reddant,  tribuni 
aerarii  dicti  ;  id  quod  attributum  erat,  aes  militare  ; 
hoc  est  quod  ait  Plautus  : 

Cedit  miles,  aes  petit. 
Et  hinc  dicuntur  milites  aerarii  ab  aere,  quod  stipendia 

182.  Hoc  ipsum  stipendium  a  stipe  dictum,  quod 
aes  quoque  stipem  dicebant  :  nam  quod  asses  librae' 
pondo  erant,  qui  acceperant  maiorem  numerum  non 
in  area  ponebant,  sed  in  aliqua  cella  stipabant,  id  est 
componebant,  quo  minus  loci  occuparet  ;  ab  stipando 
stipem  dicere  coeperunt.  Stip*^  ab  a-Toifirf  fortasse, 
Graeco  verbo.  Id  apparet,  quod  ut  turn  institutum 
etiam   nunc   diis   cum   thesauris   asses   dant   stipem 

'  C.  F.  W.  Mueller,  for  assum. 
§  181.     ^  Aldus,  for  exigebantur. 
§  182.     ^  Laetus,  for  libras.         *  L.  Sp.,  with  b,  for  stipa. 

'  500  if  the  case  involved  an  amount  of  1000  asses  or  more  ; 
50  if  the  case  involved  a  smaller  amount  or  the  personal 
freedom  of  an  individual.  "*  The  phrase  e  sacro  confirms 
the  statement  that  deposit  was  made  with  the  pontLfex. 

§  181.     "  Derivation  probable,  but  not  certain.  *  Aulu- 

laria,  526  ;  but  Plautus  means  a  bailiff  collecting  a  bad  debt ! 
*  The  phrase  means  also  '  to  serve  years  in  the  army,'  since 
each  stipendium  is  one  year's  pay. 

§  182.     "  Stips  (not  from  Greek)  is  the  basis  of  the  other 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  180-182 

of  some  other  fixed  amount  specified  by  law  <=  ;  he 
who  won  the  decision  got  baclc  his  deposit  from  the 
temple,**  but  the  loser's  deposit  passed  into  the  state 

181.  '  Trihutum  '  tribute  '  was  said  from  the  tribus 
'  tribes,'  "  because  that  money  which  was  le\ied  on 
the  people,  was  exacted  trihuiim  '  tribe  by  tribe  '  indi- 
vidually, in  proportion  to  their  financial  rating  in  the 
census.  From  this,  that  money  which  was  allotted 
was  attributum  '  assigned  '  ;  from  this  also,  those  to 
whom  the  money  was  assigned,  that  they  may  pay  it 
to  the  soldierA",  were  called  tribuni  aerarii  '  treasury 
tribunes  '  ;  that  which  was  assigned,  was  the  aes 
militare  '  soldier's  pay-fund  '  ;  this  is  what  Plautus 
means  **  : 

Comes  the  soldier,  asks  for  cash. 

And  from  this  comes  the  term  miliies  aerarii  '  paid 
soldiers,'  from  the  aes  '  cash-pay,'  because  they  earned 

182.  This  very  word  stipendium  '  stipend  '  is  said 
from  stips  '  coin,'  because  they  also  called  an  aes 
'  copper  coin  '  a  stips  °  ;  for  because  the  asses  were  a 
pound  each  in  weight,  those  who  had  received  an 
unusual  number  of  them  did  not  put  them  in  a  strong- 
box, but  stipabant  '  packed,'  that  is,  componebant 
'  stored,' them  away  in  some  chamber,  that  they  might 
take  up  less  space  ^  ;  they  started  the  use  of  the 
word  stips  from  stipare '  to  pack. '  Stips  is  perhaps  from 
the  Greek  word  crroifSi]  '  heap.'  This  is  clear,  be- 
cause, as  was  then  started,  so  even  now  they  speak  of 
a  stips  when  they  give  money  to  the  temple  treasuries 
for  the  gods,  and  those  who  make  a  contract  about 

words  in  this  section.  *  Stips  '  stamped  coin  '  and  stipare 
'  to  press,  stamp  '  may  belong  together  etymologically. 



dicunt,   et  qui  pecuniam  alligat,  stipulari  et  resti- 
pulari.     Militz's   stipendia*   ideo,    quod   earn   stipem 
pendebant  ;  ab  eo  etiam  Ennius  scribit  : 
Poeni  stipendia  pendunt. 

183.  Ab  eodem  acre  pendendo  dispensator,  et  in 
tabulis  scribimus  expensum  et  in<de>i  prima  pensio 
et  sic  secunda  aut  quae  alia,  et  dispendium,  ideo  quod 
in  dispendendo  solet  minus  fieri  ;  compendium  quod 
cum  compendttur"  una  fit  ;  a  quo  usura,  quod  in  sorte 
accedebat,  impendium  appellatum  ;  quae  cum  (non)* 
accederet  ad  sortem  usu,*  usura  dicta,  ut  sors  quod 
suum  fit  sorte.  Per  trutinam  solvi  solitum  :  vesti- 
gium etiam  nunc  manet  in  aede  Saturni,  quod  ea 
etiam  nunc*  propter  pensuram  trutinam  habet  posi- 
tam.     Ab  acre  Aerarium  appellatum. 

XXXVII.  184.  Ad  vocabula  quae  pertinere  sumus 
rati  ea  quae  loca  et  ea  quae  in  locis  sunt  satis  ut 
arbitror  dicta,  quod  neque  parum  multa  sunt  aperta 
neque,  si  amplius  velimus,  volumen  patietur.  Quare 
in  proximo,  ut  in  primo  libro  dixi,  quod  sequitur  de 
temporibus  dicam. 

'  Sciop.,  for  milites  stipendii. 

§  183.  ^  Avg.,  icith  B,for  in.  ^  Laetus,  for  compende- 
tur.  *  Added  by  Mue.  *  Aldus,  for  usum.  *  Aug., 
for  ea  iam  nunc  et. 

'  Stipendium  from  stipl-pendium,  with  haplology  ;  the  ear- 
liest payments  must  have  been  made  by  weighing,  the  word 
then  coming  to  mean  '  pay.'  "^  Ann.  265  Vahlen^;  R.O.L. 
i.  116-117  Warmington. 

§183.  "That  is,  "and  kept  in  one's  possession." 
*  The  fundamental  meaning  of  sors,  according  to  Varro  ; 
cf.  vi.  65  and  notes.  "  In  the  Temple  of  Saturn. 

§  184.     "  Its  length  limits  the  liber  '  book,'  *  y-  11-12, 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  V.  182-184 

money  are  said  to  stipulari  '  stipulate  '  and  restipulart 
'  make  counter-stipulations.'     Therefore  the  soldier's 
stipendia'^ '  stipends,'  because  they  pendebant '  weighed ' 
the  stips  ;  from  this  moreover  Ennius  ■writes  •* : 
The  Phoenicians  pay  out  the  stipends. 

183.  From  the  same  pendere  '  to  weigh  or  pay, 
comes  dtspensator  '  distributing  cashier,'  and  in  our 
accounts  we  write  expensum  '  expense  '  and  therefrom 
the  first  pensio  '  payment  '  and  Ukewise  the  second 
and  any  others,  and  dispendium  '  loss  by  distribution,' 
for  this  reason,  that  money  is  wont  to  become  less 
in  the  dispendendo  '  distributing  of  the  payments  '  ; 
compendium  '  sa\"ing,'  which  is  made  when  it  compendi- 
tur  '  is  weighed  all  together  '  "  ;  from  which  the  tisura 
'  interest,'  because  it  was  added  in  '  on  '  the  principal, 
was  called  impendium  '  outlay  '  ;  when  it  was  not 
added  to  the  principal,  it  was  called  usura  '  interest ' 
because  of  the  usus  '  use  '  of  the  money,  just  as  sors 
'  principal  '  is  said  because  it  becomes  one's  own  by 
sors  '  union.'  ^  It  was  once  the  custom  to  pay  by  the 
use  of  a  pair  of  scales  ;  a  trace  of  this  remains  even 
now  in  the  Temple  of  Saturn,  because  it  even  now  has 
a  pair  of  scales  set  up  ready  for  weighing  purposes. 
From  aes  '  copper  money  '  the  Aerarium  "  '  Treasury  ' 
was  named. 

XXXMI.  184".  What  we  have  thought  to  pertain 
to  names  which  are  places  and  those  which  express 
things  in  places,  has  been,  as  I  think,  adequately  set 
forth,  because  a  great  many  are  perspicuous  and  if  we 
should  wish  to  %ATite  further  the  roll "  \\ill  not  permit 
it.  Therefore  in  the  next  book,  as  I  said  at  the 
beginning  of  this  book,*  I  shall  speak  of  the  next  topic, 
namely  about  times, 





I.  1 .  Okigines  verborum  qua(e>^  sunt'  locorum  et  ea 
quae  in  his  in  priore  libro  scripsi.  In  hoc  dicam  de 
vocabuUs  temporum  et  earum  rerum  quae  in  agendo 
fiunt  aut  dicuntur  cum  tempore  aliquo  ut  sedetur, 
ambulatur,  loquontur  ;  atque  si  qua  erunt  ex  diverso 
genere  adiuncta,  potius  cognationi  verborum  quam 
auditori  calumnianti  geremus'  morem. 

2.  Huius  rei  auctor  satis  mihi  Chrysippus  et 
Antipater  et  illi  in  quibus,  si  non  tantum  acuminis,  at 
plus  litterai'um,  in  quo  est  Aristophanes  et  Apollo- 
dorus,  qui  omnes  verba  ex  verbis  itadeclinari  scribunt, 
ut  verba  litteras   aha   assumant,   aha  mittant,   aha 

§  1.  ^  For  qua.  ^  ^^  RhoL,for  sint.  ^  G,  V,  Aldus, 
for  oremus. 

§2.  «Of  Soli  in  Cilicia  (280-207  b.c),  who  followed 
Cleanthes  as  leader  of  the  Stoic  school  of  philosophy  in 
Athens  ;  page  loi  von  Arnim.  ''  Of  Tarsus,  who  succeeded 

Diogenes  of  Seleucia  as  head  of  the  Stoic  school  in  the  first 
part  of  the  second  century  b.c.  ;  page  17  von  Arnim.  '  Of 

Byzantium  (262-185  b.c),  eminent  grammarian  at  Alex- 



BOOK    V    ENDS,    AND    HERE    BEGINS 


I.  1.  The  sources  of  the  words  which  are  names 
of  places  and  are  names  of  those  things  which  are  in 
these  places,  I  have  \\Titten  in  the  preceding  book. 
In  the  present  book  I  shall  speak  about  the  names 
of  times  and  of  those  things  which  in  the  perform- 
ance take  place  or  are  said  with  some  time-factor, 
such  as  sitting,  walking,  talking  :  and  if  there  are  any 
words  of  a  different  sort  attached  to  these,  I  shall  give 
heed  rather  to  the  kinship  of  the  words  than  to  the 
rebukes  of  my  listener. 

2.  In  this  subject  I  rely  on  Chrysippus  °  as  an 
adequate  authority,  and  on  Antipater,**  and  on  those 
in  whom  there  was  more  learning  even  if  not  so  much 
insight,  among  them  Aristophanes  <^  and  Apollo- 
dorus  ^  :  all  these  write  that  words  are  so  derived 
from  words,  that  the  words  in  some  instances  take 
on  letters,  in  others  lose  them,  in  still  others  change 
them,  as  in  the  case  of  turdus  '  thrush  '  takes  place 

andria  ;  page  269  Nauck.  ■*  Of  Athens,  pupil  of  Aris- 
tarchus  the  grammarian  and  of  Diogenes  of  Seleucia  ;  Frag. 
Hist.  Graec.  i.  462  Mueller. 



commutent,  ut  fit  in  turdo,  in  turdario  et  turdelice. 
Sic  declinantes  Graeci  nostra  nomina  dicunt  Lucie- 
num^  AevKu^vov'^  et  Quinctium  KotvTtoi',  et  (nostri 
illorum)' ' Xpicnapyov  Aristarchiim  et  Atwirt  Dionem  ; 
sic,  inquam,  consuetude  nostra  multa  declinavit*  a 
vetere,  ut  ab  solu  solum,  ab  Loebe^o*  Liberum,  ab 
Lasibus  Lares  :  quae  obruta  vetustate  ut  potero 
eruere  conabor. 

II.  3.  Dicemus  primo  de  temporibus,  <um*  quae 
per  ea  fiunt,  sed  ita  ut  ante  de  natura  eorum  :  ea  enim 
dux  fuit  ad  vocabula  imponenda  homini.  Tempus 
esse  dicunt  in<ter)vallum^  mundi'  motus.  Id  divisum 
in  partes  aliquot  maxime  ab  solis  et  lunae  cursu. 
Itaque  ab  eorum  tenore  temperato  tempus  dictum, 
unde  tempestiva  ;  et  a  motw*  eorum  qui  toto  caelo 
coniunctus  mundus. 

4.  Duo  motus  (solis  :  alter  cum  caelo,  quod 
movetur  ab  love  rectore,  qui  Graece  Ata  appellatur, 
cum  ab  oriente  ad  oc)casu(m>  venit,^  quo  tempus  id 

§  2.  ^  B,  Laetus,  for  leucieniim.  ^  Mue.  ;  Aeu/^ievoV 
Sciop.  ;  for  leucienon.  '  Added  by  GS.  ;  nos  illorum 
L,   Sp. ;    after   Laetus,   v)ho  set  nos   iili   after    'Apiarapxov. 

*  After  declinavit,  Popma  deleted  ut.         ^  i)hie.,  for  libero. 

§  3.     ^  A.    Sp.,   for    quam.         *  Laetus,    for     inuallum. 

*  After  mundi,  Turnebus  deleted  et.  *  //,  Aldus,  for 
motor  Fv. 

§  4,  ^  solis ;  alter  cum  caelo,  quo  ab  oriente  ad  occasum 
venit  Mue.  ;  the  balance  with  Kriegshammer,  based  on  Festus, 
74.  7  M. 

'  I  take  this  with  Fay,  A. J. P.  xxxv.  245,  as  turdus  +  eXi^ 
'  spiral  '  ;  cf.  Varro,  I)e  Be  Rustica,  iii.  5.  3,  who  says  that 
the  entrance  to  a  bird-cote  is  called  a  coclia  '  snail-shell,' 
being  intended  to  admit  air  and  some  light,  but  not  to  permit 
direct  vision  from  the  interior  to  the  outside.  '  Varro  had 
a  friend  Q.  Lucienus,  a  Roman  senator,  well  versed  in  Greek; 
he  appears  as  a  speaker  in  Varro's  L>e  lie  Rvstica,  ii.  (5.  1, 



in  turdarium  '  thrush-cote  '  and  turdelix  '  '  spiral  en- 
trance for  thrushes.'  Thus  the  Greeks,  in  adapting 
our  names,  make  XevKirfVo^  oi  Lucienus  ^  and  Kou'tios 
of  QM/nrf;«*,and  we  make  Aristarchus  of  their 'A/3i'crTap- 
Xos  and  Dio  of  their  Atwv.  In  just  this  way,  I  sav,  our 
practice  has  altered  many  from  the  old  form,  as  solum  " 
'  soil  '  from  solu.  Liber  urn  ^*  '  God  of  Wine  '  from  Loe- 
besom,  Lares  *  '  Hearth-Gods  '  from  Loses  :  these 
words,  covered  up  as  they  are  by  lapse  of  time,  I 
shall  try  to  dig  out  as  best  I  can. 

II.  3.  First  we  shall  speak  of  the  time-names,  then 
of  those  things  which  take  place  through  them,  but  in 
such  a  way  that  first  we  shall  speak  of  their  essential 
nature  :  for  nature  was  man's  guide  to  the  imposition 
of  names.  Time,  they  say,  is  an  interval  in  the 
motion  of  the  world.  This  is  di\ided  into  a  number 
of  parts,  especially  from  the  course  of  the  sun  and  the 
moon.  Therefore  from  their  temperatus  '  moderated  ' 
career,  tempus  '  time  '  is  named,"  and  from  this  comes 
tempesiiva  '  timely  things  '  ;  and  from  their  motus 
'  motion,'  the  mundus  *  '  world,'  which  is  joined  with 
the  sky  as  a  whole. 

4.  There  are  two  motions  of  the  sun  :  one  \nth  the 
sky,  in  that  the  mo\-ing  is  impelled  by  Jupiter  as  ruler, 
who  in  Greek  is  called  Aia,  when  it  comes  from  east  to 
west  <»  ;  wherefore  this  time  is  from  this  god  called  a 

etc).  '  With  change  from  the  fourth  declension  to  the 
second  (if  the  text  is  correct).  *  With  change  of  the  vowel 
as  well  as  rhotacism  ;  the  accusative  form  must  be  kept  in 
the  translation,  to  show  this  clearly.  *  With  rhotacism 
(change  of  intervocalic  s  to  r). 

§  3.  "  The  converse  is  true  :  temperare  is  from  tempus. 
*  Wrong. 

§  4.  "  This  insertion  in  the  text  gives  the  needed  sense  . 
the  second  motus  is  in  §  8. 



ab  hoc  deo  dies  appellatur.  Meridies  ab  eo  quod 
medius  dies.  D  antiqiii,  non  R  in  hoc  dicebant,  ut 
Praeneste  incisum  in  solario  vidi.  Solarium  dictum 
id,  in  quo  horae  in  sole  inspiciebantur,  (vel  horologium 
ex  aqua),*  quod  Cornelius  in  Basilica  Aemilia  et 
Fulvia  inumbravit.  Diei  principium  mane,  quod 
turn''  manat  dies  ab  oriente,  nisi  potius  quod  bonum 
antiqui  dicebant  manum,  ad  cuiusmodi  religionem 
Graeci  quoque  cum  lumen  afFertur,  solent  dicere  (^w* 

5.  Suprema  summum  diei,  id  ab  superrimo.  Hoc 
tempus  XII  Tabulae  dicunt  occasum  esse  solis  ;  sed 
postea  lex  P/aetoria^  id  quoque  tempus  esse  iubet 
supremum  quo  praetor  in  Comitio  supremam  pronun- 
tiavit  populo.  Secundum  hoc  dicitur  crepusculum  a 
crepero  :  id  vocabulum  sumpserunt  a  Saiinis,  unde 
veniunt  Crepusci  nominati  Amiterno,  qui  eo  tempore 
erant  nati,  ut  Luci^i)^  prima  luce  in  Reatino  '  ;  cre- 
pusculum significat  dubium  ;  ab  eo  res  dictae  dubiae 
creperae,  quod  crepusculum  dies  etiam  nunc  sit  an 
iam  nox  multis  dubium. 

*  Added  by  GS.         ^  For  cum. 

§5,  ^  ^w^., /or  praetoria.  ^  Laehis,for\uc\.  ^  Mue., 
for  reatione  or  creatione. 

*  Dies  is  cognate  with  Greek  Ai'a,  but  not  derived  from  it. 
'  P.  Cornelius  Scipio  Nasica  Corculum,  when  censor  in 
159  B.C.  with  M.  Popilius  Laenas,  set  up  the  first  water-clock 
in  Rome  in  this  Basilica,  which  was  erected  in  179  on  the 
north  side  of  the  Forum  by  the  censors  M.  Aemilius  Lepidus 
and  M.  Fulvius  NobiUor,  from  whom  it  was  named. 
«^  Both  etymologies  wrong. 

§5.     "Approximately    correct.         ""  Page     119    Schoell. 



(Ues  '  day.'  ^  Meridies  '  noon,'  from  the  fact  that  it  is 
the  mediiis  '  middle  '  of  the  dies  '  day.'  The  ancients 
said  D  in  this  word,  and  not  R,  as  I  have  seen  at  Prae- 
neste,  cut  on  a  sun-dial.  Solarium  '  sun-dial '  was  the 
name  used  for  that  on  which  the  hours  were  seen  in 
the  sol  '  sunlight ' ;  or  also  there  is  the  water-clock, 
which  Cornelius'^  set  up  in  the  shade  in  the  Basilica  of 
Aemilius  and  Fulvius.  The  beginning  of  the  day  is 
mane  '  early  morning,'  because  then  the  day  manat 
'  trickles  '  from  the  east,  unless  rather  because  the 
ancients  called  the  good  manum  ^  :  from  a  supersti- 
tious beUef  of  the  same  kind  as  influences  the  Greeks, 
who,  when  a  light  is  brought,  make  a  practice  of 
saying,  "  Goodly  light  !  " 

5.  Suprema  means  the  last  part  of  the  day  ;  it  is 
from  superrimum.'^  This  time,  the  Tivelve  Tables  say,** 
is  sunset  ;  but  afterwards  the  Plaetorian  Law  '^  de- 
clares that  this  time  also  should  be  '  last  '  at  which  the 
praetor  in  the  Comitium  has  announced  to  the  people 
the  suprema  '  end  of  the  session.'  In  line  with  this, 
crepusculum  '  dusk  '  is  said  from  creperum  '  obscure  '  ; 
this  word  they  took  from  the  Sabines,  from  whom 
come  those  who  were  named  Crepusci,  from  Amiter- 
num,  who  had  been  born  at  that  time  of  day,  just  like 
the  Lucii,  who  were  those  born  at  da\\'n  (jtrima  luce)  in 
the  Reatine  country.  Crepusculum  means  doubtful  : 
from  this  doubtful  matters  are  called  creperae  '  ob- 
scure,' '^  because  dusk  is  a  time  when  to  many  it  is 
doubtful  whether  it  is  even  yet  day  or  is  already 

*  A  law  for  the  protection  of  minors,  named  from  Plaetorius, 
a  tribune  of  the  people.  **  All  etymologically  sound,  but 
a  meaning  '  doubtful  '  must  have  proceeded  from  a  word 
crepus  '  dusk.' 

VOL.  I  N  177 


6.  Nox,  quod,  ut  Pacuius^  ait, 

Omnia  nisi  interveniat  sol  pruina  obriguerint, 

quod  nocet,  nox,  nisi  quod  Graece  vv^  nox.  Cum 
Stella  prima  exorta  (eum  Graeci  vocant  €(nrepov, 
nostri  Vesperuginem  ut  Plautus  : 

Neque  Vesperugo  neque  Vergiliae  occidunt), 

id  tempus  dictum  a  Graecis  kairkpcL,  Latine  vesper  ; 
ut  ante  solem  ortum  quod  eadem  stella  vocatur  iubar, 
quod  iubata,  Pacui  dicit  pastor  : 

Exorto  iubare,  noctis  decurso  itinere  ; 
Enni"  Aiax  : 

Lumen — iubarne  ? — in  caelo  cerno. 

7.  Inter  vesperuginem  et  iubar  dicta  nox  intem- 
pesta,  ut  in  Bruto  Cassii  quod  dicit  Lucretia  : 

Nocte  intempesta  nostram  devenit  domuni. 

Intempestam  Aelius  dicebat  cum  tempus  agendi  est 
nullum,  quod  alii  concubium^  appellarunt,  quod 
omnes  fere  tunc  cubarent  ;   alii  ab  eo  quod  sileretur 

§  6.  ^  Ribbeck  ;  Pacuvius  Scaliger  ;  for  catulus.  *  GS.  ; 
Ennii  Laetus  ;  for  ennius. 

§  7.     ^  Laetus,  for  inconcubium. 

§  6.  '^  Antiopa,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  14  Ribbeck^  ;  R.O.L. 
ii.  170-171  Warmington;  cf.  Funaioli,  page  123.  Ribbeck's 
nocti  ni  for  nisi  is  probalJly  Pacuvius's  wording;  \'arro,  as 
often,  paraphrases  the  quotation.  *  Nox  and  vv^  come 
from  the  same  source ;  connexion  with  nocere  is  dubious. 
*  Ampliitruo,  275.  "*  Correct  etymologies.  '  Iubar  and 

iuba  '  mane '  are  not  related,  despite  vii.  76.  ^  Trag.  Rom. 
Frag.  347  Ribbeck^ ;  R.O.L.  ii.  320-321  Warmington. 
»  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  336  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  i.  226-227 
Warrnington;  cf.  vi.  81  and  vii.  76. 

§  7  "A  writer  of  praetextae,  otherwise  unknown  :  the 
name  recurs  at  vii.  72 ;  possibly  Victorius's  emendation  to 



6.  A  oj- '  night  '  is  called  nox,  because,  as  Pacuvius 


All  will  be  stiff  with  frost  unless  the  sun  break  in, 

because  it  Tiocet  '  harms  ' ;  unless  it  is  because  in 
Greek  night  is  iv^.*  When  the  first  star  has  come 
out  (the  Greeks  call  it  Hesperus,  and  our  people  call 
it  J'esperugo,  as  Plautus  does  *  : 

The  evening  star  sets  not,  nor  vet  the  Pleiades), 

this  time  is  by  the  Greeks  called  kcnrkpa,  and  vesper 
'  evening  '  in  Latin  "*  ;  just  as,  because  the  same  star 
before  sunrise  is  called  iubar  '  dawTi-star,'  because  it 
is  iuhata  '  maned,'  *  Pacu\ius's  herdsman  savs  ■^  : 

When  morning-star  appears  and  night  has  run  her  course. 

And  Ennius's  Ajax  says  ^  : 

I  see  light  in  the  sky — can  it  be  dawn  ? 

7.  The  time  between  dusk  and  dawn  is  called  the 
nox  intempesta  '  dead  of  night,'  as  in  the  Brutus  of 
Cassius,"  in  the  speech  of  Lucretia  : 

By  dead  of  night  he  came  imto  our  home. 

Aehus  *  used  to  say  that  intempesta  means  the  period 
when  it  is  not  a  time  for  acti\ity,  which  others  have 
called  the  concubium  '■  '  general  rest,'  because  practi- 
cally all  persons  then  cubabani  '  were  lying  dowTi  ' ; 
others,  from  the  fact  that  silebatur  '  silence  was  ob- 
served,' have  called  it  the  silentium  '  still  '  of  the  night, 

Accii  is  correct.  The  passage  is  listed  among  the  fragments 
of  the  Brutus  of  Accius  by  Ribbeck',  Troff.  Rom.  Frag., 
page  331,  and  by  Warmington,  R.O.L.  ii.  562-563.  *  Page 
60  Funaioli.  «  The  early  part  of  the  night ;  c/.  vii.  78, 
which  quotes  Plautus,  Trinummus,  886.  C/.  also  Funaioli, 
page  115. 



silentium  noctis,  quod  idem  Plautus  tempus  con- 
ticinium^  :  scribit  enim  : 

Videbinius' :  factum  volo.     Redito'*  conticinio,* 

8.  Alter  motus  solis  est,  al(i>ter  <ac>  caeli,^  quod 
movetur  a  bruma  ad  solstitium.  Dicta  bruma,  quod 
brevissimus  tunc  dies  est  ;  solstitium,  quod  sol  eo  die 
sistere  videbatur,  quo*  ad  nos  versum  proximu*  est. 
Sol*  cum  venit  in  medium  spatium  inter  brumam  et 
solstitium,  quod  dies  aequus  fit  ac  nox,  aequinoctium 
dictum.  Tempus  a  bruma  ad  brumam  dum  sol  redit, 
vocatur  annus,  quod  ut  parvi  circuli  anuli,  sic  magni 
dicebantur  circites  ani,  unde  annus. 

9.  Huius  temporis  pars  prima  hiems,  quod  turn 
multi  imbres  ;  hinc  hibernacula,  hibernum  ;  vel,  quod 
turn  anima  quae  flatur  omnium  apparet,  ab  hiatu 
hiems.  Tempus  secundum  ver,  quod  tum  virere^ 
incipiunt  virgulta  ac  vertere  se  tempus  anni  ;  nisi 
quod  lones  dicunt  r/p*  ver.  Tertium  ab  aestu  aestas  ; 
hinc  aestivum  ;  nisi  forte  a  Graeco  aWiadai.  Quar- 
tum  autumnus,  <ab  augendis  hominum  opibus  dictus 
frugibusque  coactis,  quasi  auctumnus).* 

*  For  conticinnium  /.  '  uidebitur  Plautus.  *  redito 
hue  Plautus.         ®  For  conticinnio  /. 

§  8,  ^  Mu€.,for  alter  caeli.  '^  quo  A.  Sp.  ;  quod  Mue.  ; 
for  aut  quod.  '  A.  Sp.  ;  proximus  est  sol,  solstitium 
L.  Sp.  ;  for  proximum  est  solstitium. 

§  9.  ^  Aldus,  for  uiuere.  *  L.  Sp.  ;  eap  Victorius  ;  for 
et.  *  Added  by  GS.,  after  Krieg shammer,  and  Fest. 
23.  11  M. 

**  Asinaria,  685. 

§  8.  "  For  the  first  motion,  see  §  4.  *  The  winter  and 
the  summer  solstices.  *  Annus  is  not  connected  with  anus 
or  anulus  '  ring.' 

§  9.  "  \\'rong.  '■  Cognate  with  the  Greek,  not  derived 
from  it. 



the  time  which  Plautus  like>\ise  calls  the  conticinium 
'  general  silence  '  :  for  he  ^\Tites  **  : 

We'll  see,  I  want  it  done.     At  general-silence  time 
come  back. 

8.  There  is  a  second  motion  of  the  suii,"  differing 
from  that  of  the  sky,  in  that  the  motion  is  from  bruma 
'  winter's  day  '  to  solstitium  '  solstice.'  *  Bruma  is  so 
named,  because  then  the  dav  is  hrevissimus  '  shortest ' : 
the  solstitium,  because  on  that  day  the  sol '  sun  '  seems 
sistere  '  to  halt,'  on  which  it  is  nearest  to  us.  When 
the  sun  has  arrived  midway  between  the  bruma  and 
the  solstitium,  it  is  called  the  aequinoctium  '  equinox,' 
because  the  day  becomes  aequus  '  equal  '  to  the  nox 
'  night.'  The  time  from  the  bruma  until  the  sun  re- 
turns to  the  bruma,  is  called  an  annus  '  year,'  because 
just  as  little  circles  are  anuli  '  rings,'  so  big  circuits 
were  called  ani,  whence  comes  annus  '  year.'  " 

9.  The  first  part  of  this  time  is  the  hiems  '  winter,' 
so  called  because  then  there  are  many  imbres 
'  showers  '  *  ;  hence  hibernacula  '  winter  encamp- 
ment,' hibernum  '  winter  time  '  ;  or  because  then 
everybody's  breath  which  is  breathed  out  is  visible, 
hiems  is  from  hiatus  '  open  mouth.'  "  The  second 
season  is  the  ver  *  '  spring,'  so  called  because  then  the 
virgulta  '  bushes  '  begin  virere  '  to  become  green  '  and 
the  time  of  year  begins  vertere  '  to  turn  or  change  ' 
itself"  ;  unless  it  is  because  the  lonians  say  i)p  for 
spring.  The  third  season  is  the  aestas  '  summer,' 
from  aestus  '  heat  '  ;  from  this,  aestivum  '  summer  pas- 
ture '  ;  unless  perhaps  it  is  from  the  Greek  aWeirdai 
'  to  blaze.'  *  The  fourth  is  the  autumnus  '  autumn,' 
named  from  augere  '  to  increase  '  the  possessions  of 
men  and  the  gathered  fruits,  as  if  auctumnus.'^ 



10.  <Ut  annus)*  ab  sole,  sic^  mensis  a  lunae  motu 
dictus,  dum  ab  sole  profecta  rursus  redit  ad  eum, 
Luna  quod  Graece  olim  dicta  /jlj^vj],  unde  illorum  /xtJi/cs, 
ab  eo  nostri.  A  mensibus  intermestris  dictum,  quod 
putabant  inter  prioris  mensis  senescentis  extremum 
diem  et  novam  lunam  esse  diem,  quem  diligentius 
Attici  eVr/v  Kai  veav^  appellarunt,  ab  eo  quod  eo  die 
potest  videri  extrema  et  prima  luna. 

11.  Lustrum  nominatum  tempus  quinquennale  a 
luendo,  id  est  solvendo,  quod  quinto  quoque  anno 
vectigalia  et  ultro  tributa  per  censores  persolve- 
bantur.  Seclum  spatium  annorum  centum  vocarunt, 
dictum  a  sene,  quod  longissimum  spatium  senescen- 
dorum  hominum  id  putarunt.  Aevum  ab  aetate 
omnium  annorum  (hinc  aeviternum,  quod  factum  est 
aeternum)  :  quod  Graeci  aiMva,  id  ait  Chrysippus 
esse  (a>€<i>  oi'.i     Ab  eo  Plautus  : 

Non  omnis  aetas  ad  perdiscendum  est  satis,* 
hinc  poetae  : 

Aeterna  templa  caeli.' 

§  10.  *  See  §  9,  critical  note  3.  ^  B,  Laetits,  for  sicut. 
'  Aldus,  for  menencenean. 

§11.     ^  Turnebus,     for     eon.  ^  sat      est      Plautus. 

'  Laetus,  for  caeli  cell. 

§  10.     "  Cognate   with    the    Greek.  *  The   end   of  the 

astronomical  day  would  normally  not  coincide  with  the  end 
of  the  24-hour  day,  and  the  last  day  of  the  month  was  there- 
fore regarded  by  the  Greeks  as  including  parts  of  two  days, 
the  old  day  closing  the  old  month,  and  the  new  day  beginning 
the  new  month. 

§11.  "Most  probably  from  lavare  'to  wash.' 
'  Properly  saeculum  ;  ultimately  from  the  root '  to  sow,'  seen 



10.  As  the  year  is  named  from  the  motion  of  the 

sun,  so  the  month  is  named  from  the  motion  of  the 
moon,  until  after  departing  from  the  sun  she  returns 
again  to  him.  Because  the  moon  was  in  Greek 
formerly  called  p/r?;,  whence  their  firjvfs  '  months  ' 
— from  this  word  we  named  the  menses  '  months.' " 
From  menses  is  named  the  intermestris  '  day  between 
the  months,'  because  they  thought  that  between  the 
last  day  of  the  preceding  expiring  month  and  the 
new  moon  there  was  a  day,  which  ^\"ith  more  care 
the  Athenians  called  the  '  old  and  new,'  ^  because  on 
that  day  the  xerx  last  of  the  old  moon  and  the  first 
beginnings  of  the  new  moon  can  both  be  seen. 

11.  A  five-year  period  was  called  a  lustrum,'^  frx)m 
luere  '  to  set  free,'  that  is,  solvere  '  to  release,'  because 
in  ever}-  fifth  year  the  taxes  and  the  voluntary  tribute 
pa}Tnents  were  completely  discharged,  through  the 
acti\ity  of  the  censors.  A  seclum  ^  '  century  '  was 
what  they  called  the  space  of  one  hundred  years, 
named  from  senex  '  old  man,'  because  they  thought 
this  the  longest  stretch  of  life  for  senescendi  '  aging  ' 
men.  Aevum  ^  '  eternity,'  from  an  aetas  '  period  '  of 
all  the  years  (from  this  comes  aeiiternum,  which  has 
become  aeternum  '  eternal  ')  :  which  the  Greeks  call 
an  aiwv — Chrysippus  says  that  this  is  <a)€<t)  6v 
'  always  existing.'  "*     From  this  Plautus  says  *  : 

AH  time  is  not  enough  for  thorough  learning, 

and  from  this  the  poets  say  : 

The  everlasting  temples  of  the  sky. 

in  semen  '  seed.'  '  Aevum  is  the  basis  for  the  other  Latin 
words,  and  is  cognate  with  the  Greek  word,  not  derived  from 
it.  <*  Chrysippus  (163  von  Arnim)  was  wrong.  *  Tru- 
culent us,  22. 



III.  12.  A(d>  naturak  discrimeni  civilia  vocabula 
die(ru>m''  accesserunt.  Dicam  prius  qui  deorum 
causa,  turn  qui  hominum  sunt  instituti.  Dies  Ago- 
nales  per  quos  rex  in  Regia  arietem  immolat,  dicti  ab 
"  agon,"  eo  quod  interrogat  (minister  sacrificii 
"  agone  ?  "  :  nisi  si  a  Graeca  lingua,  ubi  aywi'  princeps, 
ab  eo  quod  immolat>ur'  a  principe  civitatis  et  prin- 
ceps gregis  immolatur.  Carmentalia  nominantur 
quod  sacra  turn  et  feriae  Carmentis. 

13.  Lupercalia  dicta,  quod  in  Lupercali  Luperci 
sacra  faciunt.  Rex  cum  ferias  menstruas  Nonis 
Februariis  edicit,  hunc  diem  februatum  appellat  ; 
februm  Sabini  purgamentum,  et  id  in  sacris  nostris 
verbum  non  (ignotum  :  nam  pellem  capri,  cuius  de 
loro  caeduntur  puellae  Lupercalibus,  veteres  februm 
vocabant),^  et  Lupercalia  Pebruatio,  ut  in  Antiqui- 
tatum  libris  demonstravi.     Quirinalia  a  Quirino,  quod 

§  12.  ^  GS.,  for  a  natural!  discrimine  (ad  with  Sciop.). 
*  Sciop.,  for  diem.  '  A  elded  by  Krvmbiegel,  who  recognized 
that  alternative  etymologies  stood  here. 

§  13.  ^  Added  by  GS.,  after  Serv.  Dan.  in  Aen.  viii. 

§  12.  "  There  were  four  Agonia  in  the  year,  celebrated  on 
January  9,  March  17,  May  21,  December  11,  respectively  to 
Janus,  Mars,  Vediovis,  and  an  imknown  god.  The  name 
Agonium  came  from  agere  '  to  do  one's  work,'  through  a 
noun  ago  '  performer,'  formed  like  praeco  '  herald.'  "  The 
traditional  palace  of  Numa,  at  the  end  of  the  Forum ;  used 
as  the  residence  of  the  pontifex  maximus,  and  for  certain 
important  religious  ceremonies.  '  That  is,  slay  the  sacri- 
ficial victim  ;  the  formulaic  answer  was,  "  Hoc  age  !  " 
"*  Celebrated  on  January  1 1  and  15  in  honour  of  Carmentis  or 
Carmenta,  an  old  Italic  goddess  of  childbirth,  with  prophetic 
powers  ;  one  later  legend  made  her  the  mother  of  Evander, 
whom  she  accompanied  from  Arcadia  to  Rome. 

§  13.  "  Celebrated  on  March  15  by  the  priests  of  Mars 


in.  12.  To  the  division  made  by  nature  there 
have  been  added  the  civic  names  for  the  days.  First 
I  shall  give  those  which  have  been  instituted  for  the 
sake  of  the  gods,  then  those  instituted  for  the  sake  of 
men.  The  dies  Agonales  '  days  of  the  Agonia,'  "  on 
which  the  high-priest  sacrifices  a  ram  in  the  Regia,* 
were  named  from  agon  for  this  reason,  because  the 
helper  at  the  sacrifice  asks  "  agone  ?  "  '  Shall  I  do 
my  work  .'  '  ^  :  unless  it  is  from  the  Greek,  where 
aywi-  means  princeps  '  leader,'  from  the  fact  that  the 
sacrificing  is  done  by  a  leader  of  the  state  and  the 
leader  of  the  flock  is  sacrificed.  The  Carmentalia  ** 
are  so  named  because  at  that  time  there  are  sacrifices 
and  a  festival  of  Carmentis. 

13.  The  Lupercalia  "  was  so  named  because  the 
Luperci  make  sacrifice  in  the  Lupercal.  When  the 
High-priest  announces  the  monthly  festivals  on  the 
Nones  of  February,  he  calls  the  day  of  the  Lupercalia 
fehruatus  :  ior  fehrum  is  the  name  which  the  Sabines 
give  to  a  purification,  and  this  word  is  not  unknown  in 
our  sacrifices  ;  for  a  goat  hide,  ^\\th  a  thong  of  which 
the  young  women  are  flogged  at  the  LupercaUa,  the 
ancients  called  afebrus,  and  the  Lupercalia  was  called 
also  Februatio  '  Festival  of  Purification,'  as  I  have 
sho>\-n  in  the  Books  of  the  Antiquities.  Quirinalia  ** 
'  Festival  of  Quirinus,'  from  Quirinus,*^  because  it  is  a 

called  Luperci,  beginning  with  the  sacrifice  of  a  buck  in  the 
Lupercal,  the  cave  on  the  Palatine  where  traditionally  the  she- 
wolf  suckled  Romulus  and  Remus  ;  after  which  the  Luperci, 
naked  except  for  breech-clouts  made  of  the  buck's  hide,  ran 
around  the  Palatine,  where  the  people  had  massed  themselves, 
striking  the  women  with  thongs  which  also  were  cut  from  the 
hide  of  the  slaughtered  animal,  a  process  supposed  to  ensure 
the  fertility  of  those  struck.  *  On  February  17.  '  The 
deified  Romulus. 



(e>i  deo^  feriae  et  eorum  hominum,  qui  Furnacalibus 
suis  non  fuerunt  feriati.  Feralia*  ab  inferis  et  ferendo, 
quod  ferunt  turn  epulas  ad  sepulcrum  quibus  ius  ibi* 
parentare.  Terminalia,  quod  is  dies  anni  extremus 
constitutus  :  duodecimus  enim  niensis  fuit  Februarius 
et  cum  interoalatur  inferiores  quinque  dies  duodecimo 
demuntur  mense.  Ecurria  ab  ecjuorum  cursu  :  eo 
die  enim  ludis  currunt  in  Martio  Campo. 

14.  Liberalia  dicta,  quod  per  totumoppidum  eo  die 
sedent  <ut)^  sacerdotes  Liberi  anus  hedera  coronatae 
cum  libis  et  foculo  pro  emptore  sacrificantes.  In 
libris  Saliorum  quorum  cognomen  Agonensium,  for- 
sitan  hie  dies  ideo  appelletur  potius  Agonia.  Quin- 
quatrus  :  hie  dies  unus  ab  nominis  errore  observatur 
proinde  ut  sint  quinque^  ;  dictus,  ut  ab  Tusculanis 
post  diem  sextum  Idus  similiter  vocatur  Sexatrus 
et  post  diem  septimum  Septimatrus,  sic^  hie,  quod 

^  Aug.,  with  B,for  ideo.  ^  Aldus,  for  ferialia.  *  Avg., 
with  B,  for  sibi. 

§  14.  ^  Added  by  GS.  *  Punctuation  of  3Iue.  '  Lae- 
tus,  for  septematnius  sit. 

''  Or  Fornacalia,  in  honour  of  an  alleged  goddess  Fornax 
'  Spirit  of  the  Bake-oven  ' ;  celebrated  early  in  P>bruary,  on 
various  dates  in  different  curiae.  *  On  February  21,  the 
official  part  of  the  Parentalia  (February  18-21,  otherwise  for 
private  ceremonies)  ;  etymology  obscure.  '  God  of  End- 
ings. "  On  February  23 :  Varro  is  speaking  of  the  old 
Roman  year  of  355  days  (before  the  reform  of  Julius  Caesar 
in  45  B.C.),  in  which  an  extra  month  of  22  or  23  days  was 
inserted  in  alternate  years  after  February  23  ;  which  thereby 
became  the  last  date  in  the  year  which  was  common  to  all 
years,  the  remaining  five  days  of  February  being  placed  at 
the  end  of  the  extra  month.  ''  Or  Equirria  ;  on  February 
27  and  March  14,  in  honour  of  Mars. 

§  14.  "  On  March  17,  the  day  when  the  boys  assumed  the 
toga  of  manhood.  "  Frag.  inc.  2,  page  351  Mauren- 
brecher  ;   page  3  Morel.         "  This  sentence  seems  to  belong 



festival  to  that  god  and  also  of  those  men  who  did  not 
get  a  holiday  on  their  own  Fumacalia  ^  '  Bakers' 
Festival.'  The  Feralia  *  '  Festival  of  the  Dead,'  from 
inferi  '  the  dead  below  '  and y^rre  '  to  bear,'  because 
at  that  time  Xhey  ferunt '  bear  '  viands  to  the  tomb  of 
those  to  whom  it  is  a  duty  to  offer  ancestor-worship 
there.  The  Termmalia  '  Festival  of  Terminus,'  ^ 
because  this  day  »  is  set  as  the  last  day  of  the  year  ; 
for  the  twelfth  month  was  February,  and  when  the 
extra  month  is  inserted  the  last  five  days  are  taken 
off  the  twelfth  month.  The  Ecurria  '  Horse-Race,'* 
from  the  equorum  ciirsus  '  running  of  horses  '  ;  for 
on  that  day  they  currunt  '  run  '  races  in  the  sports 
on  the  Campus  Martius. 

14.  The  Liberalia  '  Festival  of  Liber,'  "  because  on 
that  day  old  women  wearing  ivy-wTcaths  on  their 
heads  sit  in  all  parts  of  the  town,  as  priestesses  of 
Liber,  ^\•ith  cakes  and  a  brazier,  on  which  they  offer 
up  the  cakes  on  behalf  of  any  purchaser.  In  the  books 
of  the  SaUi  *  who  have  the  added  name  Agonenses,  this 
day  is  for  this  reason,  perhaps,  called  rather  the 
Agonia.'^  The  Quinquatrus  :  this  day,  though  one  only, 
is  from  a  misunderstanding  of  the  name  observed  as 
if  there  were  five  days  in  it.**  Just  as  the  sixth  day 
after  the  Ides  is  in  similar  fashion  called  the  Sexatrus 
by  the  people  of  Tusculum,  and  the  seventh  day  after 
is  the  Septimatrus,  so  this  day  was  named  here,  in  that 

in  §  12.  Tfie  proper  name  of  the  festival  was  Ag(mmm, 
plural  Agonia  ;  popularly  corrupted  to  Agonalia,  in  imita- 
tion of  other  festival  names.  "*  On  March  19-23,  five  days 
instead  of  merely  the  fifth  day  after  the  Ides  (March  15  ; 
fifth  by  Roman  counting  of  both  ends)  ;  etymology,  the 
'  fifth  black  {ater)  day,'  perhaps  Quinquatrus  for  Quinfatrus, 
with  dissimilative  change  of  one  t,  and  concurrent  influence 
of  the  cardinal  quinque. 



erat  post  diem  quintum  Idus,  Quinquatrus.  Dies 
Tubulustrium  appellatur,  quod  eo  die  in  Atrio 
Sutorio  sacrorum  tubae  lustrantur. 

15.  Megalesia  dicta  a  Graecis,  quod  ex  Libris 
Sibyllinis  arcessita  ab  Attalo  rege  Pergama  ;  ibi 
prope  murum  Megalesion,  id  est^  templum  eius  deae, 
unde  advecta  Romam.  Fordicidia  a  fordis  bubus  ; 
bos  forda  quae  fert  in  ventre  ;  quod  eo  die  publice 
immolantur  boves  praegnantes  in  curiis  complures,* 
a  fordis  caedendis  Fordicidia  dicta.  Palilia  dicta  a 
Pale,  quod  ei^  feriae,  ut  Cerialia  a  Cerere. 

16.  Vinalia  a  vino  ;  hie  dies  lovis,  non  Veneris. 
Huius  rei  cura  non  levis  in  Latio  :  nam  aliquot  locis 
vindemiae  primum  ab  sacerdotibus  publice  fiebant, 
ut  Romae  etiam  nunc  :  nam  flamen  Dialis  auspicatur 
vindemiam  et  ut  iussit  vinum  legere,  agna  lovi  facit, 
inter  cuius  exta  caesa  et  porrecta^  flamen  pr(im)us^ 
vinum  legit.     In  Tusculanis  jaortis*  est  scriptum  : 

Vinum  novum  ne  vehatur  in  urbem  ante  quam 
Vinalia  ialentur.* 

§  15.     ^  G8.,  for  in.         ^  For  compluris.         '  Victorias, 
or  et. 

§  16.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  proiecta.  ^  Mue.,  for  porus. 
'  Bergk,  for  sortis.         *  Aug.,  for  calentur. 

'  March  23  ;  also  May  23. 

§  15.  °  Celebrated  on  April  4  in  honour  of  Cj^bele,  the 
Magna  Mater  (fieydXTj  '  magna,'  whence  the  name  of  the 
festival),  whose  worship  was  brought  to  Rome  from  Per- 
gamum  (here  Pergama,  fem.)  in  Mysia,  in  204  b.c.  *  On 
April     15.  '^  Often     written     Parilia ;     on     April     21. 

'^  Often  written  Cerealia  ;  on  April  19. 

§  16.     "On  April  23,  and  again  on  August  19.  *  That 

is,  not  before  the  priests  fix  the  date  and  the  ceremony  has 
been  performed. 



the  fifth  day  after  the  Ides  was  the  Quinquatrus.  The 
Tiihulustrium  '  Purification  of  the  Trumpets  '  is  named 
from  the  fact  that  on  this  day  *  the  tubae '  trumpets  ' 
used  in  the  ceremonies  lustrantur  '  are  purified  '  in 
Shoemakers'  Hall. 

1 5 .  The  Megalesia  "  '  Festival  of  the  Great  Mother ' 
is  so  called  from  the  Greeks,  because  by  direction  of 
the  SibylUne  Books  the  Great  Mother  was  brought 
from  King  Attalus,  from  Pergama  ;  there  near  the 
city-wall  was  the  Megalesion,  that  is,  the  temple  of 
this  goddess,  whence  she  was  brought  to  Rome.  The 
Fordicidia  ^  was  named  from  Jbrdae  cows  :  aforda  cow 
is  one  that  is  carrying  an  unborn  calf  ;  because  on  this 
day  several  pregnant  cows  are  officially  and  pubUcly 
sacrificed  in  the  curiae,  the  festival  was  called  the 
Fordicidia  from  Jbrdae  caedendae  '  the  pregnant  (cows) 
which  were  to  be  slaughtered.'  The  Palilia ''  'Fes- 
tival of  Pales  '  was  named  from  Pales,  because  it  is  a 
hohday  in  her  honour,  like  the  Cerialia,'^  named  from 

16.  The  Vinalia'^  'Festival  of  the  Wine,'  from 
vinum  '  vnne  '  ;  this  is  a  day  sacred  to  Jupiter,  not  to 
Venus.  This  feast  receives  no  slight  attention  in 
Latium  :  for  in  some  places  the  \4ntages  were  started 
by  the  priests,  on  behalf  of  the  state,  as  at  Rome  they 
are  even  now  :  for  the  special  priest  of  Jupiter  makes 
an  official  commencement  of  the  \'intage,  and  when  he 
has  given  orders  to  gather  the  grapes,  he  sacrifices  a 
lamb  to  Jupiter,  and  between  the  cutting  out  of  the 
victim's  vitals  and  the  offering  of  them  to  the  god  he 
himself  first  plucks  a  bunch  of  grapes.  On  the  gates 
of  Tusculum  there  is  the  inscription  : 

The  new  wine  shall  not  be  carried  into  the  city  until 
the  Vinalia  has  been  proclaimed." 



Robigalia*  dicta  ab  Robigo  ;  secundum  segetes  huic 
deo  sacrificatur,  ne  robigo  occupet  segetes. 

17.  Dies  Vestalia  ut  virgines  Vestales  a^  Vesta. 
Quinquatrus  minusculae  dictae  luniae  Idus  ab  simili- 
tudine  maiorum,  quod  tibicines  tum^  feriati  vagantur 
per  urbem  et  conveniunt  ad  Aedem  Minervae.  Dies 
Fortis  Fortunae  appellatus  ab  Servio  Tullio  rege,  quod 
is  fanum  Fortis  Fortunae  secundum  Tiberim  extra 
urbem  Romam  dedicavit  lunio  mense. 

18.  Dies  Poplifugia  videtur  nominatus,  quod  eo 
die  tumultu  repente  fugerit  populus  :  non  multo  enim 
post  hie  dies  quam  decessus  Gallorum  ex  Urbe,  et  qui 
turn  sub  Urbe  populi,  ut  Ficuleates  ac  Fidenates  et 
finitimi  alii,  contra  nos  coniurarunt.  Aliquot  huius 
d<i)ei  vestigia  fugae  in  sacris  apparent,  de  quibus 
rebus  Antiquitatum  Libri  plura  referunt.  Nonae 
Caprotinae,  quod  eo  die  in  Latio  lunoni  Caprotinae 
mulieres  sacrificant  et  sub  caprifico  faciunt ;  e  capri- 

*  Rubigalia  B,  Laetits,  for  robicalia. 

§  17.  ^  A.  Sp.  ;  ab  L.  Sp.  ;  for  aut.  ^  Laetus,  for 

*  On  April  25.  ''  The  passage  containing  the  festivals 
of  May  has  here  been  lost. 

§17.  -On  June  9.  "On  June  13.  'See  §  14. 
<*  On  June  24. 

§  18.     <•  On  July  J,  according  to  the  Fasti  of  y^miternum. 

*  Ficulea,  a  town  near  Fidenae  ;  Fidenae,  on  the  Tiber  about 
five  miles  above  Rome.  "  July  7  ;  it  is  not  necessary  to 
conclude  that  the  Poplifugia  and  the  ceremony  of  the  Nonae 
Caprotinae  were  on  the  same  day  :  the  Flight  may  well  have 
preceded  the   Fig-Tree  Signal  "(see  note   d)  by  two  days. 



The  Robigalia  '^ '  Festival  of  Robigus  '  was  named  from 
Robigus  '  God  of  Rust  '  ;  to  this  god  sacrifice  is  made 
along  the  cornfields,  that  rust  may  not  seize  upon  the 
standing  corn.** 

17.  The  Vestalia  "  '  Festival  of  \'esta,'  like  the 
Vestal  Mrgins,  from  \'esta.  The  Ides  of  June  are 
called  the  Lesser  Qidnquatrus,^  from  the  Ukeness  to 
the  Greater  Quinquatrus,'^  because  the  pipes-players 
take  a  holiday,  and  after  roaming  through  the  City, 
assemble  at  the  Temple  of  Minerva.  The  day  of  Fors 
Fortuna  ^  '  Chance  Luck  '  was  named  by  King  SerWus 
TulUus,  because  he  dedicated  a  sanctuary  to  Fors  For- 
tuna beside  the  Tiber,  outside  the  city  Rome,  in  the 
month  of  June. 

18.  The  PopUfugia  "  '  People's  P'light  '  seems  to 
have  been  named  from  the  fact  that  on  this  day  the 
people  suddenly  fled  in  noisy  confusion  :  for  this  day 
is  not  much  after  the  departure  of  the  Gauls  from  the 
City,  and  the  peoples  who  were  then  near  the  City, 
such  as  the  Ficuleans  and  Fidenians  *  and  other 
neighbours,  united  against  us.  Several  traces  of  this 
day's  flight  appear  in  the  sacrifices,  of  which  the 
Books  of  the  Antiquities  give  more  information.  The 
Nones  of  July  '^  are  called  the  Caprotine  Nones,  be- 
cause on  this  day,  in  Latium,  the  women  offer  sacrifice 
to  Juno  Caprotina,  which  they  do  under  a  caprijicus 
'  wild  fig-tree  '  ;  they  use  a  branch  from  the  fig-tree.** 

''  The  invaders  demanded  from  the  Romans,  who  were  help- 
less after  the  ravages  of  the  Gauls,  that  they  surrender  their 
wives  and  daughters.  The  maid-servants  volunteered  to  go 
disguised  as  their  mistresses,  and  plied  their  captors  with 
wine.  When  they  were  asleep,  the  women  signalled  to  the 
Romans  from  the  branches  of  a  caprijicus,  and  a  sudden 
attack  routed  the  invaders.  See  Macrobius,  Sat.  i.  11,  36-40 
and  iii.  2.  14, 



fico  adhibent  virgam.  Cur  hoc,  toga^  praetexta  data 
eis  Apollinavibus  Ludis  docuit  populum. 

19.  Neptunalia  a  Neptuno  :  eius  enim  dei^  feriae. 
Furrinalia  (a)  Furrina,^  quod  ei  deae  feriae  publicae* 
dies  is  ;  cuius  deae  honos  apud  antiques  :  nam  ei 
sacra  instituta  annua  et  flamen  attributus  ;  nunc  vix 
nomen  notum  paucis.  Portunalia  dicta  a  Portuno, 
cui  eo  die  aedes  in  portu  Tiberino  facta  et  feriae 

20.  Vinalia  rustica  dicuntur  ante  diem  XII(II>i 
Kalendas  Septembres,  quod  tum  Veneri  dedicata 
aedes  et  Aorti  ei  deae  dicontur^  ac  tum  sunt  feriati 
Aolitores.  Consualia  dicta  a  Conso,  quod  tum  feriae 
publicae  ei  deo  et  in  Circo  ad  aram  eius  ab  sacerdoti- 
bus  ludi  illi,  quibus  virgines  Sabinae  raptae.  \'olca- 
nalia  a  Volcano,  quod  ei  tum  feriae  et  quod  eo  die 
populus  pro  se  in  ignem  animalia  mittit. 

21.  Opeconsiva  dies  ab  dea  Ope  Consiva,  cuius  in 
Regia  sacrarium  quod  odeo^  artum,^  ut  eo  praeter 

§  18.     ^  J/,  Laetus,  for  togata. 

§  19.  *  Laetus,  for  die.  *  a  Furrina  Aug.,  for  furrinae. 
'  Aldus,  for  publice. 

§  20.  ^  quartum  deciinum  Aug.,  after  inscc,  for  XII. 
*  Mue.,  for  dicuntur. 

§  21.     ^  GS.,for  ideo.         ^  Canal,  for  actum. 

'  The  ancillae  had  been  richly  dressed  when  they  were  sent 
off  representing  the  wives  and  daughters  of  the  aristocratic 
Romans ;  and  after  they  had  thus  saved  the  state,  the  Senate 
rewarded  them  with  freedom  and  other  gifts,  including  the 
rich  garments  which  they  had  worn.  The  presentation  of  a 
toga  praetexta  at  the  Games  of  Apollo  seems  to  have  sym- 
bolized this  gift.  '  Celebrated  on  July  12  (at  the  time 
when  Varro  wrote). 



Why  this  was  done,  the  bordered  toga  *  presented  to 
them  at  the  Games  of  Apollo  ^enUghtened  the  people. 

19.  The  Xeptunalia  "  '  Festival  of  Neptune,'  from 
Neptime  ;  for  it  is  the  holiday  of  this  god.  The  Furri- 
nalia  *  '  Festival  of  Furrina,'  from  Furrina,  for  this  day 
is  a  state  holiday  for  this  goddess  ;  honour  was  paid  to 
her  among  the  ancients,  who  instituted  an  annual 
sacrifice  for  her,  and  assigned  to  her  a  special  priest, 
but  now  her  name  is  barely  kno^^•n,  and  even  that  to 
only  a  few.     The  Portunalia  <^  '  Festival  of  Portunus  ' 

.was  named  from  Portunus,  to  whom,  on  this  day,  a 
temple  was  built  at  the  partus  '  port  '  on  the  Tiber, 
and  a  holiday  instituted. 

20.  The  nineteenth  of  August  was  called  the 
Country  Vinalia  "  '  Wine-Festival,'  because  at  that 
time  a  temple  was  dedicated  to  Venus  and  gardens 
were  set  apart  for  her,  and  then  the  kitchen-gardeners 
went  on  holiday.  The  Consualia  ^  '  Festival  of  Cen- 
sus '  was  called  from  Census,  because  then  there  was 
the  state  festival  to  that  god,  and  in  the  Circus  at  his 
altar  those  games  were  enacted  by  the  priests  in  which 
the  Sabine  maidens  were  carried  off.  The  Volcanalia" 
'  Festival  of  \'ulcan,'  from  Vulcan,  because  then  was 
his  festival  and  because  on  that  day  the  people,  acting 
for  themselves,  drive  their  animals  over  a  fire. 

21.  The  day  named  Opeconsiva  "  is  called  from  Ops 
Consiva  *  '  Lady  Bountiful  the  Planter,'  whose  shrine 
is  in  the  Regia  ;  it  is  so  restricted  in  size  that  no  one 

§  19.  « On  July  23.  *  On  July  25 ;  Furrina,  an 
ancient  Italic  goddess.         •  On  August  1 7. 

§  20.  "  Vinalia  from  vinum,  not  from  Venus  ;  on  August 
19.         *  On  August  21 ;  <•/.  Livy,  i.  9.  6.         '  On  August  23. 

§21.  "  August  25.  *  Goddess  of  Abundance,  the  wife 
of  Saturn,  as  planter  or  sower  ;    another  aspect  of  Terra. 

VOL.  I  O  193 


virgines  Vestales  et  sacerdotem  publicum  introeat 
nemo.  "  Is  cum  eat,  suffibulum  ut'  habeat,"  scrip- 
tum  :  id  dicitur  ut*  ab  suffi<g>endo*  sub/igafculum.* 
VoZturnalia'  a  deo  Vo/turno,®  cuius  feriae  turn.  Octo- 
bri  mense  Meditrinalia  dies  dictus  a  medendo,  quod 
Flaccus  flamen  Martialis  dicebat  hoc  die  solitum 
vinum  (novum)»  et  vetus  libari  et  degustari  medica- 
menti  causa  ;  quod  facere  solent  etiam  nunc  multi 
cum  dicMnt  "  : 

Novum  vetus  vinum  bibo  :  novo  veteri  ^^  morbo  medeor. 

22.  Fontanalia  a  Fonte,  quod  is  dies  feriae  eius  ; 
ab  eo  tum  et  in  fontes  coronas  iaciunt  et  puteos 
coronant.  Armilustrium  ab  eo  quod  in  Armilustrio 
armati  sacra  faciunt,  nisi  locus  potius  dictus  ab  his  ; 
sed  quod  de  his  prius,  id  ab  lu(d>endoi  aut  lustro, 
id  est  quod  circumibant  ludentes  ancilibus  armati. 

*Z(.  Sp.,  for  aut.  *  Aldus ,  for  diciturne.  ^  Skutsch, 
for  suffiendo.  •  Kent,  for  subligaculum.  '  For  uor- 
turnalia  ,•  c/.  volturn.  in  the  Fasti.  *  For  uorturno  ;  <■/. 
preceding  note.  » Added  by  Laetus.  ^'  L.  Sp.,  for 
dicant.  ^^  After  veteri,  G,  V,f,  Aldus  deleted  uino;  cf. 
Festus,  123.  16  M. 

§  22.     ^  Vertranius,  for  luendo. 

'  An  oblong  piece  of  white  cloth  with  a  coloured  border, 
which  the  Vestal  \'irgins  fastened  over  their  heads  with  a 
fibula  '  clasp  '  when  they  offered  sacrifice ;  cf.  Festus,  348  a  25 
and  3*9.  8  M.  "On  August  27;  the  god  Volturnus 
cannot  be  identified  unless  he  is  identical  with  Vortumnus 
(Vertumnus),  since  he  can  hardly  be  the  deity  of  the  river 
Volturnus  in  Campania  or  of  the  mountain  Voltur,  in  Apulia, 
near  Horace's  birthplace.         '  On  October  3  ;    Meditrina, 



may  enter  it  except  the  Vestal  Virgins  and  the  state 
priest.  "  WTien  he  goes  there,  let  him  wear  a  white 
veil,"  is  the  direction  ;  this  suffibulum  '^  '  white  veil  ' 
is  named  as  if  sub-Jigabuhun  from  suffigere  '  to  fasten 
down.'  The  Volturnalia  '  Festival  of  \'olturnus,' 
from  the  god  Volturnus,'*  whose  feast  takes  place  then. 
In  the  month  of  October,  the  Meditrinalia  ^  '  Festival 
of  Meditrina  '  was  named  from  mederi '  to  be  healed,' 
because  Flaccus  the  special  priest  of  Mars  used  to  say 
that  on  this  day  it  was  the  practice  to  pour  an  offering 
of  new  and  old  wine  to  the  god,  and  to  taste  of  the 
same,^  for  the  purpose  of  being  healed  ;  which  many 
are  accustomed  to  do  even  now,  when  they  say  ; 

Wine  new  and  old  I  drink,  of  illness  new  and  old 
I'm  cured.' 

22.  The  Fontanalia  '  Festival  of  the  Springs,'  from 
Fons  '  God  of  Springs,'  because  that  day  °  is  his  holi- 
day ;  on  his  account  they  then  throw  garlands  into 
the  springs  and  place  them  on  the  well- tops.  The 
Armilustrium  ^  '  Purification  of  the  Arms,'  from  the 
fact  that  armed  men  perform  the  ceremony  in  the 
Armilustrium,  unless  the  place  <^  is  rather  named  from 
the  men  ;  but  as  I  said  of  them  previously,  this  word 
comes  from  ludere  '  to  play  '  or  from  lustrum  '  puri- 
fication,' that  is,  because  armed  men  went  around 
ludentes  '  making   sport  '  with    the   sacred   shields. "* 

Goddess  of  Healing.         '  The  ceremonial  first  drinking  of 
the  new  wine.         »  Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  31  Morel. 

§  22.  "  October  13.  "  October  13.  '  The  place  was 
named  from  the  ceremony  ;  c/.  v.  153.  "^  The  first  ancile 
is  said  to  have  fallen  from  heaven  in  the  reign  of  Numa,  who 
had  eleven  others  made  exactly  like  it,  to  prevent  its  loss 
or  to  prevent  knowledge  of  its  loss  ;  for  the  safety  of  the 
City  depended  on  the  preservation  of  that  shield  which  fell 
from  heaven. 


Saturnalia  dicta  ab  Saturno,  quod  eo  die  feriae  eius, 
ut  post  diem  tertium  Opalia  Opis. 

23.  Angeronalia  ab  Angerona,  cui  sacrificium  fit 
in  Curia  Acculeia  et  cuius  feriae  publicae  is  dies. 
Larentinae,  quern  diem  quidam  in  scribendo  Laren- 
talia  appellant,  ab  Acca  Larentia  nominatus,  cui 
sacerdotes  nostri  publice  parentant  e  sexto  die/  qui 
ab  ea^  dicitur  die*^  Parent(ali>um*  Accas  Larentinas.' 

24.  Hoc  sacrificium  fit  in  Velabro,  qua^  in  Novam 
Viam  exitur,  ut  aiunt  quidam  ad  sepulcrum  Accae,  ut 
quod  ibi  prope  faciunt  diis  Manibus  servilibus  sacer- 
dotes ;  qui  uterque  locus  extra  urbem  antiquam  fuit 
non  longe  a  Porta  Romanula,  de  qua  in  priore  libro 
dixi.  Dies  Septimontium  nominatus  ab  his  septem 
montibus,  in  quis  sita  Urbs  est  ;  feriae  non  populi,  sed 
montanorum  modo,  ut  Paganalibus,  qui  sunt  alicuius 

25.  De  statutis  diebus  dixi  ;    de  annalibus  nee 

§  23.  ^  parentant  Aug.,  e  sexto  die  Fay,  for  parent  ante 
sexto    die.         ^  Miie.,    for    atra.         ^  L.    Sp.,    for    diem. 

*  Mommsen,  for  tarentum.         *  L.  Sp.,  for  tarentinas. 

§  24.     ^  Laetus,  for  quia. 

•  December  17,  and  the  following  days.         '  December  19. 

§  23.  "  On  December  21.  ^  Goddess  of  Suffering  and 
Silence.  '  On  December  23  ;  supply  feriae  with  Laren- 
tinae. ^  Wife  of  Faustulus  ;  she  nursed  and  brought  up 
the  twins  Romulus  and  Remus.  *  "  Sixth  "  is  wrong  if 
the  Saturnalia  began  on  December  17,  unless  in  this  instance 
both  ends  are  counted,  or  the  allusion  is  to  an  earlier  practice 
by  which  the  Saturnalia  began  one  day  later.  On  the  phrase 
e  sexto  die,  cf.  Fay,  Amer.  Jovrn.  Phil.  xxxv.  246. 
'  Archaic  genitive  singular  ending  in  -as. 



The  Saturnalia  '  Festival  of  Saturn  '  was  named  from 
Saturn,  because  on  this  day  *  was  his  festival,  as  on  the 
second  day  thereafter  the  Opalia/  the  festival  of 

23.  The  Angeronalia,"  from  Angerona,*  to  whom  a 
sacrifice  is  made  in  the  Acculeian  Curia  and  of  whom 
this  day  is  a  state  festival.  The  Larentine  Festival, *= 
which  certain  writers  call  the  Larentalia,  was  named 
from  Acca  Larentia,**  to  whom  our  priests  officially 
perform  ancestor-worship  on  the  sixth  day  after  the 
Saturnalia,*  which  day  is  from  her  called  the  Day  of 
the  Parentalia  of  Larentine  Acca.^ 

24.  This  sacrifice  is  made  in  the  Velabrum,  where 
it  ends  in  New  Street,  as  certain  authorities  say,  at  the 
tomb  of  Acca,  because  near  there  the  priests  make 
offering  to  the  departed  spirits  of  the  slaves  "  :  both 
these  places  *  were  outside  the  ancient  city,  not  far 
from  the  Little  Roman  Gate,  of  which  I  spoke  in  the 
preceding  book."  Septimontium  Day  •*  was  named 
from  these  septem  monies  '  seven  hills,'  *  on  which  the 
City  is  set  ;  it  is  a  holiday  not  of  the  people  generally, 
but  only  of  those  who  live  on  the  hills,  as  only  those 
who  are  of  some  pagus  '  country-  district  '  have  a  hoU- 
day '  at  the  Paganalia »  '  Festival  of  the  Country 

25.  The  fixed  days  are  those  of  which  I  have 
spjoken  ;    now  I  shall  speak  of  the  annual  festivals 

§  24.  "  Faustulus  and  Acca  were,  of  course,  slaves  of 
the  king.  *  The  tomb  of  Acca  and  the  place  of  sacrifice 
to  the  Manes  serviles.  'v.  164.  ■'On  December  11. 
*  Not  the  usual  later  seven;  Festus,  348  M.,  lists  Capitoline 
with  Velia  and  Cermalus,  three  spurs  of  the  Esquiline— 
Oppius,  Fa^tal,  Cispius — and  the  Subura  valley  between. 
'  Supply  feriantur.  '  Early  in  January,  but  not  on  a 
fixed  date. 



d<i>e^  statutis  dicam.  Compitalia  dies  attributus 
Laribus  vialihus^  :  ideo  ubi  viae  competunt  turn  in 
competis  sacrificatur.  Quotannis  is  dies  concipitur. 
Similiter  Latinae  Feriae  dies  conceptivus'  dictus  a 
Latinis  populis,  quibus  ex  Albano  Monte  ex  sacris 
carnem*  petere  fuit  ius  cum  Romanis,  a  quibus  Latinis 
Latinae  dictae. 

26.  Sementivae^  Feriae  dies  is,  qui  a  pontificibus 
dictus,  appellatus  a  semente,  quod  sationis  causa  sus- 
cepta(e).^  Paganicae  eiusdem  agriculturae  causa 
susceptae,  ut  haberent  in  agris  omm's'  pagus,  unde 
Paganicae  dictae.  Sunt  praeterea  feriae  conceptivae 
quae  non  sunt  annales,  ut  hae  quae  dicuntur  sine 
proprio  vocabulo  aut  cum  perspicwo,*  ut  Novendiales* 

IV.  27.  De  his  diebus  (satis)^  ;  nunc  iam,  qui 
hominum  causa  constituti,  videamus.  Primi  dies 
mensium  nominati  jfiCalendae,*  quod  his  diebus  calan- 

§  25.  ^  Mommsen,  for  de.  *  Bongars,  for  ut  alibi. 
^  Laetus,  for  conseptivus.         *  Victorius,  for  carmen. 

§26.  ^f,  Vertranius,  for  sementinae.  ^  Aldus,  for 
suscepta.  ^  Aldus,  for  omnes.  *  Aug.,  for  perspicio. 
*  For  novendialis. 

§  27.     ^  Added   by   Sciop.         *  Aug.,   with   B,  for   cal-. 

§  25.  "  That  is,  set  by  special  proclamation,  and  not 
always  falling  on  the  same  date.  ''  By  the  praetor,  not  far 
from  January  1 .  '  Written  competa  in  the  text,  to  make 
the  association  with  competunt.  ^  The  festival  of  the 
league  of  the  Latin  cities ;  its  date  was  set  by  the  Roman 
consuls  (or  by  a  consul)  as  soon  as  convenient  after  entry 
into  office. 

§  26.  "  In  January,  on  two  days  separated  by  a  space 
of  seven  days  ;  as  they  were  days  of  sowing,  the  choice 
depended  upon  the  weather.         *  Collective  singular  with 



which  are  not  fixed  on  a  special  day."  The  Compitalia 
is  a  day  assigned  *  to  the  Lares  of  the  highways  ; 
therefore  where  the  highways  competunt  '  meet,* 
sacrifice  is  then  made  at  the  compita  "  '  crossroads.' 
This  day  is  appointed  every  year.  Likewise  the 
Latinae  Feriae  *  Latin  Holiday  '  <*  is  an  appointed  day, 
named  from  the  peoples  of  Latium,  who  had  equal 
right  with  the  Romans  to  get  a  share  of  the  meat  at 
the  sacrifices  on  the  Alban  Mount  :  from  these  Latin 
peoples  it  was  called  the  Latin  Holiday. 

26.  The  Sementivae  Feriae  '  Seed-time  Holiday  ' " 
is  that  day  which  is  set  by  the  pontiffs  ;  it  was  named 
from  the  sementis  '  seeding,'  because  it  is  entered 
upon  for  the  sake  of  the  sowing.  The  Paganicae 
'  Country-District  Holiday  '  was  entered  upon  for  the 
sake  of  this  same  agriculture,  that  the  whole  pagus  ^ 
'  country-district  '  might  hold  it  in  the  fields,  whence 
it  was  called  Paganicae.  There  are  also  appointive 
hoUdays  which  are  not  annual,  such  as  those  which  are 
set  without  a  special  name  of  their  own,"  or  with  an 
obvious  one,  such  as  is  the  Novendialis  '  Ceremony  of 
the  Ninth  Day.' ^* 

IV.  27.  About  these  days  this  is  enough  "  ;  now 
let  us  see  to  the  days  which  are  instituted  for  the 
interests  of  men.  The  first  days  of  the  months 
are  named  the  Kalendae,^  because  on  these  days  the 

plural  verb.  *  Such  as  the  supplicationes  voted  for  Caesar's 
victories  in  Gaul ;  c/.  Bell.  Gall.  ii.  35.  4,  iv.  38.  5,  vii.  90.  8. 
"*  The  offerings  and  feasts  for  the  dead  on  the  ninth  day  after 
the  funeral ;  also,  a  festival  of  nine  days  proclaimed  for  the 
purpose  of  averting  misfortunes  whose  approach  was  indicated 
by  omens  and  prodigies. 

§  27.  "  The  insertion  o(  satis  makes  the  chapter  beginning 
conform  to  those  at  v.  57,  75,  95,  184,  vi.  35,  etc.  "  The  K 
in  Kalendae  and  )ta/o,  before  A,  is  well  attested. 



tur  eius  mensis'  Nonae  a  pontificibus,  quintanae  an 
septimanae  sint  futurae,  in  Capitolio  in  Curia  Calabra 
sic  :  "  Die  te  quin^i*  ^alo^  luno  Covella  "  (aut>*  "  Sep- 
t^m(i>  die  te'  ^alo^  luno  Covella." 

28.  Nonae  appellatae  aut  quod  ante  diem  nonum 
Idus  semper,  aut  quod,  ut  novus  annus  Kalendae^ 
lanuariae  ab  novo  sole  appellatae,  novus  mensis  (ab)^ 
nova  luna  Nonae^ ;  eodem  die*  in  Urbe(m>^  (qui)*  in 
agris  ad  regem  conveniebat  populus.  Harum  rerum 
vestigia  apparent  in  sacris  Nonalibus  in  Arce,  quod 
tunc  ferias  primas  menstruas,  quae  futurae  sint  eo 
mense,  rex  edicit  populo.  Idus  ab  eo  quod  Tusci 
Itus,  vel  potius  quod  Sabini  Idus  dicunt. 

29.  Dies  postridie  Kalendas,  Nonas,  Idus  appellati 
atri,  quod  per  eos  dies  <nihil>i  novi  inciperent.  Dies 
fasti,  per  quos  praetoribus  omnia  verba  sine  piaculo 
licet  fari  ;  comitiales  dicti,  quod  turn  ut  <in  Comitio)^ 

^  Aug.,    with    B,   for    menses.  *  Mommsen ;    die   te    V 

CAHs<; /or  dictaequinque.  ^  See  note  ^,^^!.  ^  Added 
by  Zander.  '  Mommsen  ;  VII  die  te  Christ  ;  for  septem 

§  28.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,for  calendae.  ^  a  added  by  Sciop. 
'  Sciop.,  for  nonis.  *  After  die,  Mue.  deleted  enim. 
*  Laetus,  for  urbe.         *  Added  by  L.  Sp. 

§  29.     ^  Added     by     Turnebus.         ^  Added     by    Bergk. 

'  See  V.  13.  <*  The  statement  of  Macrobius,  Sat.  i.  15.  10, 
that  kalo  luno  Covella  was  repeated  five  or  seven  times  re- 
spectively, may  rest  merely  on  a  corrupted  form  of  this  passage 
which  was  in  the  copy  used  by  Macrobius.  '  '  Juno  of  the 
New  Moon  '  ;  Covella,  diminutive  from  covus  '  hollow,' 
earlier  form  of  cavus  {cf.  v.  19) — unless  it  be  corrupt  for 
Novella,  as  Scaliger  thought.  For  the  New  Moon  has  a 
concave  shape. 

§28.  "The  north-eastern  summit  of  the  Capitoline. 
""  Origin  uncertain  ;   perhaps  from  Etruscan,  as  Varro  says. 



Nones  of  this  month  calantur  '  are  announced  '  by  the 
pontiffs  on  the  Capitoline  in  Announcement  Hall," 
whether  they  "will  be  on  the  fifth  or  on  the  seventh,  in 
this  way  ^  :  "  Juno  Covella,*  I  announce  thee  on  the 
fifth  day  "  or  "  Juno  Covella,  I  announce  thee  on  the 
sev'enth  day." 

28.  The  Nones  are  so  called  either  because  they 
are  always  the  nonus  '  ninth  '  day  before  the  Ides,  or 
because  the  Nones  are  called  the  novus  '  new  '  month 
from  the  new  moon,  just  as  the  Kalends  of  January 
are  called  the  new  year  from  the  new  sun  ;  on  the 
same  day  the  people  Mho  were  in  the  fields  used  to 
flock  into  the  City  to  the  King.  Traces  of  this  status 
are  seen  in  the  ceremonies  held  on  the  Nones,  on 
the  Citadel,"  because  at  that  time  the  high-priest 
announces  to  the  people  the  first  monthly  holidays 
which  are  to  take  place  in  that  month.  The  Idus  ^ 
'  Ides,'  from  the  fact  that  the  Etruscans  called  them 
the  Itus,  or  rather  because  the  Sabines  call  them  the 

29.  The  days  next  after  the  Kalends,  the  Nones, 
and  the  Ides,  were  called  atri  '  black,'  "  because  on 
these  days  they  might  not  start  anything  new.  Dies 
fasti  ^  '  righteous  days,  court  days,'  on  which  the 

praetors  ''  are  permitted  fari  '  to  say  '  any  and  all 
words  without  sin.  Comiiiales  '  assembly  days  '  are  so 
called  because  then  it  is  the  established  law  that  the 

§  29.  "  C/.  Macrobius,  Sat.  i.  15.  22  ;  the  use  of  ater  was 
appropriate  after  the  Ides,  when  the  moon  was  not  visible  in 
the  day  nor  in  the  early  evening,  nor  was  it  visible  immedi- 
ately after  the  Kalends.  *  That  is,  when  it  was  /a«  to  hold 
court  and  make  legal  decisions ;  Varro  connects  with  fori 
'  to  say,'  with  which  the  Romans  associated  fas  etymologi- 
cally,  but  the  connexion  has  recently  been  questioned. 
'  Who  functioned  as  judges. 



esset  populus  constitutum  est  ad  suffragium  ferun- 
dum,  nisi  si  quae  feriae  conceptae  essent,  propter  quas 
non  liceret,  (ut)'  Compitalia  et  Latinae. 

30.  Contrarii  horum  vocantur  dies  nefasti,  per 
quos  dies  nefas  fari  praetorem  "  do,"  "  dico,"  "  ad- 
dico  "  ;  itaque  non  potest  agi  :  necesse  est  aliquo 
<eorum>^  uti  verbo,  cum  lege  qui<d)2  peragitur.  Quod 
si  turn  imprudens  id  verbum  emisit  ac  quern  manu- 
misit,  ille  nihilo  minus  est  liber,  sed  vitio,  ut  magi- 
stratus  vitio  creatus  nihilo  sedus'  magistratus.  Praetor 
qui  turn  fatus*  est,  si  imprudens  fecit,  piaculari  hostia 
facta  piatur  ;  si  prudens  dixit,  Quintus  Mucins  aiebat^ 
cum  expiari  ut  impium  non  posse. 

31.  Intercesi^  dies  sunt  per  quos  mane  et  vesperi 
est  nefas,  medio  tempore  inter  hostiam  caesam  et  exta 
porrecta^  fas  ;  a  quo  quod  fas  tum  intercedit  aut  eo' 
intercisum  nefas,  intercisi.*  Dies  qui  vocatur  sic 
"  Quando*  rex  comitiavit  fas,"  is*  dictus  ab  eo  quod 

^  Added  by  Laetus. 

§  30.  ^  Added  by  Laetus,  with  B.  ^  Laetus,  for  qui. 
^  A.  Sp.  ;  secius  Victorius  ;  for  sed  ius,  *Turnebus,for 
factus.         *  L.  Sp.,  for  abigebat. 

§  31.  ^  Laetus,  for  intercensi.  "  Aug.,  with  B,  for 
proiecta.  ^  L,  Sp.  ;  eo  est  Mue.  ;  for  eos.  *  A.  Sp., 
for  intercisum.  *  Before  quando,  B  inserts  Q  R  C  F,  the 
abbreviation  found  tn  the  Fasti.  *  fas  is  Victorius,  for 

§  30.  "  For  the  meaning  of  vitio,  see  Dorothy  M. 
Paschall,  "  The  Origin  and  Semantic  Development  of  Latin 
Vitium,"  Trans.  Amer.  Philol.  Assn.  Ixvii.  219-231. 
*  i.  19  Huschke. 

§  31.     »  March  24  and  May  24.         "  The  caedere  '  to  cut  ' 
in  intercidere  and  the  cedere  '  to  go  on  '  in  intercedere  are  not 
etymologically  connected. 


people  should  be  in  the  Comitium  to  cast  their  votes — 
unless  some  holidays  should  have  been  proclaimed  on 
account  of  which  this  is  not  permissible,  such  as  the 
Compitalia  and  the  Latin  Holiday. 

30.  The  opposite  of  these  are  called  dies  nefasti 
'  unrighteous  days,'  on  which  it  is  nefas  '  unrighteous- 
ness '  for  the  praetor  to  say  do  '  I  give,'  dico  '  I  pro- 
nounce,' addico  '  I  assign  '  ;  therefore  no  action 
can  be  taken,  for  it  is  necessary  to  use  some  one 
of  these  words,  when  anything  is  settled  in  due 
legal  form.  But  if  at  that  time  he  has  inadvert- 
ently uttered  such  a  word  and  set  somebody  free, 
the  person  is  none  the  less  free,  but  with  a  bad 
omen"  in  the  proceeding,  just  as  a  magistrate 
elected  in  spite  of  an  unfavourable  omen  is  a 
magistrate  just  the  same.  The  praetor  who  has 
made  a  legal  decision  at  such  a  time,  is  freed  of 
his  sin  by  the  sacrifice  of  an  atonement  victim,  if 
he  did  it  unintentionally  ;  but  if  he  made  the  pro- 
nouncement with  a  realization  of  what  he  was  doing, 
Quintus  Mucius  *  said  that  he  could  not  in  any  way 
atone  for  his  sin,  as  one  who  had  failed  in  his  duty 
to  God  and  country. 

31.  The  intercisi  dies  '  divided  days  '  are  those  °  on 
which  legal  business  is  wTong  in  the  morning  and  in 
the  evening,  but  right  in  the  time  between  the  slajing 
of  the  sacrificial  victim  and  the  offering  of  the  vital 
organs  ;  whence  they  are  intercisi  because  the  Jos 
'  right  '  intercedit  *  '  comes  in  between  '  at  that  time, 
or  because  the  nefas  '  WTong  '  is  intercisum  '  cut  into  ' 
by  ihefos.  The  day  which  is  called  thus  :  "  When 
the  high-priest  has  officiated  in  the  Comitium,  Right," 
is  named  from  the  fact  that  on  this  day  the  high-priest 
pronounces  the  proper  formulas  for  the  sacrifice  in  the 



eo  die  rex  sacrificio  ius''  dicat  ad  Comitium,  ad  quod 
tempus  est  nefas,  ab  eo  fas  :  itaque  post  id  tempus 
lege  actum  saepe. 

32.  Dies  qui  vocatur  "  Quando  stercum  delatum 
fas,"^  ab  eo  appellatus,  quod  eo  die  ex  Aede  Vestae 
stercus  everritur  et  per  Capitolinum  Clivum  in  locum 
defertur  certum.  Dies  Alliensis  ab  Allia^  fluvio 
dictus  :  nam  ibi  exercitu  nostro  fugato  Galli  obse- 
derunt  Romam. 

33.  Quod  ad  singulorum  dierum  vocabula  pertinet 
dixi.  Mensium  nomina  fere  sunt  aperta,  si  a  Martio, 
ut  antiqui  constituerunt,  numeres  :  nam  primus  a 
Marte.  Secundus,  ut  Fulvius  scribit  et  Junius,  a 
Venere,  quod  ea  sit  AjaArodite^  ;  cuius  nomen  ego 
antiquis  litteris  quod  nusquam  inveni,  magis  puto 
dictum,  quod  ver  omnia  aperit,  Aprilem.  Tertius  a 
maioribus  Maius,  quartus  a  iunioribus  dictus  Junius. 

31-.  Dehinc  quintus  Quintilis  et  sic  deinceps  usque 
ad  Decembrem  a  numero.  Ad  hos  qui  additi,  prior  a 
principe  deo  lanuarius  appellatus  ;  posterior,  ut  idem 
dicunt  scriptores,  ab  diis  inferis  Februarius  appellatus, 

^  Other  codices,  for  sacrificiolus  Fv. 

§  32.  ^  Before  quando,  B  inserts  Q  S  D  F,  the  abbrevia- 
tion found  in  the  Fasti.         ^  B,  Laetus,  for  allio  (auio/). 

§  33.     ^  For  afrodite. 

§  32.     "  June  15.  *  July  18  ;   anniversary  of  the  battle 

of  390  B.C.,  at  the  place  where  the  Allia  flows  into  the  Tiber, 
eleven  miles  above  Rome. 

§  33.  "  Probably  from  an  adjective  apero-  '  second,'  not 
otherwise  found  in  Latin.  "  Servius  Fulvius  Flaccus, 
consul  1.S5  B.C.,  skilled  in  law,  literature,  and  ancient  history. 
«Page  121  Funaioli;  page  11  Huschke.  <*  From  Maia, 
mother  of  Mercury.  *  From  the  goddess  Juno  :  page  121 

§  34.     "  Varro  wrote  before  Quintilis  was  renamed  lulius 



presence  of  the  assembly,  up  to  which  time  legal 
business  is  WTong,  and  from  that  time  on  it  is  right  : 
therefore  after  this  time  of  day  actions  are  often  taken 
under  the  law. 

32.  The  day  "  which  is  called  "  When  the  dung  has 
been  carried  out,  Right,"  is  named  from  this,  that  on 
this  day  the  dung  is  swept  out  of  the  Temple  of  \'esta 
and  is  carried  away  along  the  Capitoline  Incline  to  a 
certain  spot.  The  Dies  AlUensis  ^  '  Day  of  the  Allia  ' 
is  called  from  the  Allia  River  ;  for  there  our  army  was 
put  to  flight  by  the  Gauls  just  before  they  besieged 

33.  With  this  I  have  finished  my  account  of  what 
pertains  to  the  names  of  indi\idual  days.  The  names 
of  the  months  are  in  general  ob\ious,  if  you  count 
from  March,  as  the  ancients  arranged  them  ;  for  the 
first  month,  Martins,  is  from  Mars.  The  second, 
Aprilis,"  as  Fuhius  ^  ^\Tites  and  Junius  also,''  is  from 
\'enus,  because  she  is  Aphrodite  :  but  I  have  nowhere 
found  her  name  in  the  old  ^^Titings  about  the  month, 
and  so  think  that  it  was  called  April  rather  because 
spring  aperit  '  opens  '  everything.  The  third  was 
called  Maius  **  '  May  '  from  the  maiores  '  elders,'  the 
fourth  lunius  *  '  June  '  from  the  iuniores  '  younger 

34.  Thence  the  fifth  is  Quintilis  "  '  July  '  and  so  in 
succession  to  December,  named  from  the  numeral. 
Of  those  which  were  added  to  these,  the  prior  was 
called  lanuarius  '  January  '  from  the  god  *  who  is  first 
in  order  ;  the  latter,  as  the  same  \\Titers  say,"  was 
called  Fehruarius^  '  February  '  from  the  di  inferi  '  gods 

and  Sfxtilis  was  renamed  Augustus.  *  Janus.  '  Page 
16  Funaioli ;  page  11  Huschke.  •*  From  a  lost  word/«6#r 
'  sorrow.' 



quod  turn  his  paren<te>tur^  ;  ego  magis  arbitror 
P'ebruarium  a  die  februato,  quod  turn  februatur 
populus,  id  est  Lupercis  nudis  lustratur  antiquum 
oppidum  Palatinum  gregibus  humanis  cinctum. 

V.  35.  Quod  ad  temporum  vocabula  Latina 
attinet,  hactenus  sit  satis  dictum  ;  nunc  quod  ad  eas 
res  attinet  quae  in  tempore  aliquo  fieri  animadver- 
terentur,  dicam,  ut  haec  sunt :  legisti,  cur*us,^  ludens  ; 
de  quis  duo  praedicere  volo,  quanta  sit  multitudo 
eorum  et  quae  sint  obscuriora  quam  alia. 

36.  Cum  verborum  declinatuum^  genera  sint  quat- 
tuor,  unum  quod  tempora  adsignificat  neque  habet 
casus,  ut  ab  lego  leges,  lege^  ;  alterum  quod  casus 
habet  neque  tempora  adsignificat,  ut  ab  lego  lectio 
et  lector  ;  tertium  quod  habet  utrunque  et  tempora 
et  casus,  ut  ab  lego  legens,  lecturus  ;  quartum  quod 
neutrum  habet,  ut  ab  lego  lecte  ac  lectissime  :  horum 
verborum  si  primigenia  sunt  ad  mille,^  ut  Cosconius 
scribit,  ex  eorum  declinationibus  verborum  discrimina 
quingenta  milia  esse  possunt  ideo,  quod  a*  singulis 
verbis  primigenii(s>5  circiter  quingentae  species  de- 
clinationibus fiunt. 

§  34.     ^  Aug.  ;  parentent  Laetus  ;  for  parent. 
§  35.     ^  Mue.,  with  G,  11,  for  currus. 

§  36.  1  B,  Laetus,  for  declinatiuum.  ^  V,  b,  for  lego 
Fv.  '  Victorius,  for  admitte.  *  L.    Sp.,  for   quia. 

*  Aug.,  for  primigenii. 

*  Three  different  ceremonies  are  confounded  here  :  one  of 
purification,  one  of  expiation  to  the  gods  of  the  Lower  World, 
one  of  fertility  ;  cf.  vi.  13,  note  a. 

§  35.  "  That  is,  all  verbal  forms,  and  the  derivatives  from 
the  verbal  roots. 

§36.  "  The  verb  has  both  meanings  ;  some  of  the  deriva- 
tives have  only  one  or  the  other,         *  Q.  Cosconius,  orator 



of  the  Lower  World,'  because  at  that  time  expiatory 
sacrifices  are  made  to  them  ;  but  I  think  that  it  was 
called  February  rather  from  the  dies  fehruatus  '  Puri- 
fication Day,'  because  then  the  people  fehruatur  '  is 
purified,'  that  is,  the  old  Palatine  town  girt  -vWth  flocks 
of  people  is  passed  around  by  the  naked  Luperci.* 

V.  35.  As  to  what  pertains  to  Latin  names  of  time 
ideas,  let  that  which  has  been  said  up  to  this  point  be 
enough.  Now  I  shall  speak  of  what  concerns  those 
things  which  might  be  observed  as  taking  place  at 
some  special  time  "  —  such  as  the  following  :  legisti 
'  thou  didst  read,'  cursus  '  act  of  running,'  ludens 
'  playing.'  With  regard  to  these  there  are  two  things 
which  I  "sWsh  to  say  in  advance  :  how  great  their 
number  is,  and  what  features  are  less  perspicuous 
than  others. 

36.  The  inflections  of  words  are  of  four  kinds  :  one 
which  indicates  the  time  and  does  not  have  case,  as 
leges  '  thou  wilt  gather  or  read,'  "  lege  '  read  thou,' 
from  lego  '  I  gather  or  read  '  ;  a  second,  which  has 
case  and  does  not  indicate  time,  as  from  lego  lectio 
'  collection,  act  of  reading,'  lector  '  reader ' ;  the  third, 
which  has  both,  time  and  case,  as  from  lego  legens 
'  reading,'  lecturus  '  being  about  to  read  '  ;  the  third, 
which  has  neither,  as  from  lego  lecte  '  choicely,'  lectis- 
sime  '  most  choicely.'  Therefore  if  the  primitives  of 
these  words  amount  to  one  thousand,  as  Cosconius  ^ 
writes,  then  from  the  inflections  of  these  words  the 
different  forms  can  be  five  hundred  thousand  in 
number  for  the  reason  that  from  each  and  every 
primitive  word  about  five  hundred  forms  are  made 
by  derivation  and  inflection. 

and  authority  on  grammar  and  literature,  who  flourished 
about  100  B.C.  ;  page  109  Funaioli. 



37.  Primigenia  dicuntur  verba  ut  lego,  scribo,  sto, 
sedeo  et  cetera,  quae  non  sunt  ab  ali(o>  quo^  verbo, 
sed  suas  habent  radices.  Contra  verba  declinata  sunt, 
quae  ab  ali<o>  quo^  oriuntur,  ut  ab  lego  legis,  legit, 
legam  et  sic^  indidem  hinc  permulta.  Quare  si  quis 
primigeniorum  verborum  origines  ostenderit,  si  ea 
mille  sunt,  quingentum  milium  simplicium  verborum 
causas  aperuerit  una  ;  sin*  nullius,  tamen  qui  ab  his 
reliqua  orta  ostenderit,  satis  dixerit  de  originibus 
verborum,  cum  unde  nata  sint,  principia  erunt  pauca, 
quae  inde  nata  sint,  innumerabilia. 

38.  A  quibus  iisdem  principiis  antepositis  prae- 
verbiis  paucis  immanis  verborum  accedit  numerus, 
quod  praeverbiis  {in>mutatis^  additis  atque  commu- 
tatis  aliud  atque  aliud  fit  :  ut  enim  <pro>cessit''  et 
recessit,  sic  accessit  et  abscessit  ;  item  incessit  et  ex- 
cessit,  sic  successit  et  decessit,  (discessit)'  et  concessit. 
Quod  si  haec  decem  sola  praeverbia  essent,  quoniam 
ab  uno  verbo  declinationum  quingenta  discrimina 
fierent,  his  decemplicatis  coniuncto  praeverbio  ex 
uno  quinque  milia  numero  efficerent(ur),*  ex  mille  ad 
quinquagies  centum  milia  discrimina  fieri  possunt. 

§  37.  ^  Mue.  ;  alio  Aug.,  G  ;  for  aliquo.  *  Mue.,  for 
aliquo.  '  After  sic,  Laetus  deleted  in.  *  Turnebns,  for 
Unas  in. 

§  38.     ^  GS.,    for     mutatis.  ^  Fritzscke,    for     cessit. 

*  Added  by  GS  (et  discessit  added  by  Vertranius).  *  Aldus, 
for  efficerent. 

§  37.     "  That  is,  cannot  be  referred  to  a  simpler  radical 


37.  Primitive  is  the  name  applied  to  words  like 
lego  '  I  gather,'  scribo  '  I  ^^Tite,'  sto  '  I  stand,'  sedeo  '  I 
sit,'  and  the  rest  which  are  not  from  some  other  word,** 
but  have  their  own  roots.  On  the  other  hand  deriva- 
tive words  are  those  which  do  develop  from  some  other 
word,  as  from  lego  come  legis  '  thou  gatherest,'  legit 
'  he  gathers,'  legam  '  I  shall  gather,'  and  in  this  fashion 
from  this  same  word  come  a  great  number  of  words. 
Therefore,  if  one  has  shown  the  origins  of  the  primi- 
tive words,  and  if  these  are  one  thousand  in  number, 
he  will  have  revealed  at  the  same  time  the  sources  of 
five  hundred  thousand  separate  words  :  but  if  without 
showing  the  origin  of  a  single  primitive  word  he  has 
shown  how  the  rest  have  developed  from  the  primi- 
tives, he  \nU.  have  said  quite  enough  about  the  origins 
of  words,  since  the  original  elements  from  which  the 
words  are  sprung  are  few  and  the  words  which  have 
sprung  from  them  are  countless. 

38.  There  are  besides  an  enormous  number  of 
words  derived  from  these  same  original  elements  by 
the  addition  of  a  few  prefixes,  because  by  the  addition 
of  prefixes  with  or  without  change  a  word  is  repeatedly 
transformed  ;  for  as  there  is  processit  '  he  marched 
forward  '  and  recessit  '  drew  back,'  so  there  is  accessit 
'  approached  '  and  abscessit '  went  off,'  Ukewise  incessit 
'  advanced  '  and  excessit  '  withdrew,'  so  also  siiccessit 
'  went  up  '  and  decessit  '  went  away,'  discessit  '  de- 
parted '  and  concessit  '  gave  way.'  But  if  there  were 
only  these  ten  prefixes,  from  the  thousand  primitives 
five  million  different  forms  can  be  made  inasmuch  as 
from  one  word  there  are  five  hundred  derivational 
forms  and  when  these  are  multiplied  by  ten  through 
union  with  a  prefix  five  thousand  different  forms  are 
produced  out  of  one  primitive. 

VOL.  I  p  209 


39.  Democritus,  E(pi>curus,^  item  alii  qui  infinita 
principia  dixerunt,  quae  unde  sint  non  dicunt,  sed 
cuiusmodi  sint,  tamen  faciunt  magnum  :  quae  ex  his 
constant  in  mundo,  ostendunt.  Quare  si  et^mologws* 
principia  verborum  postulet  mille,  de  quibus  ratio  ab 
se  non  poscatur,  et  reliqua  ostendat,  quod  non  pos- 
tulat,  tamen  immanem  verborum  expediat  numerum. 

40.  De  multitudine  quoniam  quod  satis  esset 
admonui,^  de  obscuritate  pauca  dicam.  Verborum 
quae  tempora  adsignificant  ideo  locus*  difficillimus 
fTV[j.a,^  quod  neque  his  fere  societas  cum  Graeca 
lingua,  neque  vernacula  ea  quorum  in  partum  memoria 
adfuerit  nostra  ;   e*  quibus,  ut  dixi,^  quae  poterimus. 

VI.  41.  Incipiam  hinc  primurw^  quod  dicitur  ago. 
Actio  ab  agitatu  facta.  Hinc  dicimus  "  agit  gestum 
tragoedus,"*  et  "  agitantur  quadrigae  "  ;  hinc  "  agi- 
tur  pecus  pastum."  Qua'  vix  agi  potest,  hinc  angi- 
portum  ;  qua  nil  potest  agi,  hinc  angulus,  <vel>*  quod 
in  eo  locus  angustissimus,  cuius  loci  is  angulus. 

42.     Actionum  trium  primus  agitatus  mentis,  quod 

§  39.  ^  Tumehus,  for  secutus  Fv,  securus  G,  II.  "  ety- 
mologos  B,  Rhol.,  for  ethimologos  Fv,  ethimologus  G. 

§  40.  ^  Laetus,  for  admonuit.  */,  Aldus,  for  locutus. 
'  est  hvfia  Sciop.  {L.  Sp.  deleted  est),  for  est  TTMa  Fv. 
*  A.  Sp.,  for  nostrae.         *  31,  Laetus,  for  dixit. 

§  41.  ^  Laetus,  for  primus.  "  For  tragaedus.  ^Al- 
dus, for  quia.  *  Added  by  Mue.,  whose  punctuation  is 
here  followed. 

§  39.  "  Of  Abdera  (about  460-373  b.c),  originator  of  the 
atomic  theory.  *  Of  Athens  (341-270  b.c),  founder  of  the 
Epicurean  school  of  philosophy ;  Epic.  201.  33  Usener. 
'  That  is,  that  he  should  be  excused  from  interpreting  them 
{quod  for  quot). 

%  40.     "  For  adfuerit  with  the  goal  construction,  cf.  Vergil, 
Eel.  2.  45  hue  ades,  etc.         "  v.  10. 


39.  Democritus,'»  Epicurus,''  and  likewise  others 
who  have  pronounced  the  original  elements  to  be 
unhmited  in  number,  though  they  do  not  tell  us 
whence  the  elements  are,  but  only  of  what  sort  they 
are,  still  perform  a  great  ser\-ice  :  they  show  us  the 
things  which  in  the  world  consist  of  these  elements. 
Therefore  if  the  etymologist  should  postulate  one 
thousand  original  elements  of  words,  about  which  an 
interpretation  is  not  to  be  asked  of  him,  and  show  the 
nature  of  the  rest,  about  which  he  does  not  make  the 
postulation,*'  the  number  of  words  which  he  would 
explain  would  still  be  enormous. 

40.  Since  I  have  given  a  sufficient  reminder  of  the 
number  of  existing  words,  I  shall  speak  briefly  about 
their  obscurity.  Of  the  words  which  also  indicate 
time  the  most  difficult  feature  is  their  radicals,  for  the 
reason  that  these  have  in  general  no  communion  with 
the  Greek  language,  and  those  to  whose  birth  "  our 
memory  reaches  are  not  native  Latin  ;  yet  of  these, 
as  I  have  said,*  we  shall  say  what  we  can. 

\'I.  41.  I  shall  start  first  from  the  word  ago  '  I 
drive,  effect,  do.'  Actio  '  action  '  is  made  from  agitatus 
'  motion.' "  From  this  we  say  "  The  tragic  actor  agit 
'  makes  '  a  gesture,"  and  "  The  chariot-team  agitantur 
'  is  driven  '  "  ;  from  this,  "  The  flock  agitur  '  is  driven  ' 
to  pasture."  Where  it  is  hardly  possible  for  anything 
agi '  to  be  driven,'  from  this  it  is  called  an  angiportum  * 
'  alley  '  ;  where  nothing  can  agi '  be  driven,'  from  this 
it  is  an  angulus  '  corner,'  or  else  because  in  it  is  a  verj^ 
narrow  (angustus)  place  to  which  this  corner  belongs. 

42.     There  are  three  actiones  '  actions,'  and  of  these 

§41.  "All  these  words  are  derivatives  of  agere,  except 
angiportum  and  angulus  ;  but  aetio  does  not  develop  by  loss 
of  the  *  in  agitatus.         "  C/.  v.  14.5. 



primum  ea  quae  sumus  acturi  cogitate  debemus, 
deinde  turn  dicere  et  facere.  De  his  tribus  minime 
putat  volgus  esse  actionem  cogitationem  ;  tertium,  in 
quo  quid  facimus,  id  maximum.  Sed  et  cum  cogi- 
tamus^  quid  et  eam  rem  agitamus^  in  mente,  agimus, 
et  cum  pi-onuntiamus,  agimus.  Itaque  ab  eo  orator 
agere  dicitur  causam  et  augures  augurium  agere 
dicuntur,  quom  in  eo  plura  dicant  quam  faciant. 

43.  Cogitare  a  cogendo  dictum  :  mens  plura  in 
unum  cogit,  unde  eligere^  possit.  Sic  e  lacte  coacto 
caseus  nominatus  ;  sic  ex  hominibus  contio  dicta,  sic 
coemptio,  sic  compitum  nominatum,  A  cogitatione 
concilium,  inde  consilium  ;  quod  ut  vestimentum 
apud  fullonem  cum  cogitur,  conciliari^  dictum. 

44.  Sic  reminisci,  cum  ea  quae  tenuit  mens  ac 
memoi'ia,  cogitando  repetuntur.  Hinc  etiam  com- 
minisci  dictum,  a  con  et  mente,  cum  finguntur  in 
mente  quae  non  sunt  ;  et  ab  hoc  illud  quod  dicitur 
eminisci,!  cum  commentum  pronuntiatur.     Ab  eadem 

§  42.  ^  Sciop.,  for  hos  agitamus  Fv.  *  L.  8p.,  for 

§  43.     ^  a,  p,  RhoL,  for  elicere.         "  Aug.,  for  consiliari. 
§  44.     ^  Heusinger,for  reminisci. 

§  42.     "  Page  16  Regell. 

§  43.     "  Here  Varro  gives  a  parenthetic  list  of  words  with 
the  prefix  co-  or  com-  ;    though  he  is  wrong  in  including 
caseus.         ^  Cogitatio,  concilium,  consilium  have  nothing  in 
common  except  the  prefix. 


the  first  is  the  agitatus  '  motion  '  of  the  mind,  because 
we  must  first  cogitate  '  consider  '  those  things  which 
we  are  acturi  '  going  to  do,'  and  then  thereafter  say 
them  and  do  them.  Of  these  three,  the  common  folk 
practically  never  thinlcs  that  cogitatio  '  consideration  ' 
is  an  action  :  but  it  thinks  that  the  third,  in  which  we 
do  something,  is  the  most  important.  But  also  when 
we  cogitamus  '  consider  '  something  and  agitamus 
'  turn  it  over  '  in  mind,  we  agimus  '  are  acting,'  and 
when  we  make  an  utterance,  we  agimus  '  are  acting.' 
Therefore  from  this  the  orator  is  said  agere  '  to  plead  ' 
the  case,  and  the  augurs  are  said  "  agere  '  to  practice  ' 
augury,  although  in  it  there  is  more  saying  than 

43.  Cogitare  '  to  consider  '  is  said  from  cogere  '  to 
bring  together  '  :  the  mind  cogit  '  brings  together  ' 
several  things  into  one  place,  from  which  it  can 
choose.  Thus  "  from  milk  that  is  coactum  '  pressed,' 
caseus  '  cheese  '  was  named  ;  thus  from  men  brought 
together  was  the  contio  '  mass  meeting  '  called,  thus 
coemptio  '  marriage  by  mutual  sale,'  thus  compitum 
*  cross-roads.'  From  cogitatio  '  consideration  '  came 
concilium  '  council,'  and  from  that  came  consilium 
'  counsel ' ;  ^  and  the  concilium  is  said  conciliari  '  to  be 
brought  into  unity  '  like  a  garment  when  it  cogitur  '  is 
pressed  '  at  the  cleaner's. 

44.  Thus  reminisci  '  to  recall,'  when  those  things 
which  have  been  held  by  mind  and  memory  are  fetched 
back  again  by  considering  (cogitando).  From  this  also 
comminisci  '  to  fabricate  a  story  '  is  said,  from  con  '  to- 
gether '  and  mens  '  mind,'  when  things  which  are  not, 
are  devised  in  the  mind  ;  and  from  that  comes  the 
word  eminisci  '  to  use  the  imagination,'  when  the 
commentum  '  fabrication  '  is  uttered.     From  the  same 



mente  meminisse  dictum  et  amens,  qui  a  mente  sua 

45.  Hinc  etiam  metu*^  <a)  mente  quodam  modo 
mota,^  ut^  metuisti  <te>*  amovisti  ;  sic,  quod  frigidus 
timior,  tremuisti  timuisti.  Tremo  dictum  a  simili- 
tudine  vocis,  quae  tunc  cum  valde  tremunt  apparet, 
cum  etiam  in  corpore  pili,  ut  arista  in  spica  ^ordei, 

46.  Curare  a  cura  dictum.  Cura,  quod  cor  urat  ; 
curiosus,  quod  hac  praeter  modum  utitur.  Recor- 
danV  rursus  in  cor  revocare.  Curiae,  ubi  senatus 
rempublicam  curat,  et  ilia  ubi  cura  sacrorum  publica  ; 
ab  his  curiones. 

47.  Volo  a  voluntate  dictum  et  a  volatu,  quod 
animus  ita  est,  ut  puncto  temporis  pervolet  quo  volt. 
Lwbere^  ab  labendo  dictum,  quod  lubrica  mens  ac 
prolabitur,  ut  dicebant  olim.  Ab  lubendo  libido, 
libidinosus  ac  Venus  Libentina  et  Libitina,  sic  alia. 

*  Aug.,  for  descendit. 

§  45.  ^  GS.,  for  metuo.  ^  Canal,  for  mentem  quodam 
modo  motam.  *  L.  Sp.,  for  uel.  *  Added  by  Kent, 
after  Fay. 

§  46.     ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  recordare. 

§  47.     1  L.  Sp.,  for  libere. 

§  45.  "  According  to  Mueller,  the  sequence  of  the  topics 
indicates  that  this  section  and  §  49  have  been  interchanged  in 
the  manuscripts.     All  etymologies  in  this  section  are  wrong. 

§  46.  "  Three  etymologically  distinct  sets  of  words  are 
here  united  :  cura,  curare,  curiosus  ;  cor,  recordari ;  curia, 

§  47.  "  Volo  '  I  wish  '  is  distinct  from  volo  '  I  fly.' 
''  lAibet,  later  libet,  is  distinct  from  labi  and  from  lubricus. 
"  Either  as  a  euphemism,  or  from  the  fact  that  the  funeral 
apparatus  was  kept  in  the  storerooms  of  the  Temple  of  Venus, 
which  caused  the  epithet  to  acquire  a  new  meaning. 



word  mens  '  mind  '  come  menunisse  '  to  remember  ' 
and  amens  '  mad,'  said  of  one  who  has  departed  a 
mente  '  from  his  mind.' 

45."  From  this  moreover  metus  '  fear,'  from  the 
mens  '  mind  '  somehow  mota  '  moved,'  as  meiuisti  '  you 
feared,'  equal  to  te  amovisti  '  you  removed  yourself.' 
So,  because  timor  '  fear  '  is  cold,  tremuisti  '  you 
shivered  '  is  equal  to  timuisti  '  you  feared.'  Tremo  '  I 
shiver  '  is  said  from  the  similarity  to  the  behaviour  of 
the  voice,  which  is  e\'ident  then  when  people  shiver 
very  much,  when  even  the  hairs  on  the  body  bristle 
up  Uke  the  beard  on  an  ear  of  barley. 

46."  Curare  '  to  care  for,  look  after  '  is  said  from 
cura '  care,  attention. '  Cura,  because  it  cor  iirat '  burns 
the  heart  '  ;  curiosus  '  inquisitive,'  because  such  a 
person  indulges  in  cura  beyond  the  proper  measure. 
Recordari  '  to  recall  to  mind,'  is  revocare  '  to  call 
back  '  again  into  the  cor  '  heart.'  The  curiae  '  halls,' 
where  the  senate  curat  '  looks  after  '  the  interests  of 
the  state,  and  also  there  where  there  is  the  cura  '  care  ' 
of  the  state  sacrifices ;  from  these,  the  curiones '  priests 
of  the  curiae.' 

47.  Folo  '  I  wish  '  is  said  from  voluntas  '  free-will ' 
and  from  volatus  '  flight,'  because  the  spirit  is  such 
that  in  an  instant  it  pervolat  '  flies  through  '  to  any 
place  whither  it  volt  '  wishes.' "  Lubere  *  'to  be 
pleasing  '  is  said  from  labi '  to  slip,'  because  the  mind 
is  luhrica  '  sUppery  '  and  prolabitur  '  sUps  for^-ard,'  as  of 
old  they  used  to  say.  From  lubere  '  to  be  pleasing  ' 
come  libido  '  lust,'  libidinosus  '  lustful,'  and  ^'enus 
Libentina  '  goddess  of  sensual  pleasure  '  and  Libitina  " 
'  goddess  of  the  funeral  equipment,'  so  also  other 



48.  Metuere  a  quodam  motu  animi,  cum  id  quod 
malum  casurum  putat  refugit  mens.  Cum  vehe- 
mentius  in  movendo  ut  ab  se  abeat  foras  fertur, 
formido  ;  cum  (parum  movetur)i  pavet,  et  ab  eo 

49.  Meminisse  a  memoria,  cum  <in)  id  quod 
remansit  in  mente^  rursus  movetur  ;  quae  a  manendo^ 
ut  manimoria'  potest  esse  dicta.  Itaque  Salii  quod 
cantant : 

Momuri  Vetwr/,* 
significant  memoriam  veterem.*  Ab  eodem  monere,' 
quod  is  qui  monet,  proinde  sit  ac  memoria  ;  sic 
monimenta  quae  in  sepulcris,  et  ideo  secundum  viam, 
quo  praetereuntis  admoweant '  et  se  fuisse  et  illos 
esse  mortalis.  Ab  eo  cetera  quae  scripta  ac  facta 
memoriae  causa  monimenta  dicta. 

50.  Maerere  a  marcere,  quod  etiam  corpus  mar- 
cescere(t>  ^  ;   hinc  etiam  macri  dicti.     Laetari  ab  eo 

§  48.     1  Added  by  L.  Sp. 

§  49.  ^  A.  Sp.,  for  id  quod  remansit  in  mente  in  id 
quod  /  the  omission,  icith  Sciop.  *  Rhol.,  for  manando. 
^  Other  codices,  for  maniomoria  Fv.  *  Turnebus,  for 
memurii  ueterum  or  ueteri.  ^  Maurenbrecher ;  veterem 
memoriam  Aug.,  with  B  ;  where,  according  to  Victorius,  F 
had  memoriam  followed  by  an  illegible  word.  ^  For  mo- 
nerem.         '  For  admoueant  Fv,  admoneat  B. 

§  50.     ^  L.  Sp.,  for  marcescere. 

§  48.     "  All  etymologies  in  the  section  are  wrong. 

§  49.  "  See  note  on  §  45.  Meminisse,  mens,  monere, 
monimentum  (or  monumentum)  are  from  the  same  root ; 
memoria  is  perhaps  remotely  connected  with  them  ;  but 
manere  is  to  be  kept  apart.  *  Frag.  8,  page  339  Mauren- 
brecher ;  page  4  Morel.  "  The  traditional  smith  who  made 
the  best  of  the  duplicate  ancilia  (see  vi.  22,  note  d),  and  at  his 
request  was  rewarded  by  the  insertion  of  his  name  in  the 
Hymns  of  the  Salii  (Festus,  131.  11  M.).  But  Varro  seems 


48.*'  Metuere  '  to  fear,'  from  a  certain  Jtiotus 
'  emotion  '  of  the  spirit,  when  the  mind  shrinks  back 
from  that  misfortune  which  it  thinks  \\'ill  fall  upon  it. 
When  from  excessive  violence  of  the  emotion  it  is 
borne  foras  '  forth  '  so  as  to  go  out  of  itself,  there  is 
Jbrmido  '  terror  '  ;  when  parti  m  movetur  '  the  emotion 
is  not  very  strong,'  it  pavet  '  dreads,'  and  from  this 
comes  pavor  '  dread.' 

49."  Meminisse  '  to  remember,'  from  memoria 
'  memory,'  when  there  is  again  a  motion  toward  that 
which  remansit  '  has  remained  '  in  the  mens  '  mind  '  : 
and  this  may  have  been  said  from  manere  '  to  remain,' 
as  though  manimoria.  Therefore  the  Salii,^  when 
they  sing 

O  Mamurius  Veturius,'^ 

indicate  a  mem&ria  vetus  '  memory  of  olden  times.' 
From  the  same  is  monere  '  to  remind,'  because  he  who 
monet  '  reminds,'  is  just  like  a  memory.  So  also  the 
monimenta  '  memorials  '  which  are  on  tombs,  and  in 
fact  alongside  the  highway,  that  they  may  ad  monere 
'  admonish  '  the  passers-by  that  they  themselves  were 
mortal  and  that  the  readers  are  too.  From  this,  the 
other  things  that  are  wTitten  and  done  to  preserve 
their  memoria  '  memory  '  are  called  monimenta  '  monu- 

50."  Maerere  '  to  grieve,'  was  named  from  marcere 
'  to  \\-ither  away,'  because  the  body  too  would  marces- 
cere  '  waste  away  '  ;  from  this  moreo\"er  the  macri 
'  lean  '  were  named.     Laetari '  to  be  happy,'  from  this, 

to  feel  an  etymological  connexion  between  Mamuri  Veturi 
and  memoriam  veterem. 

§  50.  "  All  etymologies  wrong,  except  the  association  of 
laetari^  laetitia,  lafta. 



quod  latius  gaudium  propter  magni  boni  opinionem 
difFusum.     Itaque  luventius  ait : 

Sua  si  omnes  homines  conferant  unum  in  locum, 
Tamen  mea  exsuperet  laetitia. 

Sic  cum  se  habent,  laeta. 

VII.  51.  Narro,  cum  alterum  facio  narum,^  a 
quo  narratio,  per  quam  cognoscimus  rem  gesta(m>.2 
Quae  pars  agendi  est  ab  dicendo'  ac  sunt  aut  con- 
iuncta  cum  temporibus  aut  ab  his  :  eorum*  hoc  genus 
videntur  Irvfia. 

52.  Fatur  is  qui  primum  homo  significabilem  ore 
mittit  vocem.  Ab  eo,  ante  quam  ita  faciant,  pueri 
dicuntur  infantes  ;  cum  id  faciunt,  iam  fari  ;  cum  hoc 
vocabulum,^  (tum)  a  similitudine  vocis  pueri  (fario- 
lus>  ac  fatuus  dictum.*  Ab  hoc  tempore'  quod  tum 
pueris  constituant  Parcae  fando,  dictum  fatum  et  res 
fatales.  Ah  hac  eadem  voce*  qui  facile  fantur  facundi 
dicti,  et  qui  futura  praedivinando  soleant  fari  fatidici  ; 
dicti   idem  vaticinari,  quod  vesana   mente   faciunt : 

§51.  ^  FictoriMS, /ornarrum.  ^  For  gesta,  Fv.  ^  L. 
Sp.  ;  a  dicendo  Ursimis  ;  for  ab  adiacendo  Fv.  *  Avg., 
for  earum. 

§  52.  ^  Aug.,  for  uocabulorum.  *  GS.,  for  a  simili- 
tudine uocis  pueri  ac  fatuus  fari  id  dictum.  '  Popma,  for 
tempore.         *  Canal,  for  ad  haec  eandem  uocem. 

*  Com.  Rom.  Frag.,  verses  2-4  Ribbeck'.  Juventius  was  a 
writer  of  comedies  from  the  Greek,  in  the  second  century  b.c. 

§51.  "  Varro  wrote  naro,  with  one  R,  according  to  Cas- 
siodorus,  vii.  159.  8  Keil ;  the  etymology  is  correct.  *  Cf. 
vi.  42. 

§  52.  "  The  etymologies  in  this  section  are  correct,  except 
those  of  fariolus  and  vaticinari.         *  Dialectal  form,  prob- 



that  joy  is  spread  latius  '  more  widely '  because  of  the 
idea  that  it  is  a  great  blessing.  Therefore  Juventius 
says  ^  : 

Should  all  men  bring  their  joys  into  a  single  spot. 
My  happiness  would  yet  surpass  the  total  lot. 

When  things  are  of  this  nature,  they  are  said  to  be 
laeta  '  happy.' 

\TI.  51.  Narro'^  'I  narrate,'  when  I  make  a 
second  person  narus  '  acquainted  vnth  '  something  ; 
from  which  comes  narratio  '  narration,'  by  which  we 
make  acquaintance  with  an  occurrence.  This  part  of 
acting  is  in  the  section  of  saying,*  and  the  words  are 
united  with  time-ideas  or  are  from  them  :  those  of 
this  sort  seem  to  be  radicals. 

52."  That  manfatur  '  speaks  '  who  first  emits  from 
his  mouth  an  utterance  which  may  convey  a  meaning. 
From  this,  before  they  can  do  so,  children  are  called 
infantes  '  non-speakers,  infants  '  ;  when  they  do  this, 
they  are  said  nov,' Jari  '  to  speak  '  ;  not  only  this  word, 
but  also,  from  likeness  to  the  utterance  of  a  child, 
fariolus  ^  '  soothsayer  '  a.nd.fatuus  '  prophetic  speaker  ' 
are  said.  From  the  fact  that  the  Birth-Goddesses  by 
fando  '  speaking  '  then  set  the  life-periods  for  the 
children,  ya^MW  '  fate  '  is  named,  and  the  things  that 
arefatales '  fateful.'  From  this  same  word,  those  who 
fantur  '  speak  '  easily  are  called  facundi  '  eloquent,' 
and  those  who  are  accustomed  fori  '  to  speak  '  the 
future  through  presentiment,  are  called  fatidici 
'  sayers  of  the  fates  ' ;  they  Ukewise  are  said  vaticinari" 
'  to  prophesy,'  because  they  do  this  with  frenzied 

ably  Faliscan,  for  hariolus,  which  is  connected  with  harwtpex. 
*  As  though  fati-  ;  but  properly  from  the  stems  of  rate» 
'  bard  '  and  canere  '  to  sing.' 



sed  de  hoc  post  erit  usurpandum,  cum  de  poetis 

53.  Hinc  fasti  dies,  quibus  verba  certa  legitima 
sine  piaculo  praetoribus  licet  fari  ;  ab  hoc  nefasti, 
quibus  diebus  ea  fari  ius  non  est  et,  si  fati  sunt,  pia- 
culum  faciunt.  Hinc  effata  dicuntur,  qui  augures 
finem  auspiciorum  caelestum  extra  urbem  agri(s)i 
sunt  effati  ut  esset  ;  hinc  efFari  templa  dicuntur  :  ab 
auguribus  efFantur  qui  in  his  fines  sunt. 

5 1.  Hinc  fana  nominata,  quod^  pontifices  in  sac- 
rando  fati  sint  finem  ;  hinc  profanum,  quod  est  ante 
fanum  coniunctum  fano  ;  hinc  profanatum  quid  in 
sacrificio  aique^  Herculi  decuma  appellata  ab  eo  est 
quod  sacrificio  quodam  fanatur,  id  est  ut  fani  lege^it.^ 
Id  dicitur  pollu<c>tum,*  quod  a  porriciendo  est  fictum: 
cum  enim  ex  mercibus  hbamenta  porrecta^  sunt 
Hercuh  in  aram,  turn  pollu(c>tum*  est,  ut  cum  pro- 
fan  (at>um*  dicitur,  id  est  proinde  ut  sit  fani  factum  : 
itaque  ihV  ohm  <in)^  fano  consumebatur  omne  quod 

§  53.     ^  Laetus,  for  agri. 

§  54.  ^  Laetus,  for  quae.  ^  il/,  V,  Laetus,  for  ad  quae 
Fv.  ^  Canal,  for  sit.  *  Aug.  {quoting  a  friend),  for 
pollutum.  ®  Aug.,  with  B,  for  proiecta.  ®  Turnebus, 
for  profanum.  '  Vertranius,  for  ubi.  *  Added  by 

"  Cf.  vii.  36. 

§  53.  "  Fastus  and  nefastus,  from  fas  and  nefas  ;  but 
whether /a*  and  nefas  are  from  the  root  of  fari,  is  question- 
able. *  Cf.  vi.  29-30.  <=  Page  19  Regell.  ^  Effari  is 
used  both  with  active  and  with  passive  meaning. 

§  54.  "  Fanum  (whence  adj.  profanus),  from  fas,  not  from 
fari.  *  Profanus  was  used  also  of  persons  who  remained 
'  before  the  sanctuary  '  because  they  were  not  entitled  to  go 
inside,  or  because  admission  was  refused  ;  therefore  '  un- 
initiated '  or  '  unholy,'  respectively.  "  Wrong  etymology. 
■^  Any  edibles  or  drinkables  were  appropriate  offerings  to 


mind  :  but  this  will  have  to  be  taken  up  later,  when 
we  speak  about  the  poets. ** 

53.  From  this  the  dies  fasti  "  '  righteous  days, 
court  days,'  on  which  the  praetors  are  permitted yhW 
'  to  speak  '  without  sin  certain  words  of  legal  force  ; 
from  this  the  nefasti '  unrighteous  days,'  on  which  it  is 
not  right  for  them  to  speak  them,  and  if  they  have 
spoken  these  words,  they  must  make  atonement.'' 
From  this  those  words  are  called  effata  '  pronounced,' 
by  which  the  augurs  '^  have  effati  '  pronounced  '  the 
limit  that  the  fields  outside  the  city  are  to  have,  for 
the  observance  of  signs  in  the  sky ;  from  this,  the 
areas  of  observation  are  said  effari  **  '  to  be  pro- 
nounced '  ;  by  the  augurs,"  the  boundaries  effantur 
'  are  pronounced  '  which  are  attached  to  them. 

54.  From  this  the  f ana  "  '  sanctuaries  '  are  named, 
because  the  pontiffs  in  consecrating  them  have  fati 
'  spoken  '  their  boundary  ;  from  this, profanum  '  being 
before  the  sanctuary,'  ^  which  applies  to  something 
that  is  in  front  of  the  sanctuary  and  joined  to  it  ;  from 
this,  anything  in  the  sacrifice,  and  especially  Hercules 's 
tithe,  is  called  profanatum  '  brought  before  the  sane-» 
tuary,  dedicated,'  from  this  fact  that  it  faiiatur  '  is 
consecrated '  by  some  sacrifice,  that  is,  that  it  becomes 
by  law  the  property  of  the  sanctuary.  This  is  called 
polluctum  '  offered  up,'  a  term  which  is  shaped  '^  from 
porricere  '  to  lay  before  '  :  for  when  from  articles  of 
commerce  first  fruits  **  are  laid  before  Hercules,  on  his 
altar,  then  there  is  a  polluctum  '  offering-up,'  just  as, 
when  profanatum  is  said,  it  is  as  if  the  thing  had  be- 
come the  sanctuary's  property.  So  formerly  all  that 
was  profanatum  *  '  dedicated  '  used  to  be  consumed  in 

Hercules  ;  c/.  Festus,  253  a  17-21  M.         '  That  is,  so  far  as 
it  was  not  burned  on  the  altar,  in  the  god's  honour. 



profan(at>uin*  erat,  ut  etiam  (nunc)*"  fit  quod  praetor 
urb(an>ws**  quotannis  facit,  cum  Herculi  immolat 
publice  iuvencam. 

55.  Ab  eodem  verbo  fari  fabulae,  ut  tragoediae  et 
comoediae,*  dictae.  Hinc  fassi  ac  confessi,  qui  fati  id 
quod  ab  is"  quaesitum.  Hinc  professi  ;  hinc  fama  et 
famosi.  Ab  eodem  falli,  sed  et  falsum  et  fallacia, 
quae  propterea,  quod  fando  quem  decipit  ac  contra 
quam  dixit  facit.  Itaque  si  quis  re  fallit,  in  hoc  non 
proprio  nomine  fallacia,  sed  tralati<ci>o,*  ut  a  pede 
nostro  pes  lecti  ac  betae.  Hinc  etiam  famigerabile* 
et  sic  compositicia*  alia  item  ut  declinata  multa,  in 
quo  et  Fatuus  et  Fatuae.* 

56.  Loqui  ab  loco  dictum. *  Quod  qui  primo 
dicitur  iam  fari"  vocabula  et  reliqua  verba  dicit  ante 
quam  suo  quique'  loco  ea  dicere  potest,*  hunc  CAr^s- 
ippus  negat  loqui,  sed  ut  loqui  :  quare  ut  imago 
hominis  non  sit  homo,  sic  in  corvis,  cornicibus,  pueris 
primitus  incipientibus  fari  verba  non  esse  verba,  quod 

*  L.  Sp.,  for  profanum.  *"  Added  by  L.  Sp.  **  Aug., 
with  B,  for  P.  R.  iirbis  Fv. 

§  55.     *  For    tragaediae     et     comaediae.  "  For    his. 

'  A.  Sp.  ;  tralatitio  Sciop.  ;  for  tranlatio.  *  M,  V,  p, 
Aldus,  for  famiger  fabile  Fv.  ^  A.  Sp.,  for  composititia 
Fv.         «  B,  G,  f,  for  fatue  Fv. 

§  56.  *  Punctuation  by  Stroux.  *  For  farit  Fv.  *  L. 
Sp.  ;  quidque  Aug.  ;  for  quisque. 

§  55.  "  The  preceding  words  all  belong  with  fari ;  but 
falli,  falsum,  fallacia  form  a  distinct  group.  *  Instead  of 
by  speaking.  *  That  is,  beet-root.  "*  Faunus  and  the 

§56.     "Wrong.         "Page  143  von  Arnini.         «Ravens 



the  sanctuary,  as  even  now  is  done  with  that  which 
the  City  Praetor  offers  every  year,  when  on  behalf 
of  the  state  he  sacrifices  a  heifer  to  Hercules. 

55.  From  the  same  word  fan  '  to  speak,'  the 
fahulae  '  plays,'  such  as  tragedies  and  comedies,  were 
named.  From  this  word,  those  persons  have  fassi 
'  admitted  '  and  confessi  '  confessed,'  who  have  fati 
'  spoken  '  that  which  was  asked  of  them.  From  this, 
professi  '  openly  declared  '  :  from  this,  fama  '  talk, 
rumour,'  and  famosi  '  much  talked  of,  notorious.' " 
From  the  same,  falli '  to  be  deceived,'  but  also  falsum 
'  false  '  and  fallacia  '  deceit,'  which  are  so  named  on 
this  account,  that  hy  fando  '  speaking  '  one  misleads 
someone  and  then  does  the  opposite  of  what  he  has 
said.  Therefore  if  one  Jallit '  deceives  '  by  an  act,**  in 
this  there  is  not  fallada  '  deceit  '  in  its  own  proper 
meaning,  but  in  a  transferred  sense,  as  from  our  pes 
'  foot  '  the  pes  '  foot  '  of  a  bed  and  of  a  beet  "  are 
spoken  of.  From  this,  moreox ex ,  famigerabile  '  worth 
being  talked  about,'  and  in  this  fashion  other  com- 
pounded words,  just  as  there  are  many  derived  words, 
among  which  are  Fatuus  '  god  of  prophetic  speaking  ' 
and  the  Fatuae  '  women  of  prophecy.'  '^ 

56.  Loqui  'to  talk,'  is  said  from  locus  'place.'" 
Because  he  who  is  said  to  speak  now  for  the  first  time, 
utters  the  names  and  other  words  before  he  can  say 
them  each  in  its  own  locus  '  place,'  such  a  person 
Chrysippus  says  ^  does  not  loqui  *  talk,'  but  quasi- 
talks  ;  and  that  therefore,  as  a  man's  sculptured  bust 
is  not  the  real  man,  so  in  the  case  of  ravens,  crows,*' 
and  boys  making  their  first  attempts  to  speak,  their 
words  are  not  real  words,  because  they  are  not  talk- 

and  crows  were  the  chief  speaking  birds  of  the  Romans  ;  c/. 
Macrobius,  Sat.  ii.  4.  29-30. 



non  loquantur.*  Igitur  is  loquitur,  qui  suo  loco  quod- 
que  verbum  sciens  ponit,  et  is  tum^  prolocutu*,*  quom 
in  animo  quod  habuit  extulit  loquendo. 

57.  Hinc  dicuntur  eloqui  ac  reloqui^  in  fanis 
Sabinis,  e  cella  dei  qui  loquuntur.^  Hinc  dictus 
loquax,  qui  nimium  loqueretur  ;  hinc  eloquens,  qui 
copiose  loquitur  ;  hinc  colloquium,  cum  veniunt  in 
unum  locum  loquendi  causa  ;  hinc  adlocutum  mulieres 
ire  aiunt,  cum  eunt  ad  aliquam  locutum  consolandi' 
causa  ;  hinc  quidam  loquelam  dixerunt  verbum  quod 
in  loquendo  efferimus.  Concinne  loqui  dictum  a 
concinere,*  ubi  inter  se  conveniunt  partes  ita  <ut>^ 
inter  se  concinant^  aliud  alii. 

58.  Pronuntiare  dictum  <a  proy  et  nuntiare  ;  pro 
idem  valet  quod  ante,  ut  in  hoc  :  proludit.  Ideo 
actores  pronuntiare  dicuntur,  quod  in  prosccenio 
enuntiant  poeta<e>  cogitata,^  quod  maxime  tum^ 
dicitur  proprie,  novam  fabulam  cum  agunt.  Nuntius 
enim  est  a  <n>ovis*  rebus  nominatus,  quod  a  verbo 

*  Aug.,  for  loquebantur.  ^  Canal,  for  istum.  ^  Fay, 
for  prolocutum. 

§  57.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  eloquium  ac  reliqui.  *  Lach- 
mann,    for    eloqiiuntur.  '  G,    Aug.,    for    consulendi. 

*  Scaliger,  for  concinne.  ^  Added  by  Mue.  ;  added  after 
inter  se  by  L.  Sp.         *  Mue.,  for  condeant. 

§  58.  ^  Added  by  Oroth.  ^  Sciop.,  for  poeta  cogitante. 
^  After  turn,  Laetus  deleted  id.         *  Turnebus,  for  quis. 

•^  That  is,  do  not  convey  ideas  to  others. 

§  57.  °  Concinne,  adverb  to  concinnus  '  neatly  fitted,'  has 
nothing  in  common  with  concinere  '  to  sing  in  harmony,' 
except  the  prefix. 

§  58.     "  Nuntiare  and   its  compounds   are  derived   from 



ing.''  Therefore  he  loquitur  '  talks,'  who  ^\ith  under- 
standing puts  each  word  in  its  o^\'n  place,  and  he  has 
then  prolocutus  '  spoken  forth,'  when  he  has  by  lo- 
quendo  '  talking  '  expressed  what  he  had  in  his  spirit. 

57.  From  this,  they  are  said  eloqui  '  to  speak 
forth  '  and  reloqui  '  to  speak  in  reply  '  in  the  Sabine 
sanctuaries,  who  loquuntur  '  speak  '  from  the  chamber 
of  the  God.  From  this  he  was  called  loquax  '  talka- 
tive,' who  talked  too  much  :  from  this,  eloquens  '  elo- 
quent,' who  talks  profusely ;  from  this,  colloquium 
'  conference,'  when  persons  come  into  one  place  for 
the  purpose  of  talking  ;  from  this,  they  say  that 
women  go  adlocutum  '  to  talk  to  her,'  when  they  go  to 
someone,  to  talk  for  purposes  of  consolation  ;  from 
this,  a  word  which  we  utter  in  talking  has  been  by 
some  called  a  loquela  '  talk-unit.'  To  talk  concinne'^ 
'  neatly  '  is  said  from  concinere  '  to  harmonize,'  where 
the  parts  agree  ^^ith  each  other  in  such  a  way  that 
they  mutually  concinunt  '  harmonize  '  one  mth  an- 

58.  Pronuntiare  "  '  to  make  known  publicly  '  is  said 
from  pro  and  nuntiare  '  to  announce  '  ;  pro  means  the 
same  as  ante  '  before,'  as  in  proludit '  he  plays  before- 
hand.' Therefore  actors  are  said  pronuntiare  '  to  de- 
claim,' because  they  enuntiant  '  make  known  '  on  the 
proscaenium  '  stage  '  the  poet's  thoughts  *  ;  and  the 
word  is  used  with  the  most  literal  meaning,  when  they 
act  a  new  play.*^  For  a  nuniius  '  messenger  '  was 
named  from  novae  res  ^  '  new  things,'  which  is  perhaps 

nuntius.  '  As  though  pronuntiare  united  the  pro  of 
proscenium  and  the  nuntiare  of  enuntiare.  '  A  play  not 

previously  acted.  ^  A  nunftus  is  a  novo-vent-ios,  but  is 
not  from  Greek  :  Latin  novus  and  Greek  veos  are  from  a 
common  original. 

VOL.  I  Q  225 


Graeco  potest  declinatum  ;  ab  eb  itaque  Neapolis 
illorum  Novapolis  ab  antiquis  vocitata  nostris. 

59-  A  quo  etiam  extremum  novissimum  quoque 
dici*  coeptum  volgo,  quod  mea  memoria  ut  Aelius  sic 
senes  aliquot,  nimium  novum  verbum  quod  esset, 
vitabant  ;  cuius  origo,  ut  a  vetere  vetust(i)us  ac 
veterrimu?«,*  sic  ab  novo  declinatum  (novius  et>' 
novissimum,  quod  extremum.  Sic  ab  eadem  origine 
no  vitas  et  novicius  et  novalis  in  agro  et  "  sub  No  vis  " 
dicta  pars  in  Foro  aedificiorum,  quod  vocabulum  ei 
pervetustww,*  ut  Novae  \"iae,  quae  via  iam  diu  vetus. 

60.  Ab  eo  quoque  potest  dictum  nominare,  quod 
res  novae  in  usum  quom^  additae  erant,  quibus  ea(s>^ 
novissent,  nomina  ponebant.  Ab  eo  nuncupare,  quod 
tunc  (pro)*  civitate  vota  nova  suscipiuntur.  Nuncu- 
pare nominare  valere  apparet  in  legibus,  ubi  "  nun- 
cupatae  pecuniae  "  sunt  scriptae  ;  item  in  Choro  in 
quo  est  : 

Aenea  ! — Quis  <is>*  est  qui  meum  nomen  nuncupat  ? 

§  59.  ^  Auff.,  from  Gellius,  x.  21.  2,  for  dico.  ^  Ben- 
tinus,  from  Gellius,  I.e.,  for  uetustus  ac  ueterrimus. 
^  Added  by  Aug.,  from  Gellius,  I.e.  *  B,  Laetus,  for 

§  60.  ^  Aug.  {quoting  a  friend),  for  quomodo.  *  Ver- 
tranius,for  ea.         *  Added  by  L.  Sp.         *  Added  by  Grotius. 

*  Naples  ;   Nova-poUs  is  a  half-way  translation  into  Latin. 

§  59.     "  Page  57  Funaioli.  "  The  Tabernae  Novae  were 

the  shops  on  the  north  side  of  the  Forum  which  replaced 
those  burned  in  the  fire  of  210  b.c.  ;  those  on  the  south  side, 
which  escaped  the  fire,  were  called  the  Tabernae  Veteres. 

§  60.     "  Nomen  and  nominare  are  distinct  from  novus,  and 



derived  from  a  Greek  word  ;  from  this,  accordingly, 
their  Xeapolis  *  '  New  Citv  '  was  called  Nova-polis 
'  New-polis  '  by  the  old-time  Romans. 

59-  From  this,  moreover,  novissimum  '  newest '  also 
began  to  be  used  popularly  for  extremum  '  last,'  a  use 
which  within  my  memory  both  Aelius  "  and  some 
elderly  men  avoided,  on  the  ground  that  the  proper 
form  of  the  superlative  of  this  word  was  nimium  novum ; 
its  origin  is  just  like  vetustius  '  older  '  and  veterrimum 
'  oldest '  from  vetus  '  old,'  thus  from  novum  were  derived 
novius  '  newer  '  and  novissimum,  which  means  '  last.' 
So,  from  the  same  origin,  novitas  '  newness  '  and  noci- 
cius  '  no\ice  '  and  novalis  '  ploughed  anew  '  in  the  case 
of  a  field,  and  a  part  of  the  buildings  in  the  Forum  was 
called  sub  Xovis  ^  '  by  the  New  Shops  '  ;  though  it  has 
had  the  name  for  a  very  long  time,  as  has  the  Nova  Via 
New  Street,'  which  has  been  an  old  street  this  long 

60.  From  this  can  be  said  also  nominare  "  '  to  call 
by  name,'  because  when  novae  '  new  '  things  were 
brought  into  use,  they  set  nomina  '  names  '  on  them, 
by  which  they  novissent  '  might  know  '  them.  From 
this,  nuncupare^  '  to  pronounce  vows  publicly,'  because 
then  nova  '  new  '  vows  are  undertaken  for  the  state. 
That  nuncupare  is  the  same  as  nominare,  is  evident  in 
the  laws,  where  sums  of  money  are  written  down  as 
nuncupatae  '  bequeathed  by  name  '  ;  likewise  in  the 
Chorus,  in  which  there  is  "^  : 

Aeneas  ! — Who  is  this  who  calls  me  by  my  name  ? 

also  from  novisse  '  to  know.'  *  Containing  the  elements  of 
nomen  and  capere  '  to  take.'  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  page 

2-2  Ribbeck»  ;  R  O.L.  ii.  608-609  Warmington ;  possibly 
belonging  to  a  play  entitled  Proserpina,  cf.  vi.  9-t.  But 
the  title  is  perhaps  hopelessly  corrupt. 



Item  in  Medo  * : 

Quis  tu  es,  mulier,  quae  me  insueto  nuncupasti  nomine  ? 

61.  Dico  originem  habet  Graecam,  quod  Graeci 
SeiKvi'w.^     Hinc  (etiam  dicare,  ut  ait>*  Ennius  : 

Dico  VI  hunc  dicare  (circum  metulas).* 

Hinc  iudicare,  quod  tunc  ius  dicatur  ;  hinc  iudex, 
quod  iu(s>  dicat*  accepta  potestate  ;  (hinc  dedicat),* 
id  est  quibusdam  verbis  dicendo  finit  :  sic^  enim  aedis 
sacra  a  magistratu  pontifice  prae(e>un<e'  dicendo 
dedicatur.  Hinc,  ab  dicendo,*  indicium  ;  hinc  ilia  : 
indicit  <b>ellum,*  indixit  funus,  prodixit  diem,  addixit 
iudicium  ;  hinc  appellatum  dictum  in  mimo,^"  ac 
dictiosus  ;  hinc  in  manipulis  castrensibus  (dicta^^ 
ab>^*  ducibus  ;  hinc  dictata  in  ludo  ;  hinc  dictator 
magister  populi,  quod  is  a  consule  debet  dici  ;  hinc 
antiqua  ilia  <ad>dicii'  numo  et  dicis  causa  et  addictus. 

'  Aldus,  for  medio. 

§61.  ^  L.  Sp. ;  SeiKTwat  Mue. ;  SeiVto  Scaliger ;  for 
NISIhce  Fv.  "  Added  by  Kent.  '  Fay,  for  qui  hunc 

dicare;    c/.   Festus,   153   a    15-21    M.,  and  Livy,  xli.  27.  6. 

*  Aiig.,  with  B,  for  iudicat.  ^  Added  by  Stroux.  ^  With 
sic  enim,  F  resumes  ;  cf.  v.  118,  crit.  note  7.  '  Bentinus 
{or  earlier)  ;  praeunte  /,  Laetus  ;  for  prae  unce  F.  *  L. 
Sp.,for  dicando.  *  Turnebus,  for  ilium.  ^^  B,  Aldus, 
for  minimo.  ^^  Added  by  Aug.,  with  B.  ^*  Added  by 
Kent ;  a  added  by  Fay.         ^^  Budaeus,  for  dici. 

"  Pacuvius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  239  Ribbeck^;  R.O.L.  ii.  260- 
261  Warmington  ;  the  play  was  named  from  one  of  Medea's 

§  61.  "  All  the  words  explained  in  this  section  belong 
together ;  but  dicere  is  cognate  with  the  Greek  word,  not 
derived  from  it.         ^  Inc.  frag.  39  Vahlen^  ;  see  critical  note. 

*  Rather,  because  he  dictat  '  gives  orders  '  to  the  people. 
^  Numo  in  the  text  is  the  older  spelling,  in  which  consonants 
were  never  doubled.         *  Applied  to  the  fictitious  sale  of  an 



And  likewise  in  the  Medus  <*  : 

Who  are  j'ou,  woman,  who  have  called  me  by  an 
unaccustomed  name  ? 

61.  Dico  "  '  I  say  '  has  a  Greek  origin,  that  which 
the  Greeks  call  deiKvru)  '  I  show.'  From  this  more- 
over comes  dicare  '  to  show,  dedicate,'  as  Ennius 
says  ^ : 

I  say  this  circus  shows  six  little  turning-posts. 
From  this,  iudicare  '  to  judge,'  because  then  ius '  right ' 
diciiur  '  is  spoken  '  ;  from  this,  index  '  judge,'  because 
he  ius  dicat  '  speaks  the  decision  '  after  receiving  the 
power  to  do  so  ;  from  this,  dedicat '  he  dedicates,'  that 
is,  he  finishes  the  matter  by  dicendo  '  sapng  '  certain 
fixed  words  :  for  thus  a  temple  of  a  god  dedicatur  '  is 
dedicated  '  by  the  magistrate,  by  dicendo  '  saying  '  the 
formulas  after  the  pontiff.  From  this,  that  is  from 
dicere,  comes  iridiciuvi  '  information  '  ;  from  this,  the 
following  :  indicit  '  he  declares  '  war,  indixit  '  he  has 
in\ited  to  '  a  funeral,  prodixit '  he  has  postponed  '  the 
day,  addixit '  he  has  awarded  '  the  decision  ;  from  this 
was  named  a  dictum  '  bon  mot  '  in  a  farce,  and  dic- 
tiosus  '  witty  person  '  ;  from  this,  in  the  companies  of 
soldiers  in  camp,  the  dicta  '  orders  '  of  the  leaders  ; 
from  this,  the  dictata  '  dictation  exercises  '  in  the 
school  ;  from  this,  the  dictator'^  '  dictator,'  as  master 
of  the  people,  because  he  must  did  '  be  appointed  '  by 
the  consul ;  from  this,  those  old  phrases  addici  nummo^ 
'  to  be  made  over  to  somebody  for  a  shilUng,'  '  and 
dicis  causa  '  for  the  sake  of  judicial  form,'  and  addictus 
'  bound  over  ^  '  to  somebody. 

inheritance  to  the  heir.  '  Said  of  a  defendant  who  was 
unable  to  pay  the  amount  of  debt  or  damages,  and  was  de- 
livered to  the  custody  of  the  plaintiff  as  a  virtual  slave  until 
he  could  arrange  payment. 



62.  Si  dico  quid  (sciens^  ne)scienti,*  quod  e«^ 
quod  ignoravit  trado,  hinc  doceo  declinatum  vel  quod 
cum  docemus*  dicimus  vel  quod  qui  docentur  induc?m- 
tur^  in  id  quod  docentur.  Ab  eo  quod  scit  ducere^  qui 
est  dux  aut  ductor  ;  <hinc'  doctor)*  qui  ita  inducit,  ut 
doceat.  Ab  dwcendo*  docere  disciplina  discere  litteris 
commutatis  paucis.  Ab  eodem  principio  documenta, 
quae  exempla  docendi  causa  dicuntur, 

63.  Disputatio  et  computatio  e^  propositione 
putandi,  quod  valet  purum  facere  ;  ideo  antiqui 
purum  putum  appellarunt  ;  ideo  putator,  quod 
arbores  puras  facit  ;  ideo  ratio  putari  dicitur,  in  qua 
summa  fit  pura  :  sic  is  sermo  in  quo  pure  disponuntur 
verba,  ne  sit  confusus  atque  ut  diluceat,  dicitur  dis- 

64.  Quod  dicimus  disserit  item  translati(ci)oi 
aeque^  ex  agris  verbo  :  nam  ut  Aolitor  disserit  in  areas 
sui  cuiusque  generis  res,  sic  in  oratione  qui  facit, 
disertus.  Sermo,  opinor,  est  a  serie,  unde  serta  ; 
etiami  in  vestimento  sartum,  quod  comprehensum  : 

§  62.     ^  Added    by    L.    Sp.  ^  Scaliger,    for    scienti. 

'  Sciop.,  for  det.  *  After  docemus,  Laetus  deleted  ut. 
*  Reiter,    for    inducantur.  ®  M,    Laetus,    for     ducare. 

''  Added  by  GS.         *  Added  by  L.  Sp.         ^  Fay,  for  docendo. 

g  63.     1  L.  Sp.,  for  et. 

§  64.  ^  A.  Sp. ;  translatitio  Aug. ;  for  translatio. 
^  Aug.,  for  atque. 

§  62.  "  Docere  is  quite  independent  of  dicere,  and  also 
of  dncere.  *  Disciplina  was  popularly  associated  with 
discere,  but  was  really  a  derivative  of  discipulus,  which  came 
from  dis  +  capere  '  to  take  apart  (for  examination).' 

§  64.  "  There  are  in  Latin  two  verbs  sero  serere,  distinct  in 
etymology  :  serere  sevi  satus  '  to  sow,  plant,'  and  serere  serui 
serf  us  '  to  join  together,  intertwine.'  The  derivatives  in  this 
section  are  all  from  the  second  verb,  except  sartum,  the 
participle  of  sarcio,  which  is  distinct  from  both. 


62.  If  I  dico  '  say  '  something  that  I  know  to  one 
who  does  not  know  it,  because  I  trado  '  hand  over  '  to 
him  what  he  was  ignorant  of,  from  this  is  derived 
doceo  "  '  I  teach,'  or  else  because  when  we  docemus 
'  teach  '  we  dicimus  '  say,'  or  eke  because  those  who 
docentiir  '  are  taught  '  indiicuntur  '  are  led  on  '  to  that 
which  they  docentur  '  are  taught.'  From  this  fact, 
that  he  knows  how  ducere  '  to  lead,'  is  named  the  one 
who  is  dux  '  guide  '  or  ductor  '  leader  '  ;  from  this, 
doctor  '  teacher,'  who  so  inducit  '  leads  on  '  that  he 
docet  '  teaches.'  From  ducere  '  to  lead,'  come  docere 
'  to  teach,'  disciplina  ^  '  instruction,'  discere  '  to  learn,' 
by  the  change  of  a  few  letters.  From  the  same 
original  element  comes  documenta  '  instructive  ex- 
amples,' which  are  said  as  models  for  the  purpose  of 

63.  Disputatio  '  discussion '  and  computatio  '  reckon- 
ing,' from  the  general  idea  oi  put  are,  which  means  to 
make  purum  '  clean  '  ;  for  the  ancients  used  putum  to 
mean  purum.  Therefore  putator  '  trimmer',  because 
he  makes  trees  clean  ;  therefore  a  business  account  is 
said  putari  '  to  be  adjusted,'  in  which  the  sum  is  pura 
'  net.'  So  also  that  discourse  in  which  the  words  are 
arranged  pure  '  neatly,'  that  it  may  not  be  confused 
and  that  it  may  be  transparent  of  meaning,  is  said 
disputare  '  to  discuss  '  a  problem  or  question. 

h^.  Our  word  disserif^  is  used  in  a  figurative  mean- 
ing as  well  as  in  relation  to  the  fields  :  for  as  the 
kitchen-gardener  disserit  '  distributes  '  the  things  of 
each  kind  upon  his  garden  plots,  so  he  who  does  the 
hke  in  speaking  is  disertus  '  skilful.'  Sermo  '  conversa- 
tion,' I  think,  is  from  series  '  succession,'  whence  serta 
'  garlands  '  ;  and  moreover  in  the  case  of  a  garment 
sartum  '  patched,'  because  it  is  held  together  :    for 



sermo  enim  non  potest  in  uno  homine  esse  solo,  sed 
ubi  <o>ratio'  cum  altero  coniuncta.  Sic  conserere 
manu(m>*  dicimur  cum  hoste  ;  sic  ex  iure  manu(m>^ 
consertum  vocare  ;  hinc  adserere  manu*  in  libertatem 
cum  prendimus.     Sic  augures  dicunt  : 

Si  niihi  auctor  es'  verb^nam'  manu*  asserere, 
dicit<o>^''  consortes. 

65.  Hinc  etiam,  a  quo^  ipsi  consortes,  sors  ;  hinc 
etiam  sortes,  quod  in  his  iuncta  tempora  cum  homini- 
bus  ac  rebus  ;  ab  his  sortilegi  ;  ab  hoc  pecunia  quae 
in  faenore  sors  est,  impendium  quod  inter  se  iungit.^ 

66.  Legere  dictunx,  quod  leguntur  ab  oculis 
litterae  ;  ideo  etiam  legati,  quod  {uty  publice  mit- 
tantur  leguntur.  Item  ab  legendo  leguli,  qui  oleam 
aut  qui  uvas  legunt  ;  hinc  legumina  in  frugibus  variis  ; 
etiam  leges,  quae  lectae  et  ad  populum  latae  quas 
observet.  Hinc  legitima  et  collegae,  qui  una  lecti,  et 
qui  in  eorum  locum  suppositi,  sublecti  ;  additi  allecti 
et  collecta,  quae  ex  pluribus  locis  in  unum  lecta.     Ab 

^  Aug.,  for  ra,tio.  *  Other  codd.,  for  manu  F.  ^  Sciop., 
for  manu  ;  cf.  Gellius,  xx.  10.  *  p,  Aug.,  for  manum. 
^  Avg.,  for  est.  *  Bergk,  for  verb!  nam.  •  Aug.,  for 
manum.         ^^  A.  Sp.,  for  Aicit. 

§  65.     ^  L.  Sp.,for  ad  qui.         *  G roth,  for  iungat. 

§  66.     1  Added  by  B,  Aldus. 

*  Genitive  plural.         '  Page  18  Regell. 

§  65.  "  These  words  belong  to  serere,  but  Varro's  reason 
for  the  meaning  of  sors  may  not  be  correct.  *  To  Varro, 

the  fundamental  meaning  in  sors  is  one  of  '  joining  '  :  cf. 
V.  183. 

§  66.  "  All  words  discussed  in  this  section  are  from  various 
forms  of  the  root  seen  in  legere,  which  means  '  to  gather,  pick, 
select,  choose,  read  '  ;  except  legumen.  *  Properly  parti- 
ciple of  legare  '  to  appoint,'  a  derivative  of  legere.  "^  More 
exactly,  legumina  are,  according  to  Varro,  fruits  of  various 
kinds  that  have  to  be  picked  (rather  than  cut,  like  cabbage, 



sermo  '  conversation  '  cannot  be  where  one  man  is 
alone,  but  where  his  speech  is  joined  ^^^th  another's. 
So  we  are  said  conserere  rnanum  '  to  join  hand-to-hand 
fight  N\-ith  an  enemy  :  so  to  call  for  vianum  ^  consertum 
'  a  laying  on  of  hands'  according  to  law  ;  from  this, 
adserere  manu  in  libertatem  '  to  claim  that  so-and-so  is 
free,'  when  we  lay  hold  of  him.     So  the  augurs  say  <= : 

If  you  authorize  me  to  take  in  my  hand  the  sacred 
bough,  then  name  my  colleagues  {consortes). 

Q5.  From  this,  moreover,  sors  "  '  lot,'  from  which 
the  consortes  '  colleagues  '  themselves  are  named  ; 
from  this,  further,  sortes  '  lots,'  because  in  them  time- 
ideas  are  joined  with  men  and  things  ;  from  these, 
the  sortilegi  '  lot-pickers,  fortune-tellers  '  ;  from  this, 
the  money  which  is  at  interest  is  the  sors  '  principal,' 
because  it  joins  ^  one  expense  to  another. 

66.^  Legere  '  to  pick  or  read,'  because  the  letters 
leguntur  '  are  picked  '  with  the  eyes  ;  therefore  also 
legati  ^  '  envoys,'  because  they  leguntur  '  are  chosen  ' 
to  be  sent  on  behalf  of  the  state.  Likewise,  from 
legere '  to  pick,'  the  leguli '  pickers,'  who  legufit '  gather ' 
the  olives  or  the  grapes  ;  from  this,  the  legumina  " 
'  beans  '  of  various  kinds  ;  moreover,  the  leges  '  laws,' 
which  are  lectae  '  chosen  '  and  brought  before  the 
people  for  them  to  observe.  From  this,  legitima  '  law- 
ful things  '  ;  and  collegae  '  colleagues,'  who  have  been 
lecti '  chosen  '  together,  and  those  who  have  been  put 
into  their  places,  are  sublecti  '  substitutes  '  ;  those 
added  are  allecti '  chosen  in  addition,'  and  things  which 
have  been  lecta  '  gathered  '  from  several  places  into 
one,  are  collecta  '  collected.'     From  legere  '  to  gather  ' 

or  mowed,  hke  wheat)  ;  but  the  resemblance  to  legere  seems 
to  be  only  accidental. 



legendo  ligna  quoque,  quod  ea  caduca  legebantur  in 
agro  quibus  in  focum  uterentur.  Indidem  ab  legendo 
legio  et  diligens  et  dilectus. 

67.  Murmuran'i  a  similitudine  sonitus  dictus,  qui 
ita  leviter  loquitur,  ut  magis  e  sono  id  facere  quam  ut 
intellegatur  videatur.     Hinc  etiam  poetae 

Murmurantia  litora. 

Similiter    fremere,    gemere,    clamare,    crepare    ab 
similitudine  vocis  sonitus  dicta.     Hinc  ilia 
Arma  sonant,  fremor  oritur  ; 


Nihil^  me  increpitando  commoves. 

68.  Vicina  horum  quiritare,  iubilare.  Quiritare 
dicitur  is  qui  Quiritum  fidem  damans  inplorat.  Qui- 
rites  a  Curensibus  ;  ab  his  cum  Tatio  rege  in  socie- 
tatem  venerunt  civitat^s.^  Ut  quiritare  urbanorum, 
sic  iubilare  rusticorum  :  itaque  hos  imitans  Aprissius 
ait  : 

lo  bucco  ! — Quis  me  iubilat  ? — 
Vicinus  tuus  antiquus. 

Sic   triumphare   appellatum,   quod  cum   imperatore 

§  67.     1  L.  Sp.,for  murmuratur  dictum.         ^  For  nichil. 
§  68.     ^  Sciop.,  for  civitates. 

"^  Better  spelling,  delectus. 

§  67.  "  Some,  but  not  all,  of  the  words  discussed  in  this 
section  are  onomatopoeic.  ''  IJviter'  lightly.'  "  Trag. 
Rom.  Frag.,  page  314  Ribbeck'  ;  but  the  words  look  like 
part  of  a  dactylic  hexameter,  in  which  case  it  should  read 
Arma  sonant,  oritur  fremor.  <*  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  page 
314.  Ribbeck». 

§  68.  "  Frequentative  of  queri  '  to  complain,'  and  not 
connected  with  Quirites.  "  Ciires,  ancient  capital  city 
of  the  Sabines.  "  The  name  is  corrupt,  but  no  probable 



comes  also  ligna  '  firewood,'  because  the  wood  that 
had  fallen  was  gathered  in  the  field,  to  be  used  on  the 
fireplace.  From  the  same  source,  legere  '  to  gather,' 
came  legio  '  legion,'  and  diligens  '  careful,'  and  dilecttis^ 
'  military  levy.' 

67.**  From  likeness  to  the  sound,  he  is  said  mur- 
miirari  '  to  murmur,'  who  speaks  so  softly  ^  that  he 
seems  more  as  the  result  of  the  sound  to  be  doing 
it,  than  to  be  doing  it  for  the  purpose  of  being 
understood.     From  this,  moreover,  the  poets  say 

Murmuring  sea-shore. 
Likewise,  fremere    '  to    roar,'    gemere    '  to    groan,' 
clamare  '  to  shout,'  crepare  '  to  rattle  '  are  said  from 
the  likeness  of  the  sound  of  the  word  to  that  which  it 
denotes.     From  this,  that  passage  "  : 

Arms  are  resounding,  a  roar  doth  arise. 
From  this,  also,** 

By  your  rebuking  you  alarm  me  not. 

68.  Close  to  these  are  quiritare "  '  to  shriek,' 
iubilare  '  to  call  joyfully,'  He  is  said  quiritare,  who 
shouts  and  implores  the  protection  of  the  Quirites. 
The  Quirites  were  named  from  the  Curenses  '  men  of 
Cures  '  *  ;  from  that  place  they  came  with  King 
Tatius  to  receive  a  share  in  the  Roman  state.  As 
quiritare  is  a  word  of  city  people,  so  iubilare  is  a  word 
of  the  countrymen  ;  thus  in  imitation  of  them  Apris- 
sius  "  says  : 

Oho,  Fat-Face  ! — Who  is  calling  me  ? — 
Your  neighbour  of  long  standing. 

So  triumpkare  '  to  triumph  '  was  said,  because  the 

emendation  has  been  suggested  ;  Com.  Rom.  Frag.,  page 
332  Ribbeck'. 



milites  redeuntes  clamitant  per  Urbem  in  Capitolium 
eunti  "  <I>o^  triumphe  "  ;  id  a  dptdfxfSo)^  ac  Graeco 
Liberi  cognomento  potest  dictum. 

69.  Spondere  est  dicere  spondeo,  a  sponte  :  nam  id 
(idem)*  valet  et  a  voluntate.  Itaque  Lucilius  scribit 
de  Cretaea,^  cum  ad  se  cubitum  venerit  sua  voluntate, 
sponte  ipsam  suapte  adductam,  ut  tunicam  et  cetera^ 
reiceret.  Eandem  voluntatem  Terentius  significat, 
cum  ait  satius  esse 

Sua  sponte  recte  facere  quam  alieno  metu. 

Ab  eadem  sponte,  a  qua  dictum  spondere,  declinatum 
<de>spondet*  et  respondet  et  desponsor  et  sponsa, 
item  sic  alia.  Spondet  enim  qui  dicit  a  sua  sponte 
"  spondeo  "  ;  (qui)  spo(po)ndit,^  est  sponsor  ;  qui 
(i>dem*  (ut)'  faciat  obligatur  sponsu,*  consponsus. 

70.  Hoc  Naevius  significat  cum  ait  "  consponsi." 
(Siy  spondebatur  pecunia  aut  filia  nuptiarum  causa, 

^  Laetus,  for  o.         '  Aldus,  for  triambo. 

§  69.     *  Added  by  Fay.         ^  i^or  Gretea.         '  For  ceterae. 

*  GS,  after  Lachmann,  for  spondit.         *  L.  Sp.,  for  spondit. 

*  B,  Ed.   Veneta,  for  quidem.         '  Added  by  Avy.,  with  B. 

*  L.  Sp.,  for  sponsus. 

§  70.     1  Added  by  Fay. 

"*  From  the  Greek,  through  the  Etruscan.  *  Ac,  intro- 
ducing an  appositive. 

§  69.  "  Verses  925-927  Marx.  Cretaea  was  a  meretrix, 
named  from  the  country  of  her  origin.  Varro  has  para- 
phrased the  quotation,  which  was  thus  restored  to  metrical 
form  by  Lachmann,  the  first  two  words  being  added  by  Marx : 

Cretaea  nuper,  cum  ad  me  cubitum  venerat, 
Sponte  ipsa  suapte  adducta  ut  tunicam  et  cetera 


ON  THE  LATIN.  LANGUAGE,  \T.  68-70 

soldiers  shout  "  Oho,  triumph  !  "  as  they  come  back 
with  the  general  through  the  City  and  he  is  going  up 
to  the  Capitol ;  this  is  perhaps  derived''  from  6pLajj.f3os, 
as  *  a  Greek  surname  of  Liber. 

69.  Spondere  is  to  say  spondeo  '  I  solemnly  promise,' 
from  sponte  '  of  one's  own  inclination  '  :  for  this  has 
the  same  meaning  as  from  voluntas  '  personal  desire.' 
Therefore  Lucihus  writes  of  the  Cretan  woman,"  that 
when  she  had  come  of  her  own  desire  to  his  house  to 
lie  with  him,  she  was  of  her  own  sponte  '  inclination  ' 
led  to  throw  back  her  tunic  and  other  garments.  The 
same  voluntas  '  personal  desire  '  is  what  Terence 
means  ^  when  he  says  that  it  is  better 

Of  one's  own  inclination  right  to  do. 
Than  merely  by  the  fear  of  other  folk. 

From  the  same  sponte  from  which  spondere  is  said,  are 
derived  despondet  '  he  pledges  '  and  respondet  '  he 
promises  in  return,  answers,'  and  desponsor  '  promiser ' 
and  sponsa  '  promised  bride^'  and  likewise  others  in 
the  same  fashion.  For  he  spondet '  solemnly  promises ' 
who  says  of  his  own  sponte  '  inclination  '  spondeo  '  I 
promise  '  ;  he  who  spopondit  '  has  promised '  is  a 
sponsor  '  surety  '  ;  he  who  is  by  sponsus  '  formal 
promise  '  bound  to  do  the  same  thing  as  the  other 
party,  is  a  consponsus  '  co-surety.' 

70.  This  is  what  Naevius  means  "  when  he  says 
consponsi.  If  money  *  or  a  daughter  spondebatur  '  was 
promised  '  in  connexion  with  a  marriage,  both  the 

While  this  might  accord  with  the  Liicilian  prototype  of 
Horace,  Sat.  i.  5.  82-85,  the  meter  forbids,  and  because  of  the 
subject  matter  A.  Spengel  proposed  Licinius,  writer  of 
comedies,  for  Lucilius.         *  Adelphoe,  75. 

§70.  "Com.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  34  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L. 
ii.  598  Warmington.         *  As  dower. 



appellabatur  etpecunia  et  quae  desponsa  erat  sponsa  ; 
quae  pecunia  inter  se  contra  sponsu^  rogata  erat,  dicta 
sponsio  ;  cui  desponsa  quae*  erat,  sponsus  ;  quo  die 
sponsum  erat,  sponsalis. 

71.  Qu/i  spoponderat  filiam,  despondisse^  dice- 
bant,  quod  de  sponte  eius,  id  est  de  voluntate, 
exierat :  non  enim  si  volebat,  dabat,  quod  sponsu  erat 
alligatus  :   nam  ut  in  com<o>ediis  vides  dici  : 

Sponde<n>'  tuam  gnatam*  filio  uxorem  meo  ? 
Quod  turn  et  praetorium  ius  ad  legem  et  censorium 
iudicium  ad  aequum  existimabatur.     Sic  despondisse 
animum  quoque  dicitur,  ut  despondisse  filiam,  quod 
suae  spontis  statuerat  finem. 

72.  A  ^ua  sponte  dicere  cum  spondere,  (respon- 
dere)^  quoque  dixerunt,  cum  a(d)  sponte<m>2  re- 
sponderent,  id  est  ad  voluntatem  rogatoris.^  Itaque 
qui  ad  id  quod  rogatur  non  dicit,  non  respondet,  ut 
non  spondet  ille  statim  qui  dixit  spondeo,  si  iocandi 

^  L.  Sp.,  for  sponsum.  '  Mue.,  for  quo. 

§  71.  ^  G,  B,  Laetus,  for  quo.  ^  B,  Aldus,  for  dispon- 
disse.  *  Aug.  ;  spondem  Rhol.  ;  for  sponde.  *  Rhol., 
for  agnatam. 

§  72.  ^  Lachmann,  for  a  qua  sponte  dicere  cumspondere. 
*  Tumebvs,  for  a  sponte.         *  L,  Sp.,  for  rogationis. 

"  To  be  forfeited  to  the  other  party  as  damages  by  tliat  party 
which  might  break  the  agreement. 

§  71.     "  Com.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  134  Ribbeck*. 



money  and  the  girl  who  had  been  desponsa  '  pledged  ' 
were  called  sponsa  '  promised,  pledged  '  ;  the  money 
which  had  been  asked  under  the  sponstis  '  engagement' 
for  their  mutual  protection  against  the  breaking  of 
the  agreement,'^  was  called  a  sponsio  '  guarantee  de- 
posit '  ;  the  man  to  whom  the  money  or  the  girl  was 
desponsa  '  pledged,'  was  called  sponsus  '  betrothed  ' ; 
the  day  on  which  the  engagement  was  made,  was 
called  sponsalis  '  betrothal  day.' 

71.  He  who  spoponderat  '  had  promised  '  his 
daughter,  they  said,  despondisse  '  had  promised  her 
away,'  because  she  had  gone  out  of  the  power  of  his 
sponte  '  inclination,'  that  is,  from  the  control  of  his 
voluntas  '  desire  '  :  for  even  if  he  \Wshed  not  to  give 
her,  still  he  gave  her,  because  he  was  bound  bv  his 
sponsus  '  formal  promise  '  :  for  you  see  it  said,  as  in 
comedies  °  : 

Do  you  now  promise  your  daughter  to  my  son  as  wife  ? 

This  was  at  that  time  considered  a  principle  estab- 
lished by  the  praetors  to  supplement  the  statutes,  and 
a  decision  of  the  censors  for  the  sake  of  fairness.  So  a 
person  is  said  despondisse  animum  '  to  have  promised 
his  spirit  away,  to  have  become  despondent,'  just  as 
he  is  said  despondisse  Jiliam  '  to  have  promised  his 
daughter  away,'  because  he  had  fixed  an  end  of  the 
power  of  his  sponte  '  inclination.' 

72.  Since  spondere  was  said  from  sua  sponte  dicere 
'  to  say  of  one's  o\\'n  incUnation,'  they  said  also  re- 
spondere  '  to  answer,'  when  they  responderunt '  promised 
in  return  '  to  the  other  party's  spontem  '  inclination,' 
that  is,  to  the  desire  of  the  asker.  Therefore  he  who 
says  "  no  "to  that  which  is  asked,  does  not  respondere, 
just  as  he  does  not  spondere  who  has  immediately  said 



causa   dixit,   neque   agi  potest  cum   eo   ex   sponsu. 
Itaqu(e)  is*  qu<o)i  dicit(ur)^  in  co/woedia  *  : 

Meministin^  te  spondere*  mihi  gnatam'  tuam  ? 

quod  sine  sponte  sua  dixit,  cum  eo  non  potest  agi  ex 

73.  Etiam  spes  a  sponte  potest  esse  declinata, 
quod  tum  sperat  cum  quod^  volt  fieri  putat  :  nam 
quod  non  volt  si  putat,  metuit,  non  sperat.  Itaque 
hi^  quoque  qui  dicunt  in  Astraba  Plauti  : 

Nmwc^  sequere  adseque,  Polybadisce,  meam  spem 

cupio  consequi. — 
Sequor  hercle  <e>quidem,*  nam  libenter  mea(m> 

sperata<m)^  consequor  : 

quod  sine  sponte  dicunt,  vere  neque  ille  sperat  qui 
dicit  adolescens  neque  ilia  (quae)*  sperata  est. 

74.  Sponsor  et  praes  et  vas  neque  idem,^  neque 
res  a  quibus  hi,  sed  e  re  simili.^  Itaque  praes  qui 
a  magistratu  interrogatus,  in  publicum  ut  praestet ; 
a  quo  et  cum  respondet,  dicit  "praes."     Vas  appel- 

*  L.  Sp.,  for  itaquis.  *  Kent,  for  qui  dicit  F  (d'r  a  =  dici- 
tur).         *  Z/.  iSp., /or  tragoedia.         '  ^4;*^., /or  meministine. 

*  Lachmann,  tnetri  gratia,  for  despondere.  *  Rhol.,  for 

§  73.  ^  Aug.,  for  quod  cum.  *  L.  Sp.,  for  hie.  *  L. 
Sp.,  for  ne.  *  L.  Sp.,  for  quidem.  ^  Ritschl,  for  mea 
sperata.         *  Added  by  Kent. 

§  74.     ^  Laetus,  for  ideo.         *  Sciop.,  for  simile. 

§  12.  "  Hanging  nominative,  resumed  by  cum  eo  after  the 
quotation.  *  Trag.  Bom.  Frag.,  page  305  Ribbeck^  ;   but 

as  the  content  indicates  that  it  came  from  a  comedy  rather 
than  from  a  tragedy,  I  have  accepted  L.  Spengel's  emenda- 
tion comoedia  for  the  manuscript  tragoedia. 

§  73.  "  Wrong.  *  Frag.  I  Ritschl.  "  Adseque, active 
imperative  form  ;    cf.  Neue-Wagener,  Formenlehre  der  lat. 



spondeo,  if  he  said  it  for  a  joke,  nor  can  legal  action 
be  taken  against  him  as  a  result  of  such  a  sponsus 
'promise.'  Thus  he"  to  whom  someone  says  in  a 

Do  you  recall  you  pledged  your  daughter  unto  me  ? 

which  he  had  said  without  his  sponte  '  inclination,' 
cannot  be  proceeded  against  under  his  sponsus. 

73.  Spes  '  hope  '  is  perhaps  also  derived  <*  from 
sponte  '  inclination,'  because  a  person  then  sperat 
'  hopes,'  when  he  thinks  that  what  he  wishes  is  coming 
true  ;  for  if  he  thinks  that  what  he  does  not  wish  is 
coming  true,  he  fears,  not  hopes.  Therefore  these 
also  who  speak  in  the  Astraha  of  Plautus  ^  : 

Follow  now  closely,"^  Polybadiscus,  I  wish  to  overtake 

my  hope. — 
Heavens  I  surely  do  :  I'm  glad  to  overtake  her  whom 

I  hope  : 

because  they  speak  without  sponte '  feeling  of  success,' 
the  youth  who  speaks  does  not  truly  '  hope,'  nor  does 
the  girl  who  is  '  hoped  for.'  <* 

7-t.  Sponsor  and  praes  and  vas  are  not  the  same 
thing,  nor  are  the  matters  identical  from  which  these 
terms  come ;  but  they  develop  out  of  similar  situa- 
tions." Thus  a  praes  is  one  who  is  asked  by  the 
magistrate  that  he  praestat  •  make  a  guarantee  '  to 
the  state  ;  from  which,  also  when  he  answers,  he 
says,  "  I    am   your  praes."     He    was    called   a   vas 

Spr.'  iii.  89.  **  Sperata,  a  regular  term  for  the  object  of 
a  young  man's  love. 

§  74.  "  \'arro  apparently  says  that  a  sponsor  is  one  who 
undertakes  an  engagement  toward  an  individual  or  indivi- 
duals ;  a  praes  is  one  who  undertakes  an  engagement  on  his 
own  behalf,  toward  the  state  ;  a  vas  is  one  who  guarantees 
another  person's  engagement  toward  the  state. 

VOL.  I  R  241 


latus,  qui  pro  altero  vadimonium  promittebat.  Con- 
suetude erat,  cum  re?<s*  parum  esset  idoneus  inceptis 
rebus,  ut  pro  se  alium  daret  ;  a  quo  caveri*  postea  lege 
coeptum^  est  ab  his,  qui  praedia  venderent,  vadem  ne 
darent  ;   ab  eo  ascribi  coeptum^  in  lege  mancipiorum : 

Vadem  ne  poscerent  nee  dabitur. 

75.  Canere,^  accanit  et  succanit  ut  canto  et  can- 
tatio  ex  Camena  permutato  pro  M  N."  Ab  eo  quod 
semel,  canit,  si  saepius,  cantat.  Hinc  cantitat,  item 
alia  ;  nee  sine  canendo  (tubicines,  liticines,  corni- 
cines),*  tibicines  dicti  :  omnium  enim  horum  quo- 
da<m>*  canere  ;  etiam  bucinator  a  vocis  similitudine 
et  cantu  dictus. 

76.  Oro  ab  ore  et  perorat  et  exorat  et  oratio  et 
orator  et  osculum  dictum.  Indidem  omen,  orna- 
mentum  ;  alterum  quod  ex  ore  primum  elatum  est, 
osmen  dictum ;  alterum  nunc  cum  propositione  dici- 
tur  vulgo  ornamentum,  quod  sicut  olim  ornamental 

^  For  reos.         *  For  cavarl.         *  For  caeptum. 

§  75.  1  For  canerae.  ^  Mue.,  for  N.M.  ^  Added 
by  L.  Sp.,  after  Mue.  recognized  the  lacuna  and  its  contents, 
but  set  it  after  tibicines;  cf.  v.  91.  *^  Kent ;  quoddam 
Canal  ;  for  quod  a. 

§76.     ^  (t6'., /or  ornamentum. 

§  75.  "  The  words  explained  in  this  section  belong  to- 
gether, except  Camena,  which  stands  apart.  *  Either 
'  sing  '  or  '  play  on  an  instrument.'  '  Usually  in  the 
plural  ;  Italian  goddesses  of  springs  and  waters,  regularly 
identified  with  the  Greek  Muses.  ^  The  insertion  in  the 
text  is  rendered  necessary  by  omnium  horum  ;  cf.  also  critical 
note.          '  Quodam,  ablative  with  canere. 

§  76.  "  These  words  are  from  os,  except  omen,  ornamen- 
tum, oscines. 



*  bondsman  '  who  promised  bond  for  another.  It 
was  the  custom,  that  when  a  party  in  a  suit  was  not 
considered  capable  of  fulfilling  his  engagements,  he 
should  give  another  as  bondsman  for  him  :  from  which 
they  later  began  to  provide  by  law  against  those  who 
should  sell  their  real  estate,  that  they  should  not 
offer  themselves  as  bondsmen.  From  this,  they  began 
to  add  the  provision  in  the  law  about  the  transfer  of 
properties,  that 

"  they  should  not  demand  a  bondsman,  nor  will  a 
bondsman  be  given." 

75."  Canere  ^  '  to  sing,'  accanit '  he  sings  to  '  some- 
thing, and  succanit '  he  sings  a  second  part,'  like  canto 
'  I  sing  '  and  cantatio  '  song,'  from  Camena  '^  '  Muse,' 
with  N  substituted  for  M.  From  the  fact  that  a 
person  sings  once,  he  canit  :  if  he  sings  more  often,  he 
cantat.  From  this,  cantitat '  he  sings  repeatedly,'  and 
Ukewise  other  words  ;  nor  \\ithout  canere  '  singing, 
plapng  '  are  the  tubicines  '  trumpeters,'  named,  and 
the  liticines  '  cometists,'  cornicines  '  horn-blowers,'  ** 
tibicines  '  pipes-players  '  :  for  canere  '  playing  '  on 
some  special  instrument  *  belongs  to  all  these.  The 
biicinator  '  trumpeter  '  also  was  named  from  the  like- 
ness of  the  sound  and  the  cantus  '  plaving.' 

76.°  Oro  '  I  beseech  '  was  so  called  from  os 
'  mouth,'  and  so  were  peroral '  he  ends  his  speech  '  and 
exorat '  he  gains  by  pleading,'  and  oratio  '  speech  '  and 
orator  '  speaker  '  and  osculum  '  kiss.'  From  the  same, 
omen  '  presage '  and  ornamentum  '  ornament ' :  because 
the  former  was  first  uttered  from  the  os  '  mouth,'  it 
was  called  osvien  ;  the  latter  is  now  commonlv  used 
in  the  singular  with  the  general  idea  of  ornament, 
but  as  formerly  most   of  the  play-actors   use  it  in 



scaenici  plerique  dicunt.  Hinc  oscines  dicuntur  apud 
augures,  quae  ore  faciunt  auspieium. 

^"III.  77.  Tertium  gradum  agendi  esse  dicunt,  ubi 
quid  faciant  ;  in  eo  propter  similitudinem  agendi  et 
faciendi  et  gerendi  quidam  error  his  qui  putant  esse 
unum.  Potest  enim  aliquid  facere  et  non  agere,  ut 
poeta  facit  fabulam  et  non  agit,  contra  actor  agit  et 
<non>i  facit,  et  sic  a  poeta  fabula  fit,  non  agitur,  ab 
actore  agitur,  non  fit.  Contra  imperator  quod  dicitur 
res  gerere,  in  eo  neque  facit  neque  agit,  sed  gerit,  id 
est  sustinet,  tralatum  ab  his  qui  onera^  gerunt,  quod 
hi  sustinent. 

78.  Proprio  nomine  dicitur  facere  a  facie,  qui  rei 
quam  facit  imponit  faciem.  Ut  fictor  cum  dicit  fingo, 
figuram  imponit,  quom  dicit  formo,^  formam,  sic  cum 
dicit  facio,  faciem  imponit  ;  a  qua  facie  discernitur,  ut 
dici  possit  aliud  esse  vestimentum,  aliud  vas,  sic  item 
quae  fiunt  apud  fabros,  fictores,  item  alios  alia.  Qui 
quid^  amministrat,  cuius  opus  non  extat  quod  sub 

§  77.     1  Omitted  in  F.         ^  G,  H,  for  honera  F. 
§78.     *  7>.  »9/)., /or  informo.         *  ^1m^., /or  qulcquid. 

*  Found  only  in  the  plural  in  the  scenic  poets,  who  used 
it  of  ornaments  for  the  head  and  face  (o.«)  ;  it  is  a  derivative 
of  ornare  '  to  adorn,'  which  comes  from  ordo  ordinis. 
"  From  prefix  ops  +  can-  '  sing  '  :   cf.  o{p)s-tendere  '  to  show.' 

§  77.     "  Cf.    vi.    41-4.2.  *  The    distinction    is    almost 

impossible  to  imitate  in  translation,  but  the  argument  is  good 
so  far  as  the  examples  in  the  text  are  concerned. 

§  78.     *•  Fades  is  from  facere. 

ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  \T.  76-78 

the  plural.*  From  this,  oscines  "^  '  singing  birds  '  are 
spoken  of  among  the  augurs,  which  indicate  their  pre- 
monitions by  the  os  '  mouth.' 

VTIL  77.  The  third  stage  of  action  "  is,  they  say, 
that  in  which  t\ie\  faciunt '  make  '  something  :  in  this, 
on  account  of  the  likeness  among  agere  '  to  act  '  and 

facere  '  to  make  '  and  gerere  '  to  carry  or  carry  on,' 
a  certain  error  is  committed  by  those  who  think 
that  it  is  only  one  thing.*  I*'or  a  person  can  facere 
something  and  not  agere  it,  as  a  poetybc/7  '  makes  '  a 
play  and  does  not  act  it,  and  on  the  other  hand  the 
actor  agit '  acts  '  it  and  does  not  make  it,  and  so  a  play 

Jit  '  is  made  '  by  the  poet,  not  acted,  and  agitur  '  is 
acted  '  by  the  actor,  not  made.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  general,  in  that  he  is  said  to  gerere  '  carry  on  ' 
affairs,  in  this  neither  yac/7  '  makes  '  nor  agit  '  acts,' 
but  gerit  '  carries  on,'  that  is,  supports,  a  meaning 
transferred  from  those  who  gerunt  '  carry  '  burdens, 
because  they  support  them. 

78.     In  its  literal  sense  facere  '  to  make  '  is  from 

Jades  "  '  external  appearance  '  :  he  is  said  facere '  to 
make  '  a  thing,  who  puts  a  fades  '  external  appear- 
ance '  on  the  thing  which  he  facit  '  makes.'     As  the 

fictor '  image-maker,'  when  he  says  "  Fingo '  I  shape,'  " 
puts  afgura  '  shape  '  on  the  object,  and  when  he  says 
"  Formo  '  I  form,'  "  puts  a  forma  '  form  '  on  it,  so  when 
he  says  "  Facio  '  I  make,'  "  he  puts  a  fades  '  external 
appearance  '  on  it  ;  by  this  external  appearance  there 
comes  a  distinction,  so  that  one  thing  can  be  said  to  be 
a  garment,  another  a  dish,  and  likewise  the  various 
things  that  are  made  by  the  carpenters,  the  image- 
makers,  and  other  workers.  He  who  furnishes  a 
service,  whose  work  does  not  stand  out  in  concrete 
form  so  as  to  come  under  the  observation  of  our 



sensu<m>'  veniat,  ab  agitatu,  ut  dixi,  magis  agere 
quam  facere  putatur  ;  sed  quod  his  magis  promiscue 
quam  diligenter  consuetude  est  usa,  translaticiis 
utimur  verbis  :  nam  et  qui  dicit,  facere  verba  dicimus, 
et  qui  aliquid  agit,  non  esse  inficientem. 

79-  (Kt  facere  lumen, ^  faculam)^  qui  adlucet, 
dicitur.  Lucere  ab  lucre,  (quod)  et^  luce  dissolvun- 
tur  tenebrae  ;  ab  luce  Noctiluca,^  quod  propter  lucem 
amissam  is  cultus  institutus.  Acquirere  est  ad  et 
quaerere  ;  ipsum  quaerere  ab  eo  quod  quae  res  ut 
reciperetur  datur  opera  ;  a  quaerendo  quaestio,  ab 
his  turn  quaestor.^ 

80.  Video  a  visu,  (id  a  vi>i  :  qui(n>que2  enim 
sensuum  maximus  in  oculis  :  nam  cum  sensus  nullus 
quod  abest  mille  passus  sentire  possit,  oculorum 
sensus  vis  usque  pervenit  ad  stellas.     Hinc  : 

Visenda  vigilant,  vigilium  invident. 
Et  Acci'  : 

^  //,  Aldus,  for  sensu. 

§  79.  1  Added  by  GS.  ^  Added  by  Fay,  from  Plautus, 
Persa,   515.         'quod    et    Kent;     quod    A.   Sp. ;    for   et. 

*  After  Noctiluca,  L.  Sp.  deleted  lucere  item  ab  luce,  a  mar- 
ginal gloss  that  had  crept  into  the  text.  *  Kent,  for  con- 

§  80.  ^  Added  by  L.  Sp.  ^  For  qui  que.  '  Kent,  for 

*  vi.  41-42. 

§79.  "  Wrong  etymology.  *  This  sentence,  if  properly 
reconstructed,  goes  with  the  preceding  section.  "^  Wrong. 
^  As  dis-so-luuntur,  which  is  in  fact   its   origin.  *  This 

sentence  is  out  of  place,  but  its  proper  place  cannot  be  deter- 
mined ;  c/.  v.  81.  'Correct  etymologies,  except  that  of 
quaerere  itself. 

§  80.  "  Video  is  to  be  kept  distinct  from  vis  and  from 
vigilium.         *  Part  of  a  verse  from  an  unknown  play,  in 



physical  senses,  is,  from  his  agitatus  '  action,  motion,' 
as  I  have  said,*  thought  rather  agere  '  to  act  '  than 
Jacere  '  to  make  '  something  ;  but  because  general 
practice  has  used  these  Avords  indiscriminately  rather 
than  with  care,  we  use  them  in  transferred  meanings  ; 
for  he  who  dicit  '  says  '  something,  we  say  facere 
'  makes  '  words,  and  he  who  agit '  acts  '  something,  we 
say  is  not  inficiens  '  failing  to  do  '  something. 

79-  And  he  who  lights  a.  faculam  <*  '  torch,'  is  said 
to  facere  '  make  '  a  light.*  Lucere  '  to  shine,'  from 
luere  '^ '  to  loose,'  because  it  is  also  by  the  light  that  the 
shades  of  night  dissohuntur  ^  '  are  loosed  apart ' ;  from 
lux  '  light  '  comes  Xoctiluca  '  Shiner  of  the  Night,' 
because  this  worship  was  instituted  on  account  of  the 
loss  of  the  daylight.  Acquirere  * '  to  acquire  '  is  ad'  in 
addition  '  and  quaerere  '  to  seek  '  ;  quaerere  itself  is 
from  this,  that  attention  is  given  to  quae  res  '  what 
thing  '  is  to  be  got  back  ;  from  quaerere  comes 
quaestio  '  question  '  ;  then  from  these,  quaestor  '  in- 
vestigator, treasurer.'^ 

80.  Video  °  '  I  see,'  from  visus  '  sight,'  this  from  vis 
'  strength  '  ;  for  the  greatest  of  the  five  senses  is  in 
the  eyes.  For  while  no  one  of  the  senses  can  feel  that 
which  is  a  mile  away,  the  strength  of  the  sense  of  the 
eyes  reaches  even  to  the  stars.     From  this  *  : 

They  watch  for  what  is  to  be  seen,  but  hate  to 
stay  awake." 

Also  the  verse  of  Accius  "*  : 

which  the  persons  are  watching  the  night  sky  for  omens. 
*  Invidere  '  to  look  at  with  dislike  '  originally  took  a  direct 
object,  as  here  ;  cf.  Cicero,  Tusc.  iii.  9.  20.  "*  If  properly 
reconstituted,  an  iambic  tetrameter  catalectic,  referring  to 
Actaeon,  who  inadvertently  beheld  Artemis  bathing  with 
the  nymphs. 



Cum  illud  o(c)Mli(s>  violavit*  <is>,*  qui  invidit* 

A  quo  etiam  violavit  virginem  pro  vit<i>avit  dicebant ; 
aeque  eadem  modestia  potius  cum  muliere  fuisse 
quam  concubuisse  dicebant. 

81.  Cerno  idem  valet  :  itaque  pro  video  ait  En- 
nius  : 

Lumen — iubarne  ? — in  caelo  cerno. 
Cawius^  : 

Sensumque  inesse  et  motum  in  membris  cerno. 

Dictum  cerno  a  cereo,  id  est  a  creando  ;  dictum  ab  eo 
quod  cum  quid  creatum  est,  tunc  denique  videtur. 
Hinc  fines  capilli  d2scripti,^  quod  finis  videtur,  dis- 
crimen  ;  et  quod^  in  testamento  (cernito),*  id  est 
facito  videant  te  esse  heredem  :  itaque  in  cretione 
adhibere  iubent  testes.  Ab  eodem  est  quod  ait 
Medea  : 

Ter  sub  armis  malim  v«tam*  cernere, 
Quam  semel  modo  parere  ; 

quod,  ut  decernunt  de  vita  eo  tempore,  multorum 
\idetur  vitae  finis, 

*  Mue.,    for    obliuio     lavet    (obviolavit     Aug.,    with     B). 

*  Added  by  Kent,  metri  gratia.  *  Kent ;  vidit  Mue.  ; 
for  incidit. 

§  81.  ^  Schoell,  marginal  note  in  his  copy  of  A.  Sp.'s 
edition,for  c&nms.  ^  A.  Sp.,  for  descrlpti.  ^  Turnebus, 
for  qui  id.  '^  Added  by  Turnebus.  ^  Bentinus,  from 
Nonius  Marc.  261.  23  M.,for  multa. 

'  See   note   c.  '  Invidendum   with    negative   prefix    in-, 

unlike  the  preceding  word ;  cf.  infectum  meaning  both 
'  stained  '  and  '  not  done.' 

§  81.  "  Literally  '  separate  '  ;  hence  '  distinguish,  see,' 
and  also  '  discriminate,  decide.'  Cerno  has  no  connexion 


\NTien  that  he  violated  with  his  eyes, 

\Mio  looked  upon  •  what  ought  not  to  be  seen/ 

From  which  moreover  they  used  to  say  violavit '  he  did 
\iolence  to  '  a  girl  instead  of  vitiavit  '  ruined  '  her  ; 
and  similarly,  with  the  same  modesty,  they  used  to 
say  rather  that  a  man  Juit  '  was  '  yrith  a  woman,  than 
that  he  concubuit  '  lav  '  with  her. 

81.     Cemo'^   has   the   same   meaning;     therefore 
Ennius  **  uses  it  for  video  : 

I  see  light  in  the  sky — can  it  be  dawn  ? 

Cassius  "  says  : 

I  see  that  in  her  limbs  there's  feeling  still  and  motion. 

Cerno  '  I  see '  is  said  from  cereo,  that  is,  creo  '  I  create ' ; 
it  is  said  from  this  fact,  that  when  something  has  been 
created,  then  finally  it  is  seen.  From  this,  the  bound- 
ar)--lines  of  the  parted  hair,**  because  a  boundarv- 
line  is  seen,  got  the  name  discrimen  '  separation  ' ;  and 
the  cemito  '  let  him  decide,'  *  which  is  in  a  ^\^ll,  that  is, 
make  them  see  that  you  are  heir  :  therefore  in  the 
cretio  '  decision  '  they  direct  that  the  heir  bring  wit- 
nesses.    From  the  same  is  that  which  Medea  says  ^  : 

I'd  rather  thrice  decide,  in  battle  wild. 

My  life  or  death,  than  bear  but  once  a  child. 

Because,  when  they  decemunt  '  decide  '  about  life  at 
that  time,  the  end  of  many  persons'  lives  is  seen. 

with  creo.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  verse  338  Ribbeck* ; 
R.O.L.  i.  226-227  Warmington ;  from  the  Ajax ;  cf.  vi.  6 
and  vii,  76.  *  Fitting  Cassius's  play  Lucretia  ;  cf.  vi.  7 
and  vii.  72.  <*  CapiUus  in  the  singular  was  use^  as  a 
collective  by  \'arro,  according  to  Charisius,  i.  lOl.  20  Keil. 
*  Cf.  Gains,  Institut.  ii.  174.  'Ennius,  Medea,  •222'22S 
Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  i.  316-317  Warmington;  translated  from 
Euripides,  Medea,  250-251. 



82.  Spectare  dictum  ab  (specio>i  antiquo,  quo 
etiam  Ennius  usus  : 

<Q>uos^  Epulo  postquam  spexit, 

et  quod  in  auspiciis  distributum  est  qui  habent  spec- 
tionem,  qui  non  habeant,  et  quod  in  auguriis  etiam 
nunc  augures  dicunt  avem  specere,  Consuetudo 
com<m>unis  quae  cum  praeverbi(i).s  coniun(c>ta 
fuerunt  etiam  nunc  servat,  ut  aspicio,  conspicio, 
respicio,  suspicio,  despicio,*  sic  alia  ;  in  quo  etiam 
expecto  quod  spectare  volo.  Hinc  speculo(r>,*  hinc 
speculum,  quod  in  eo  specimus  imaginem.  Specula, 
de  quo  prospicimus.  Speculator,  quem  mittimus 
ante,  ut  respiciat  quae  volumus.  Hinc  qui  oculos 
inunguimus  quibus  specimus,  specillum. 

83.  Ab  auribus  verba  videntur  dicta  audio  et 
ausculto  ;  aures^  ab  aveo,^  quod  his  avemus  di<s)cere* 
semper,  quod  Ennius  videtur  eViyv.or  ostendere  velle 
in  Alexandro  cum  ait  : 

lam  dudum  ab  ludis  animus  atque  aures  avent, 
Avide  expectantes  nuntium. 

Propter  banc  aurium  aviditatem  theatra  replentur. 
Ab  audiendo  etiam  auscultare  declinatum,  quod  hi 

§  82.  1  Added  by  Aug.  ^  A.  Sp.,  from  Festus,  330  b 
32  3/., /or  uos.  '  3f,  ikie^MS, /or  didestspicio.  *  Canal, 
for  specula. 

§  83.  ^  Mue.,  for  audio.  *  Laetus,  for  abaucto. 
"  Aug.,  for  dicere. 

§  82.  "  Annales,  421  Vahlen^;  R.O.L.  1.  148-149  Warm- 
ington;  given  in  better  form  by  Festus,  330  b  32  M.  :  Quos 
ubi  rex  {Ep)ulo  spexit  de  cotibus  {=cautibus)  celsis.  Epulo 
was  a  king  of  the  Istrians,  who  fought  against  the  Romans 
in  178-177  b.c,  ;  c/.  Livy,  xli.  1,  4,  11.  »  Page  20  Regell. 
"  Page  17  Regell. 

§  83.     "  Auris,  audio,  ausculto  belong  ultimately  together, 



82.  Spectare  '  to  see  '  is  said  from  the  old  word 
specere,  which  in  fact  Ennius  used  "  : 

After  Epulo  saw  them, 
and  because  in  the  taking  of  the  auspices  *  there  is  a 
division  into  those  who  have  the  spectio  '  watch-duty  ' 
and  those  who  have  not  ;  and  because  in  the  taking 
of  the  auguries  even  now  the  augurs  say  '^  specere  '  to 
watch  '  a  bird.  Common  practice  even  now  keeps 
the  compounds  made  with  prefixes,  as  aspicio  '  I  look 
at,'  conspicio  '  I  observe,'  respicio  '  I  look  back  at,' 
suspicio  '  I  look  up  at,'  despicio  '  I  look  down  upon,' 
and  similarly  others  ;  in  which  group  is  also  expecto  '  I 
look  for,  expect  '  that  which  I  \^-ish  spectare  '  to  see.' 
From  this,  specular  '  I  watch  '  ;  from  this,  speculum 
'  mirror,'  because  in  it  we  specimus  '  see  '  our  image. 
Specula  '  look-out,'  that  from  which  we  prospicimiis 
'  look  forth.'  Speculator  '  scout,'  whom  we  send 
ahead,  that  he  respiciat  '  may  look  attentively  '  at 
what  we  wish.  From  this,  the  instrument  with 
which  we  anoint  our  eyes  by  which  we  specimus  '  see,' 
is  called  a  specillum  '  eye-spatula.' 

83.  From  the  aures  '  ears  '  seem  to  have  been  said 
the  words  audio  '  I  hear  '  and  ausculto  '  I  Usten,  heed  ' ; 
aures  '  ears  '  from  area  "  '  I  am  eager,'  because  with 
these  we  are  ever  eager  to  learn,  which  Ennius  seems 
to  wish  to  show  as  the  radical  in  his  Alexander,^  when 
he  says  : 

A  long  time  eager  have  been  my  spirit  and  my  ears. 
Awaiting  eagerly  some  message  from  the  games. 

It  is  on  account  of  this  eagerness  of  the  ears  that  the 
theatres  are  filled.  From  audire  '  to  hear  '  is  derived 
also  auscultare  '  to  listen,  heed,'  because  they  are  said 

but  are  not  to  be  connected  with  aveo.  "  Trag,  Rom.  Frag. 
34-35  Ribbeck» ;  R.O.L.  i.  236-237  Warmington. 



auscultare  dicuntur  qui  auditis  parent,  a  quo  dictum 
poetae  : 

Audio,  <h>aut*  awsculto.* 

Littera  commutata  dicitur  odor  olor,  hinc  olet  et 
odorari  et  odoratu*^  et  odora  res,  sic  a/(ia>.' 

84.  Ore  edo,  sorbeo,  bibo,  poto.  Edo  a  Graeco 
eSw,!  hinc  esculentum  et  esca  <et>  edulia'' ;  et  quod 
Graece  yei'trat,'  Latine  gustat.  Sorbere,  item  bi- 
bere  a  vocis  sono,  ut  fervere  aquam  ab  eius  rei  simili 
sonitu.  Ab  eadem  lingua,  quod  ttotov,  potio,  unde 
poculum,  potatio,  repotia.*  Indidem  puteus,  quod 
sic  Graecum  antiquum,  non  ut  nunc  (fipeap  dictum. 

85.  A  manu  manupretium^  ;  mancipium,  quod 
manu  capitur  ;  (quod)^  coniungit  plures  manus, 
manipulus  ;  manipularis,  manica.  Manubrium,  quod 
manu  tenetur.    Mantelium,  ubi  manus  terguntur.  . . .' 

*  Aug.  {quoting  a  friend),  for  aut.  ^  B,  Laetus,  for  ob- 
sculto.  *  L.  Sp.,for  odoratur.  '  sic  alia  ab  ore  A.  Sp., 
for  sic  ab  ore  (Mue.  deleted  sic,  and  set  ab  ore  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  next  section). 

§  84.  ^  A  Idus,  for  edon.  ^  Canal ;  escae  edulia  A  Id  us  ; 
/or  escaedulia.  ^  Victorias,  for  geuete.  *  Aug.  {quot- 
ing a  friend),  for  repotatio. 

§  85.  ^  Victorius,  for  mantur  praetium.  *  Added  by 
G,  H.         '  Lacuna  recognized  by  A ug. 

'  That  is,  with  au  changed  to  o,  as  if  audor  were  the  origin 
of  odor  ;  olor,  with  the  well-known  change  of  d  to  /,  is  not 
attested  elsewhere  in  Latin  literature,  but  is  found  in  the 
glosses  and  survives  in  the  Romance  languages.  These 
words  belong  together,  but  are  not  to  be  grouped  with  audio. 
§  84.  "  The  etymological  connexions  are  correct  (except 
for  puteus  ;  c/.  v.  25  note  o),  but  the  Latin  words  are  cognate 


ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  VI.  83-85 

auscultare  who  obey  what  they  have  heard  ;  from 
which  comes  the  poet's  saying  : 

I  hear,  but  do  not  heed. 

With  the  change  of  a  letter  are  formed  odor  <^  or  ohr 
'  smell ' ;  from  this,  olet '  it  emits  an  odour,'  and  odorari 
'  to  detect  by  the  odour,'  and  odoratus  '  perfumed,'  and 
an  odora  '  fragrant  '  thing,  and  similarly  other  words. 

84."  With  the  mouth  edo  '  I  eat,'  sorbeo  '  I  suck  in,' 
6160  '  I  drink,' poto  '  I  drink.'  Edo  from  Greek  e8w  '  I 
eat  '  ;  from  this,  esculentum  '  edible  '  and  esca  '  food  ' 
and  edulia  '  eatables  ' ;  and  because  in  Greek  it  is 
yeverai  '  he  tastes,'  in  Latin  it  is  gustat.  Sorbere  '  to 
suck  in,'  and  like^^ise  Inhere '  to  drink,'  from  the  sound  * 
of  the  word,  as  for  water yerrere  '  to  boil  '  is  from  the 
sound  like  the  action.  From  the  same  language, 
because  there  it  is  totov  '  drink,'  is  potto  '  drink,' 
whence  poculum  '  cup,'  potatio  '  drinking-bout,'  repotia 
'  next  day's  drinking.'  From  the  same  comes  puteus 
'  well,'  because  the  old  Greek  word  was  like  this,  and 
not  <pp(ap  as  it  is  now. 

85.  From  manus  '  hand  '  comes  manupretium 
'  workman's  wages  '  ;  mandpium  '  possession  of  pro- 
perty,' because  it  capitur  '  is  taken  '  jnanu  '  in  hand  '  ; 
manipuliis  '  maniple,'  because  it  unites  several  manus 
'  hands  '  ;  manipularis  '  soldier  of  a  maniple,'  manica 
'  sleeve.'  Manubrium  '  handle,'  because  it  is  grasped 
by  the  manus  '  hand.'  Mantelium  '  towel,'  on  which 
the  manus  '  hands  '  terguntur  '  are  wiped.'  .  .  ." 

with  the  Greek,  not  derived  from  it.  *  These  words  are 
not  onomatopoeic 

§  85.  "  The  gap  is  serious :  the  subject  matter  shifts 
abruptly,  and  many  appropriate  topics  are  missed,  such  as 
the  actions  of  the  feet,  and  some  further  discussion  of  the 
distinctions  among  agere,  facere,  gerere,  cf.  §  77. 



IX.  86.  Nunc  primum  ponam  (de>i  Censoriis 
Tabulis  : 

Ubi  noctu  in  templum  censor*  auspicaverit  atque  de 
caelo  nuntium  erit,  praeconi'  sic  imperato*  ut  viros  vocet : 
"  Quod  bonum  fortunatum  felix  salutareque  siet"  populo  Ro- 
mano Quiritiiws^  reique  publicae  populi  Romani  Quiritium 
mihique  collegaeque  meo,  fidei  magistratuique  nostro : 
omnes  Quirites  pedites  armatos,  privatosque,  curatores 
omnium  tribuum,  si  quis  pro  se  sive  pro'  altero  rationem  dari 
volet,  voca*  inlicium  hue  ad  me." 

87.  Praeco  in  templo  primum  vocat,  postea  de  moeris^ 
item  vocat.  Ubi  l?/cet,^  censor(es)^  scribae  magistratus 
murra  unguentisque  unguentur.  Ubi  praetores  tribunique 
plebei  quique  inHcium*  vocati  sunt  venerunt,  censores  inter 
se  sortiuntur,  uter  lustrum  faciat.  Ubi  templum  factum  est, 
post  tum  conventionem  habet  qui  lustrum  conditurus  est. 

88.  In  Commentariis  Consularibus  scriptum  sic 
inveni  : 

Qui  exercitum  imperaturus  erit,  accenso  dicito  :  "  C.^ 
Calpurni,  voca  inlicium  omnes  Quirites  hue  ad  me."  Accensus 
dicit  sic :  "  Omnes  Quirites,  inlicium  vos  ite"  hue  ad  indices." 
"  C.  Calpurni,"  cos.'  dicit,  "  voca  ad  conventionem  omnes 
Quirites  hue  ad  me."     Accensus  dicit  sic :   "  Omnes  Quirites, 

§86.  ^  Added  by  Laetus.  ^  Aldus,  for  censora  F^ 
(censura  F^).  *  Aldus,  for  praeconis.  *  Possibly  the 
verbs  coordinate  to  imperato  in  this  section  and  in  §  87 
should  all  be  imperatives  ;  but  the  manuscript  reading  sup- 
ports this  only  for  imperato  and  partially  for  dicito,  §  88. 
^  Laetus,  for  salutare  quesierit.  *  Brissonius,  with  b,  for 
quiritium.  '  Sciop.,  for  si  uerbo.  *  Aug.,  with  B,  for 

§  87.  ^  Aug.,  xcith  B,for  post  eadem  aeris.  *  Aug.,  for 
licet.         *  L.  Sp.,  for  censor.         *  Sciop.,  for  in  consilium. 

§88.  ^  Bmns-Mommsen,  for  dicit  hoc.  ^  A.  Sp.  ;  ite 
Sciop.  ;  for  visite.  '  Sciop.,  for  ealpurnicos  {punctuation 
by  Mue.,  after  Gronov.). 

§  86.  "  The  preparation  for  the  lustratio,  at  the  com- 
pletion of  the  census.         ''  Page  21     Regell.         "  Technical 



IX.  86.  Now  first  I  shall  put  down  some  extracts 
from  the  Censors'  Records  °  : 

When  by  night  the  censor  has  gone  into  the  sacred  pre- 
cinct to  take  the  auspices,*  and  a  message  has  come  from  the 
sky,  he  shall  thus  command  the  herald  to  call  the  men :  "  May 
this  be  good,  fortunate,  happy,  and  salutary  to  the  Roman 
people — the  Quirites — and  to  the  government  of  the  Roman 
people — the  Quirites — and  to  me  and  my  colleague,  to 
our  honesty  and  our  office  :  All  the  citizen  soldiers  under 
arms  and  private  citizens  as  spokesmen  of  all  the  tribes,  call 
hither  to  me  with  an  inlicium  '  '  invitation,'  in  case  any  one 
for  himself  or  for  another  wishes  a  reckoning  ^  to  be  given." 

87.  The  herald  calls  them  first  in  the  sacred  precinct, 
afterwards  he  calls  them  likewise  from  the  walls.  \\Tien  it  is 
dawn,  the  censors,  the  clerks,  and  the  magistrates  are  anointed 
with  myrrh  and  ointments.  When  the  praetors  and  the  tri- 
bunes of  the  people  and  those  who  have  been  called  to  the 
invitation  meeting  have  come,  the  censors  cast  lots  with  each 
other,  as  to  which  one  of  them  shall  conduct  the  ceremony  of 
purification.  ^Mien  the  sacred  precinct"  has  been  deter- 
mined, then  after  that  he  who  is  to  perform  the  purification 
conducts  the  assembly. 

88.  In  the  Consular  Commentaries  I  have  found 
the  follo^\-ing  account  : 

He  who  is  about  to  summon  the  citizen-army,  shall  say  to 
his  assistant,  "  Gaius  Calpurnius,"  call  all  the  citizens  hither 
to  me,  with  an  inlicium  '  invitation.'  "  The  assistant  sj)eaks 
thus :  "  All  citizens,  come  ye  hither  to  the  judges,*  to  an  invita- 
tion meeting."  "  Gaius  Calpurnius,"  says  the  consul,  "  call 
all  the  citizens  hither  to  me,  to  a  gathering."  The  assistant 
speaks  thus :    "  All  citizens,  come  hither  to  the  judges,  to  a 

name  for  an  invitation  to  a  specially  called  assembly ;  cf. 
§  93-§  94.  With  rocare,  inlicium  is  an  inner  object.  **  That 
is,  makes  a  protest  against  the  censor's  rating. 

§  87.     "  This  is  another  templum,  in  the  Campus  Martius. 

§  88.  "  Used  as  a  type  name,  or  taken  from  the  records  of 
some  sp>ecific  instance.  *  An  old  name  for  the  consuls  ;  c/. 
Livy,  iii.  55.  11. 



ite  ad  conventionem  hue  ad  iudices."  Dein  consul  eloquitur 
ad  exercitum:  "  Impero  qua  convenit  ad  comitia  centuriata." 

89.  Quare  hic^  accenso,  illic  praeconi  dicit,  haec 
est  causa  :  in  aliquot  rebus  i^em^  ut  praeco  accensus 
acciebat,'  a  quo  accensus  quoque  dictus.  Accensum* 
solitum  ciere  Boeotia  ostendit,  quam  comoediam*  alii 
(Plauti,  alii  Aquili)*  esse  dicunt,  hoc  versu  : 

Ubi  primum  accensus  clamarat  meridiem. 

Hoc  idem  Cosconius  in  Actionibus  scribit  praetorem 
accensum  solitum  turn  esse  iubere,  ubi  ei  videbatur 
horam  esse  tertiam,  inclamare  horam  tertiam  esse, 
itemque  meridiem  et  horam  nonam. 

90,  Circum  wuros^  mitti  solitu?/*^  quo  modo  in- 
liceret  populum  in  eum  (locum),'  unde  vocare  posset 
ad  contionem,  non  solum  ad  consules  et  censores,  sed 
etiam  quaestores,  Commentarium  indicat  vetus  An- 
quisitionis*  M'.^  Sergii,  Mani  filii,  quaestor«s,*  qui 
capitis  accusavit  (T)rogum'  ;    in  qua*  sic  est  : 

§89.     ^  Aldus,     for     hinc.  ^  Bentinus,     for      idem. 

'  Ladus ,  for  accipiebat.  *  Laetus,  for  ad  censum.  *  For 
commaediam.         *  Added  by  Riese. 

§  90.  ^  moeros  Ursinus,  for  auras.  ^  Aug.,  for  solitus. 
^  Added  by  Aug.,  cf.  §  94..  *  Aug.,  for  inquisitionis  ;  cf. 
§92.  ^  L.  Sp.,  for  M.  6  For  questores.  "^  B,  Ver- 
tranius,  for  rogum  ;  cf.  §  9:2.         *  Aug.,  for  in  aqua. 

"From  early  times,  the  chief  deliberative  and  legislative 
assembly  of  the  Roman  people. 

§  89.  "  Properly,  passive  participle  of  ac-censere  '  to 
reckon  thereto,'  hence  one  assigned  to  help  another  ;  it  has 
no  connexion  with  acciere.  *"  Gellius,  iii.  3.  4,  says  that 

Varro,  on  the  basis  of  style,  attributed  the  Boeotia  to  Plautus, 
though  it  was  reputed  to  be  a  work  of  Aquilius.  '  Corn. 

Rom.  Frag.  II,  page  39  Ribbeck' ;    Plautus,  Frag,  verse  30 



gathering."  Then  the  consul  makes  declaration  to  the  army : 
"  I  order  you  to  go  by  the  proper  way  to  the  centuriate 
assembly.'  " 

89.  WTiy  the  latter  speaks  to  the  accensus  '  assist- 
ant '  and  the  former  to  the  herald — this  is  the  reason : 
in  some  affairs  the  accensus  "^ '  assistant  '  acciebat '  gave 
the  call  '  just  like  a  herald,  from  which  the  accensus 
also  got  his  name.  That  the  accensus  was  accustomed 
ciere  '  to  give  the  call,'  is  shown  by  the  Boeotia,^  a 
comedy  which  some  say  is  a  work  of  Plautus,  and 
others  say  is  a  work  of  Aquilius,  in  this  verse  "^  : 

Soon  as  the  aide  had  called  that  'twas  the  hour  of  noon. 

Cosconius  **  records  the  same  in  his  work  on  Civil 
Cases,  that  the  praetor  had  the  habit  of  ordering  his 
accensus,  at  the  tintie  when  he  thought  that  it  is  the 
third  hour,  to  call  out  that  it  is  the  third  hour,  and 
Ukewise  midday  and  the  ninth  hour.* 

90.  That  someone  was  regularly  sent  around  the 
walls,  inlicere  '  to  entice  '  "  the  people  to  that  place 
from  which  he  might  call  them  to  the  gathering,  not 
only  before  the  consuls  and  the  censors,  but  also  before 
the  quaestors,  is  shown  by  an  old  Commentary  on  the 
Indictment  which  the  quaestor  Manius  Sergius  *  son  of 
Manius  brought  against  Trogus,  accusing  him  of  a 
capital  offence  ;  in  which  there  is  the  following  : 

Ritschl.  <*  Page  109  Funaioli  ;  page  10  Huschke.  « If 
he  wished  to  divide  the  day  evenly,  this  means  the  end  (not 
the  beginning)  of  the  third  and  the  ninth  hours. 

§  90.  "  The  origin  of  inlicium  seems  to  be,  as  Varro  says, 
from  the  fact  that  the  announcer  inliciebat  '  enticed  '  the 
people  to  the  meeting.  *  Sergius  and  his  commentary, 
and  the  case  against  Trogus,  are  entirely  unknown  except 
from  this  passage  and  §  92  ;  but  the  mention  of  praetors  sets 
the  incident  after  2^2  b.c,  when  the  number  of  praetors  was 
increased  from  one  to  two. 

VOL.  I  S  257 


91.  Auspicio  o(pe)ram  des  et^  in  templo  auspices,* 
turn^  aut  ad  praetorem  aut  ad  consulem  mittas  auspiciuni 
petitum  ;  comi<ti>atum*  praetor  {r}eum^  vocet  ad  te,  et  euni 
de  muris  vocet  praeco ;  id  imperare  <o)portet.*  Corni- 
c(in)em'  ad  privati  ianuain  et  in  Arcem  mittas,  ubi  canat.* 
Colkgam*  rog^s^"  ut  comitia  edicat^^  de  rostris  et  argentarii 
tabe(r)nas  occludant.  Patres  censeant  exquaeras  et  adesse 
iubeas  ;  magistratus  censea(n>t^^  ex(qua)era<s>,^'  consoles 
praetores  tribunosque  plebis  collegasque  <t)uos,^*  et  in 
templo  adesse  iubeas  omnes^*  ;  ac  cum  mittas,  contionem 

92.  In  eodem  Commentario  Anquisitionis^  ad  ex- 
tremum  scriptum  caput  edicti  hoc  est  : 

Item  quod  attingat  qui  de  censoribus^  classicum  ad 
comitia  centuriata  redemptum  habent,  uti  curent  eo  die  quo 
die  comitia  erunt,  in  Arce  classicus  canat^  circumque  muros 
et  ante  privati  huiusce  T.  Quinti  Trogi  scelerosi  ostium*  canat, 
et  ut  in  Campo  cum  primo  luci  adsiet.^ 

93.  Inter  id  cum  circum  muros  mittitur  et  cum 
contio  advocatur,  interesse  tempus  apparet  ex  his 
quae  interea  fieri  i^ilicium^  scriptum  est  ;  sed  ad 
comitiatum^  vocatur  populus  ideo,  quod  aha  de  causa 
hie  magistratus  non  potest  exercitum  urbanum  con- 

§91.     ^  Bergk,  for  orande  sed.  "  Mommsen,  for  au- 

spiciis.         '  L.  Sp.,  for  dum.         *  Sciop.,  for  commeatum. 

*  Kent ;  praeco  reum  Aug.  ;  for  praetores.  *  Laetus,  for 
portet.  ''  Aug.,  with  B,  for  cornicem.  ^  Aldus,  for 
cannat.  *  Rhol.,  for  colligam.  ^**  Mue.,  for  rogis. 
^^  Victorias,  for  comitiae  dicat.  ^^  Mue.,  for  censeat. 
^^  Bergk ;  exquiras  Mue.;  for  extra.  ^*  Sciop.,  for  uos. 
^^  Sciop.,  for  homines.         ^*  B,  G,  Aug.,  for  auoces. 

§  92.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  acquisitionis.  ^  Aug.,  with 
B,     for     decessoribus.  *  Victorius,     for     cannatum. 

*  Sciop.,  for  hostium.         *  Sciop.,  for  adsit  et. 

§93.  ^  Aldus,  for  iWicitum  F^'iillicium  F^).  ^  Sciop., 
for  comitia  turn. 

§  91.  "  The  document  is  addressed  to  Sergius  as  quaestor. 
^  Page  21  Regell.         '  The  northern  summit  of  the  Capito- 



91.  You"  shall  give  your  attention  to  the  auspices,''  and 
take  the  auspices  in  the  sacred  precinct ;  then  you  shall  send 
to  the  praetor  or  to  the  consul  the  favourable  presage  which 
has  been  sought.  The  praetor  shall  call  the  accused  to 
appear  in  the  assembly  before  you,  and  the  herald  shall  call 
him  from  the  walls  :  it  is  proper  to  give  this  command.  A 
horn-blower  you  shall  send  to  the  doorway  of  the  private 
individual  and  to  the  Citadel,"^  where  the  signal  is  to  sound. 
Your  colleague  you  shall  request  that  from  the  speaker's 
stand  he  proclaim  an  assembly,  and  that  the  bankers  shut  up 
their  shops."*  You  shall  seek  that  the  senators  express  their 
opinion,  and  bid  them  be  present ;  you  shall  seek  that  the 
magistrates  express  their  opinion,  the  consuls,  the  praetors, 
the  tribunes  of  the  people,  and  your  colleagues,  and  you  shall 
bid  them  all  be  present  in  the  temple  ;  and  when  you  send  the 
request,  you  shall  summon  the  gathering. 

92.  In  the  same  Commentary  on  the  Indictment,  at 
the  end,  this  summing  up  of  the  edict  is  written  : 

Likewise  in  what  pertains  to  those  who  have  received 
from  the  censors  the  contract  for  the  trumpeter  who  gives  the 
summons  to  the  centuriate  assembly,  they  shall  see  to  it  that 
on  that  day,  on  which  the  assembly  shall  take  place,  the 
trumpeter  shall  sound  the  trumpet  on  the  Citadel  and  around 
the  walls,  and  shall  sound  it  before  the  house-entrance  of  this 
accursed  Titus  Quintius  Trogus,  and  that  he  be  present  in  the 
Campus  Martius  at  daybreak." 

93.  That  between  the  sending  around  the  walls 
and  the  calling  of  the  gathering  some  time  elapses,  is 
clear  from  those  things  the  doing  of  which  in  the 
meantime  is  written  down  as  the  inlicium  '  in\-itation ' ; 
but  the  people  is  called  to  appear  in  the  assembly 
because  for  any  other  reason  this  magistrate  °  cannot 
call   together   the   citizen-army   of  the    City.     The 

line.  "*  These  shops  (c/.  §  59  and  note),  on  both  sides  of 
the  Forum,  were  to  be  closed  during  the  trial  of  Trogus. 

§  92.  "  In  early  Latin,  lux  was  normally  masculine,  as  in 
Plautus,  Aul.  748,Cis<.  625,  Capt.  1008  ;  Terence,  Adel.  841. 

§  93.     "  The  praetor, 



vocare  ;  censor,  consul,  dictator,  interrex  potest,  quod 
censor'  exercitum  centuriato  constituit  quinquen- 
nalem,  cum  lustrare*  et  in  urbem  ad  vexillum  ducere 
debet  ;  dictator  et  consul  in  singulos  annos,  quod  hie 
exercitui  imperare  potest  quo  eat,  id  quod  propter 
centuriata  comitia  imperare  solent. 

94.  Quare  non  est  dubium,  quin^  hoc  inlicium  sit, 
cum  circum  muros  itur,  ut  populus  inliciatur  ad  magis- 
tratus  conspectum,  qui  <vi>ros^  vocare'  potest,  in  eum 
locum  unde  vox  ad  contionem  vocantis  exaudiri  possit. 
Quare  una  origine  illici  et  inlicis  quod  in  Choro  Pro- 
serpinae  est,  et  pellexit,  quod  in  T/ermiona  est,  cum 
ait  Pacuius  : 

Regni  alieni  cupiditas 

Sic  Elicii  lovis  ara*  in  Aventino,  ab  eliciendo. 

95.  Hoc  nunc  aliter  fit  atque  olim,  quod  augur 
consuli  adest  tum  cum  exercitus  imperatur  ac  praeit 
quid  eum  dicere  oporteat.  Consul  augur(i>i  imperare 
solet,  ut  iwlicium*  vocet,  non  accenso  aut  praeconi. 
Id  inceptum  credo,  cum  non  adesset  accensus  ;  et 
nihil  intererat  cui  imperaret,  et  dicis  causa  fieba(n)t' 

'  Laetus,  for  censorem.         *  Scaliger,  for  lustraret. 

§  94.     ^  Vertranhis,  for  cum.  ^  L.   8p.,  for  qui  ros. 

'  Aldus,  for  uocari.         *  Victorius,  for  iohis  uisa.  ara. 

§95.  ^  Victoriiis,  for  augur.  ^  B,  Laetus,  for  is  llcium. 
'  Aug.,  with  B,  for  fiebat. 

*  This  statement  refers  to  the  consul  only  ;  the  part  de- 
fining the  dictator's  powers  seems  to  have  fallen  out  of  the 

§  94,  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  272  Ribbeck',  of  an  un- 
known poet ;  unless  Chorus  Proserpinae  is  a  substitute  name 
for  Eumenides,  a  tragedy  of  Ennius.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag., 

verses  170-171  Ribbeck' ;  R.O.L.  ii.  226-227  Warmington. 
'  A  popular  etymology  only,  since  Jupiter  could  hardly  be 



censor,  the  consul,  the  dictator,  the  interrex  can, 
because  the  censor  arranges  in  centuries  the  citizen- 
army  for  a  period  of  five  years,  when  he  must  cere- 
monially purify  it  and  lead  it  to  the  city  under  its 
standards  ;  the  dictator  and  the  consul  do  so  every 
year,*  because  the  latter  can  order  the  citizen-army 
where  it  is  to  go,  a  thing  which  they  are  accustomed 
to  order  on  account  of  the  centuriate  assembly. 

9i.  Therefore  there  is  no  doubt  that  this  is  the 
inlicium,  when  they  go  around  the  walls  that  the 
people  may  inlici  '  be  enticed  '  before  the  eyes  of 
the  magistrate  who  has  the  authority  to  call  the  men 
into  that  place  from  which  the  voice  of  the  one  who  is 
calling  them  to  the  gathering  can  be  heard.  There- 
fore there  come  from  the  same  source  also  illici  '  to  be 
enticed  '  and  inlicis  '  thou  enticest,'  which  are  in  the 
Chorus  of  Proserpina,'^  and  pellexit '  lured,'  which  is  in 
the  Hermiona,  when  Pacu\-ius  says  *  : 

Desire  for  another's  kingdom  lured  him  on. 

So  also  the  altar  of  Jupiter  Elicius  '  the  EUcited  '  on 
the  Aventine,  from  elicere  '  to  lure  forth.'  " 

95.  This  is  now  done  otherwise  than  it  was  of  old, 
because  the  augur  is  present  with  the  consul  when  the 
citizen-army  is  summoned,  and  says  in  advance  the 
formulas  which  he  is  to  say.  The  consul  regularly 
gives  order  to  the  augur,  not  to  the  assistant  nor  to 
the  herald,  that  he  shall  call  the  inlicium  '  invitation.' 
I  believe  that  this  was  begun  on  an  occasion  when  the 
assistant  was  not  present ;  it  really  made  no  difference 
to  whom  he  gave  the  order,  and  it  was  for  form's  sake 

'  tricked ' ;  according  to  G.  S.  Hopkins,  Indo-European 
deiwos  and  Belated  Wards,  27-S-2,  Elicius  is  a  derivative  of 
liquere  '  to  be  liquid,'  and  Jupiter  Elicius  is  a  rain-god. 



quaedam  neque  item  facta  neque  item  dicta  semper. 
Hoc  ipsum  inlicium  scriptum  inveni  in  M.  lunii  Com- 
mentariis  ;  quod  tamen  (inlex  apud  Plautum  in  Persa 
est  qui  legi  non  paret),*  ibidem  est  quod  illicit  illex, 
<f>it  quod^  (ly  cum  E  et  C  cum  G  magnam  habet 

X.  96.  Sed  quoniam  in  hoc  de  paucis  rebus  verba 
feci  plura,  de  pluribus  rebus  verba  faciam  pauca,  et 
potissimum  quae  in  Graeca  lingua  putant  Latina,  ut 
scalpere  a  o-KaXevew,^  sternere  a  (rTpwvvveLv,^  lingere 
a  Atx/Mctfj^at,'  i  ab  t^(t>,*  ite  ab  he,^  gignitur  (a)** 
yiyverai,''  ferte  a  ^epert,*  providere'  <a>"  irpoi^dv,^^ 
errare  ab  eppeii-,^^  ab  eo  quod  dicunt  (rrpayyaXav'^^ 
strangulare,  tingue(re)"  a  Tiyyeiv.^^  Praeterea  <de- 
psere)  a  Sexpyja-^aiy^ ;  ab  eo  quod  illi  fiaXda-a-eii'"  nos 
malaxare,  ut  gargarissare  ab  dvayapyapi^eadai,^^ 
Tputere  a  Trvdicrdai,^^  domare  a  SapLa^eiv,^"  mulgere  ab 
dfieXyeiv,'^  pectere  a  ttckciv,"  stringere  a  o-rAcyyi^civ** : 

*  Added  by  GS.  *  GS.,  for  illicite  illexit  quae  F  (quod 
Mue.,for  quae).         *  Added  by  Ciacconius  apud  Aug. 

§96.     ^RhoL,     for     SCOLPSa.&.  *  L.      Sp.,     for 

STPONYIN.  3  j^  Sp.,  for  Ahy/toxTTc.  «  A.  Sp.,  for 
he.  *  L.  Sp.,  for  hre.  •  Added  by  L.  Sp.  '  L.  Sp., 
for  YhYNOITe.  «  L.  Sp.,  for  ferete.  »  p,  Laetus,for 
prouidete.  ^"  Added  by  GS.  ^^  Rhol.,for  UFwhSeh^. 
"  Scaliger,  for  eRRehN.  ^^  L.  Sp.  (after  Buttmann),  for 
strangala.  '^  B,  RhoL,  for  tingue.         ^*  Buttmann,  for 

THNKeAe.  «  Ellis  {after  L.  Sp.),  for  ades.i^eC.  "  L. 
Sp.,  for  MAAASeN.  "  X.  Sp.,  for  aNaPraPHCTe. 
"  Canal,  for  potare  a  IIoIGeCTae.  *<•  L.  Sp.,for  Afiaiahv. 
^^Rhol.,  for  AMeAPHN.  "  L.  Sp.,  for  HeSePe. 
23  G8.,for  CRHNPHAe. 

§  95.  "  lurisprvd.  Antehadr.  Ret.,  i.  39  Bremer, 


only  that  certain  things  were  done,  but  they  were  not 
always  said  or  done  in  just  the  same  way.  This  very 
word  inlicium  I  have  found  written  in  the  Commen- 
taries of  Marcus  Junius  <»  ;  that  however  inlex  in 
Plautus's  Persa  *  is  a  person  who  does  not  obey  the 
lex  '  law,'  and  in  the  same  work  illex  is  also  that  which 
illicit  '  entices,'  "  is  the  result  of  the  fact  that  I  has 
much  in  common  ^vith  E  and  C  \vith  G. 

X.  96.  But  since  in  this  connexion  I  have  spoken 
at  length  on  a  few  matters,  I  shall  speak  briefly  on  a 
number  of  topics,  and  especially  on  the  Latin  words 
whose  origin  they  think  "  to  be  in  the  Greek  tongue  *  : 
as  scalpere  '  to  engrave  '  from  o-KaAci'eiv  '  to  scratch, 
stemere  '  to  spread  out  '  from  a-Tpaivvveiv,  lingere  '  to 
lick  up  '  from  XixfJ-acrdai,  i '  go  thou  '  from  Wi,  ite  '  go 
ye  '  from  Tre,  gignitur  '  he  is  born  '  from  yiyverai, 
ferte  '  bear  ye  '  from  (f)€f>€T(,  providere  '  to  act  with 
foresight  '  from  — potSeiv  '  to  see  ahead,  foresee,' 
errare  '  to  stray  '  from  eppeiv  '  to  go  away  '  ;  sirangu- 
lare  '  to  strangle  '  from  the  word  orpayyaAar,  tinguere 
'  to  dip,  dye  '  from  rkyyeiv.  Besides,  there  is  depsere 
'  to  knead  '  from  8e\fi](raL ;  from  the  word  which  they 
call  fiaXdcra-eiv,  we  say  malaxare  '  to  soften,'  as  gar- 
garissare  '  to  gargle  '  from  dvayapyapt^ecrdai,  putere 
'  to  stink  '  from  TrvOea-Oai.  '  to  decay,'  domare  '  to  sub- 
due '  from  Safid^eiy,  mulgere  '  to  milk  '  from  dfieXyeiv, 
pectere  '  to  comb  '  from  :reK€iv,  stringere  '  to  scrape  ' 

*  Persa,  408  and  597.  '  The  insertion  by  GS.  must  be 
approximately  correct,  in  view  of  Festus,  113.  6,  Nonius,  446. 
34,  Corp.  Gloss.  Lat.  vi-vii.  s.v.  illex. 

§96.  "Page  116  Funaioli.  *  These  Latin  words  are 
mostly  cognate  with  the  Greek  words,  not  derived  from  them  ; 
but  strangulare,  depsere,  malaxare,  gargarissare,  and  runcina 
are  derived  from  the  Greek  words,  and  errare  and  stringere 
are  not  related  at  all  to  the  alleged  Greek  sources. 



id  enim  a  o-xAeyyt's,^*  ut  runcinare  a  runcina,  cuius 
pvKavyf^  origo  Graeca. 

XI.  97.  Quod  ad  origines  verborum  huius  libri 
pertinet,  satis  multas  arbitror  positas  huius  generis^  ; 
desistam,  et  quoniam  de  hisce  rebus  tri(s)^  libros  ad 
te  mittere  institui,  de  oratione  soluta  duo,  poetica 
unum,  et  ex  soluta  oratione  ad  te  misi  duo,  priorem 
de  locis  et  quae  in  locis  sunt,  hunc  de  temporibus  et 
quae  cum  his  sunt  coniuncta,  deinceps  in  proximo  de 
poeticis  verborum  originibus  scribere  in(cipiam>.' 

^  GS.,  for  CHNrHMHC.         ^»  Scaliger,  for  PHXaNe. 

§97.     ^  Forgaeneris.  ^  Laetus, for  tri.         ^  Groth,with 

a,  b,for  in  F,  after  which  the  space  of  twenty  lines  is  left 
vacant ;  for  incipiam,  of.  viii.  1  and  viji.  25. 



from  o-rAeyyi^cti' :  for  this  is  from  a-rkeyyis  '  scraper/ 
as  runcinare  '  to  plane  '  from  runcina  '  plane,'  of  which 
pvKavn]  is  the  Greek  source. 

XI.  9~-  As  to  what  concerns  the  sources  of  the 
words  which  belong  to  this  book,  sufficiently  numerous 
examples  of  this  kind  have,  I  think,  been  set  down  ; 
I  shall  stop,  and  since  I  have  undertaken  to  send  you 
three  books  on  these  topics,  two  about  prose  composi- 
tion and  one  about  poetical,  and  I  have  sent  vou  the 
two  about  prose,  the  former  about  places  and  the 
things  that  are  in  them,  the  latter  about  time-ideas 
and  those  things  which  are  associated  -s^ith  them,  I 
shall  at  last,  in  the  next  book,  begin  to  write  of  the 
sources  of  words  used  in  poetry. 




LIBER  vny 


I.  1.  (DiFFiciLiA  sunt  explicatu  poetarum  vocabula. 
Saepe  enim  significationem  aliquam  prioribus  tem- 
poribus  impositam)!  repens  ruina  operuit,*  (a>ut' 
verbum  quod  conditum  est  e  quibus  litteris  oportet 
inde  post  aliqua  dempta,  sic*  obscurior^  fit  voluntas 
i7wpos<i>toris.*  Non  reprehendendum  igitur  in  illis 
qui  in  scrutando  verbo  litteram  adiciunt  aut  demunt, 
quo'  facilius  quid  sub  ea  voce  subsit  vider?»  possit  : 
Mt«  enim  facilius  obscuram  operam  <M>yrmecid«>"  ex 

^  The  lost  heading  is  restored  after  that  of  Book  VI.  *  F 
contains  this  statement  of  loss ;  B  and  the  Leipzig  codex 
contain  an  interpolated  beginning :  Temporum  vocabula  et 
eorum  quae  coniuncta  sunt,  aut  in  agendo  fiunt,  aut  cum 
tempore  aliquo  enuntiantur,  priore  libro  dixi.  In  hoc  dicam 
de  poeticis  vocabulis  et  eorum  originibus,  in  quis  multa 
difficilia  :  nam,  after  which  comes  repens  ruina  aperuit. 





AT   THIS    POINT,    IN    THE    MODEL   COPY,   ONE    LEAF    IS 

I.  1.  The  words  of  the  poets  are  hard  to  expound. 
P'or  often  some  meaning  that  was  fixed  in  olden  times 
has  been  buried  by  a  sudden  catastrophe,  or  in  a  word 
whose  proper  make-up  of  letters  is  hidden  after  some 
elements  have  been  taken  away  from  it,  the  intent  of 
him  who  applied  the  word  becomes  in  this  fashion 
quite  obscure.  There  should  be  no  rebuking  then  of 
those  who  in  examining  a  word  add  a  letter  or  take 
one  away,  that  what  underlies  this  expression  may  be 
more  easily  perceived  :  just  as,  for  instance,  that  the 
eyes   may   more  easily  see   Myrmecides'  indistinct 

§  1.  ^  Proposed  by  A.  Sp.,  as  the  most  probable  indication 
of  what  immediately  preceded.  *  Tumebiis,  for  aperuit. 
'  A.  Sp.,  for  ut.  *  Tumebus,  for  sit.  *  Aldus,  H,  for 
obscurius.  •  Victorius,  for  in  posterioris.  '  Tumebus, 
for  quid.  *  L.  Sp.,  for  uidere.  •  Victorius,  for  et. 
^*  L,  Sp.  ;  Myrmetidis  Aldus  ;  for  yrmeci  dum. 



ebore    oculi    videant,    extrinsecus    admovent   nigras 

2.  Cum  haec  amminicula  addas  ad  eruendum 
voluntatem  impositoris,  tamen  latent  multa.  Quod 
si  poetice  (quae)^  in  carminibus  servarit"  multa  prisca 
quae  essent,sic  etiam  cur  essent  posuisset,'yecundius^ 
poemata  ferrent  fructum  ;  sed  ut  in  soluta  oratione 
sic  in  poematis  verba  (non)^  omnia  quae  habent* 
€Ti'/xa  possunt  dici,  neque  multa  ab  eo,  quern  non 
erunt  in  lucubratione  litterae  prosecutae,  multum 
licet  legeret.  ^elii'  hominis  in  primo  in  litteris 
Latinis  exercitati  interpretationem  Carminum  Salio- 
rum  videbis  et  exili  littera  expedita(m>*  et  praeterita 
obscura*  multa. 

3.  Nee  mirum,  cum  non  modo  Ep^'menides^ 
<s>opor(e>''  post  annos  L  experrectus  a  multis  non 
cognoscatur,  sed  etiam  Teucer  Livii  post  XV  annos 
ab  suis  qui  sit  ignoretur.  At^  hoc  quid  ad  verborum 
poeticorum  aetatem  ?  Quorum  si  Pompili  regnum 
fons  in  Carminibus  Saliorum  neque  ea  ab  superioribus 

§  2.  ^  Added  by  L.  Sp.  ^  Victor ius,  for  servabit. 
^  Victorius,  for  posuissent.  *  Laetus,  for  secundius. 
*  Added  by  Mne.  *  For  haberent.  '  H,  B,  Ed.  Veneta, 
for  belli.  *  Laetus,  for  expedlta.  *  For  praeteritam 

§  3.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  Epamenldls.  ^  GS.,  for  opos. 
'  Victorius,  for  ad. 

§  1.  "  Cf.  ix.  108  ;  his  carvings  were  so  tiny  that  the 
detail  in  the  white  Ivory  could  be  seen  only  against  a  black 

§  3.  "A  Cretan  poet  and  prophet,  reputed  to  have  cleansed 
Athens  of  a  plague  in  596  b.c.  According  to  one  story,  in  his 
boyhood  he  went  into  a  cave  to  escape  the  noonday  sun,  and 
fell  into  a  sleep  that  lasted  fifty-seven  years.     When  he  awoke, 



handiwork  "  in  ivory,  men  put  black  hairs  behind  the 

2.  Even  though  you  employ  these  tools  to  unearth 
the  intent  of  him  who  apphed  the  word,  much  remains 
hidden.  But  if  the  art  of  poesy,  which  has  in  the 
verses  preserved  many  words  that  are  early,  had  in 
the  same  fashion  also  set  do\\'n  why  and  how  they 
came  to  be,  the  poems  would  bear  fruit  in  more  pro- 
lific measure  ;  unfortunately,  in  poems  as  in  prose, 
not  all  the  words  can  be  assigned  to  their  primitive 
radicals,  and  there  are  many  which  cannot  be  so 
assigned  by  him  whom  learning  does  not  attend  >\-ith 
favour  in  his  nocturnal  studies,  though  he  read  pro- 
digiously. In  the  interpretation  of  the  Hymns  of  the 
Saltans,  which  was  made  by  Aelius,  an  outstanding 
scholar  in  Latin  hterature,  you  will  see  that  the  inter- 
pretation is  greatly  furthered  by  attention  to  a  single 
poor  letter,  and  that  much  is  obscured  if  such  a  letter 
is  passed  by. 

3.  Nor  is  this  astonishing  :  for  not  only  were  there 
many  who  failed  to  recognize  Epimenides  "  when  he 
awoke  from  sleep  after  fifty  years,  but  even  Teucer's 
own  family,  in  the  play  of  Li\-ius  Andronicus,''  do  not 
know  who  he  is  after  his  absence  of  fifteen  years. 
But  what  has  this  to  do  with  the  age  of  poetic  words  ? 
If  the  reign  of  Numa  Pompilius  '^  is  the  source  of  those 
in  the  Hymns  of  the  Saltans  and  those  words  were  not 
received  from  earUer  hymn-makers,  they  are  none  the 

everything  was  changed ;  his  younger  brother  had  become  an 
old  man.  *  Livius  Andronicus,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  7 
Ribbeck* ;  R.O.L.  ii.  14-15  Warmington.  Teucer,  son  of 
Telamon  king  of  Salamis,  was  absent  from  home  during 
the  Trojan  War,  and  again  during  his  exile  after  his  return 
from  that  war.  *  Second  king  of  Rome,  founder  of  the 
Salian  priesthood. 



accepta,  tamen  habent  DCC  annos.  Quare  cur 
scriptoris  industriam  reprehendas  qui  herois  tritavum, 
atavum  non  potuerit  reperire,  cum  ipse  tui  tritavi 
matrem  dicere  non  possis  ?  Quod  intervallum  multo 
tanto  propius  nos,  quam  hinc  ad  initium  Saliorum, 
quo  Romanorum  prima  verba  poetica  dicunt  Latina. 

4.  Igitur  de  originibus  verborum  qui  multa  dix- 
erit  commode,  potius  boni  consulendum,  quam  qui 
aliquid  nequierit  reprehendendum,  praesertim  quom 
dicat  et^mologice^  non  omnium  verborum  posse  dici 
causa<m>,^  ut  qui  a<c>  qua  re  res  u<tilis^  sit>*  ad 
medendum  medicina  ;  neque  si  non  norim  radices 
arboris,  non  posse  me  dicere  pirum  esse  ex  ramo, 
ramum  ex  arbore,  earn  ex  radicibus  quas  non  video. 
Quare  qui  ostendit  equitatum  esse  ab  equitibus, 
equites  ab  equite,  equitem  ab  equo  neque  equus  unde 
sit  dicit,  tamen  hie  docet  plura  et  satisfacit  grato, 
quern  imitari  possimusne  ipse  liber  erit  indicio. 

II.  5.  Dicam  in  hoc  libro  de  verbis  quae  a  poetis 
sunt  posita,  primum  de  locis,  dein  quae  in  locis  sunt, 
tertio  de  temporibus,  tum  quae  cum  temporibus  sunt 
coniuncta,  (se)d  is^  ut  quae  cum  his  sint  coniuncta, 

§  4.     ^  For     ethymologice.  ^  L.      Sp.,     for     causa. 

'  Ellis,  for  quia  quare  res  ii  and  a  blank  space  capable  of 
holding  about  seven  letters.         *  Added  by  Kent. 

§  5.     ^  A.  Sp.  ;  sed  ita  Mue.  ;  for  dis. 




less  seven  hundred  years  old.  Therefore  why  should 
you  find  fault  with  the  diligence  of  a  writer  who  has 
not  been  able  to  find  the  name  of  the  great-grand- 
father or  the  grandfather  of  a  demigod's  great-grand- 
father, when  you  yourself  cannot  name  the  mother 
of  your  own  great-grandfather's  great-grandfather  ? 
This  interval  is  much  closer  to  us,  than  the  stretch 
from  the  present  time  to  the  beginning  of  the  Salians, 
when,  they  say,  the  first  poetic  words  of  the  Romans 
were  composed,  in  Latin. 

4.  Therefore  the  man  who  has  made  many  apt 
pronouncements  on  the  origins  of  words,  one  should 
regard  with  favour,  rather  than  find  fault  with  him 
who  has  been  unable  to  make  any  contribution  ; 
especially  since  the  etymologic  art  says  that  it  is  not 
of  all  words  that  the  basis  can  be  stated — just  as  it 
cannot  be  stated  how  and  why  a  medicine  is  effective 
for  curing  ;  and  that  if  I  have  no  knowledge  of  the 
roots  of  a  tree,  still  I  am  not  prevented  from  saying 
that  a  pear  is  from  a  branch,  the  branch  is  from  a  tree, 
and  the  tree  from  roots  which  I  do  not  see.  For  this 
reason,  he  who  shows  that  equitatus  '  cavalry  '  is  from 
equites  '  cavalrj^men,'  equites  from  eques  '  cavalry- 
man,' eques  from  equus  '  horse,'  even  though  he  does 
not  give  the  source  of  the  word  equus,  still  gives 
several  lessons  and  satisfies  an  appreciative  person  ; 
whether  or  not  we  can  do  as  much,  the  present  book 
itself  shall  serve  as  testifying  witness. 

IL  5.  In  this  book  I  shall  speak  of  the  words 
which  have  been  put  down  by  the  poets,  first  those 
about  places,  then  those  which  are  in  places,  third 
those  about  times,  then  those  which  are  associated 
with  time-ideas  ;  but  in  such  a  way  that  to  them  I 
shall  add  those  which  are  associated  with  these,  and 



adiungam,  et  si  quid  excedit*  ex  hac  quadripertitione, 
tamen  in  ea  ut  comprehendam. 

6.  Incipiam  hinc  : 

Unus  erit  quern  tu  tolles  in  caerula  caeli 

Templum  tribus  modis  dicitur  :  ab  natura,  ab  au- 
spicando/  a  similitudine  ;  <ab>*  natura  in  caelo,  ab 
auspiciis  in  terra,  a  similitudine  sub  terra.  In  caelo 
te<m>plum  dicitur,  ut  in  Hecuba  : 

O  magna  templa  caelitum,  commixta  stellis  splendidis. 

In  terra,  ut  in  Periboea  : 

Scrupea  saxea  Ba<c)chi 
Templa  prope  aggreditur. 

Sub  terra,  ut  in  Andromacha  : 

Acherusia  templa  alta  Orel,  salvete,  infera. 

7.  Quaqua^  in<tu>iti  era<n>t2  oculi,  a  tuendo 
primo  templum  dictum  :  quocirca  caelum  qua  attui- 
mur  dictum  templum  ;  sic  : 

Contremuit  templum  magnum  lovis  altitonantis, 

*  Sciop.,  for  excidit. 

§  6.  ^  Groth,  with  V,  p,  for  auspicendo.  "  Added  by 
L.  Sp. 

§  7.     ^  Auff.,  for  quaquia.         *  Sciop.,  for  initium  erat. 

§  6.  "  Said  of  Romulus,  by  Ennius,  Ann.  65-66  Vahlen^ ; 
R.O.L.  i.  22-23  Warmington ;  quoted  without  templa  by 
Ovid,  Met.  xiv.  814  and  Fast.  ii.  487.  *  Properly  a 
'  limited  space,'  for  divination  or  otherwise  ;  from  the  root 
tem-'cuV  "  Page  18  Regell.  <*  That  is,  likeness  to  a 
templum  in  the  sky  or  on  the  earth.  '  Ennius,  Trag. 
Rom.  Frag.  163  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  292-293  Warmington. 



that  if  any  word  lies  outside  this  fourfold  division,  I 
shall  still  include  it  in  the  account. 

6.  I  shall  begin  from  this  : 

One  there  shall  be,  whom  thou  shalt  raise  up  to  sky's 
azure  temples." 

Templum  *  '  temple  '  is  used  in  three  ways,  of  nature, 
of  taking  the  auspices,'^  from  likeness  ^  :  of  nature,  in 
the  sky  ;  of  taking  the  auspices,  on  the  earth  ;  from 
hkeness,  under  the  earth.  In  the  sky,  templum  is 
used  as  in  the  Hecuba  '  : 

O  great  temples  of  the  gods,  united  with  the  shining 


On  the  earth,  as  in  the  Periboea  ^  : 

To  Bacchus'  temples  aloft 

On  sharp  jagged  rocks  it  draws  near. 

Under  the  earth,  as  in  the  Andromacha  ^  : 

Be  greeted,  great  temples  of  Orcus, 
By  Acheron's  waters,  in  Hades. 

7.  Whatever  place  the  eyes  had  intuiti  '  gazed 
on,'  was  originally  called  a  templum  '  temple,'  from 
tueri  '  to  gaze  '  ;  therefore  the  sky,  where  we 
attuimur  '  gaze  at '  it,  got  the  name  templum,  as  in 
this"  : 

Trembled  the  mighty  temple  of  Jove  who  thunders 
in  heaven, 

f  Pacuvius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  310  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  ii.  278- 
279  Warmington;  anapaestic;  said  of  a  Bacchic  rouL 
»  Ennius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  70-71  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  254- 
255  Warmington ;  anapaestic ;  quoted  more  fully  by  Cicero, 
Tusc.  Disp.  i.  21.  48. 

§7.  «Ennius,  Ann.  541  Vahlen*;  R.O.L.  i.  450-451 

VOL.  I  T  273 


id  est,  ut  ait  Naevius, 

Hemisp/iaerium'  ubi  conca(vo)* 
Caerulo*  septum  stat. 

Eius  templi  partes  quattuor  dicuntur,  sinistra  ab 
oriente,  dextra  ab  occasu,  antica  ad  meridiem,  postica 
ad  septemtrionem. 

8.  In  terris  dictum  templum  locus  augurii  aut 
auspicii  causa  quibusdam  conceptis  verbis  finitus. 
Concipitur  verbis  non  isdem^  usque  quaque  ;  in 
Arce  sic  : 

Tem<pla>  tescaque*  me  ita  sunto,  quoad  ego-  ea  rite* 
lingua*  nuncupavero. 

011a  ver(a>*  arbos  quirquir  est,  quam  me  sentio 
dixisse,  templum  tescumque  me  esto*  in  sinistrum. 

Olla  ver(a.y  arbos  quirquir  est,  quam*  me  sentio 
dixisse,  te<m>plum  tescumque  me  esto*  <in>*  dextrum. 

Inter  ea  conregione  conspicione  cortumione,  utique 
ea  <rit>e  dixisse  me^"  sensi. 

9.  In  hoc  templo  faciundo  arbores  constitui  fines 
apparet  et  intra  eas  regiones  qua  oculi  conspiciant,  id 

'  Turnebus,  B,  for  hiemisferium.  *  Mue.,  for  conca. 
*  For  cherulo. 

§8.  ^  3/T<e., /or  hisdem.  ^  rMrneiMS./or  item  testaque. 
'  ea  rite  L.  Sp.,  for  eas  te.  *  Victorius,  p,  for  linquam. 
^  Kent,  for  ullaber.  *  tescum  Turnebus,  -que  me  Fay,  esto 
Scaliger  and  Turnebus,  for  tectum  quem  festo.  '  Kent, 
for  ollaner.  *  Mue.,  for  quod.  *  Added  by  B,  Laetus. 
^°  L.  Sp.,  ;  ea  dixisse  me  Sciop.  ;  for  ea  erectissime. 

''  An  uncertain  fragment,  not  listed  in  the  collections  of  the 
fragments  of  Naevius.         "^  Cf.  p.  18  Regell. 

§8.  "Page  18  Regell.  *  Text  and  translation  both 
very  problematic.  I  take  me  as  dative  {cf.  Fest.  160.  2)  ; 
regard  quirquir  as  equal  to  quisquis,  either  by  manuscript 
corruption   or  with   rhotacism  in   the  phrase  quisquis  est, 



that  is,  as  Naevius  says,* 

Where  land's  semicircle  lies. 
Fenced  by  the  azure  vault. 

Of  this  temple  "  the  four  quarters  are  named  thus  : 
the  left  quarter,  to  the  east  ;  the  right  quarter,  to 
the  west  ;  the  front  quarter,  to  the  south  ;  the  back 
quarter,  to  the  north. 

8.  On  the  earth,  iemplum  is  the  name  given  to  a 
place  set  aside  and  limited  by  certain  formulaic 
words  for  the  purpose  of  augury  "  or  the  taking  of  the 
auspices.  The  words  of  the  ceremony  are  not  the 
same  everywhere  ;  on  the  Citadel,  they  are  as 
follows  ^  : 

Temples  and  wild  lands  be  mine  in  this  manner,  up  to 
where  I  have  named  them  with  my  tongue  in  proper 

Of  whatever  kind  that  truthful"  tree  is,  which  I  con- 
sider that  I  have  mentioned,  temple  and  wild  land  be 
mine  to  that  point  on  the  left. 

Of  whatever  kind  that  truthful  tree  is,  which  I  consider 
that  I  have  mentioned,  temple  and  wild  land  be  mine  to 
that  point  on  the  right. 

Between  these  points,  temples  and  wild  lands  be  mine 
for  direction,  for  viewing,  and  for  interpreting,  and  just 
as  I  have  felt  assured  that  I  have  mentioned  them  in 
proper  fashion. 

9.  In  making  this  temple,  it  is  evident  that  the 
trees  are  set  as  boundaries,  and  that  \\-ithin  them  the 
regions  are  set  where  the  eyes  are  to  view,  that  is  we 

becoming  quisquir  est  (so  Fay,  Amer.  Journ.  Phil.  xxxv. 
253)  ;  take  as  datives  the  three  words  in  -one  in  the  last 
sentence  (meanings,  vii.  9),  supplying  after  them  templa 
tescaque  me  sunto.  For  meaning  of  tescum,  cf.  vii.  10-11. 
'  That  is,  lending  itself  to  true  predictions  through  the 



est  tueamur,  a  quo  templum  dictum,  et  contemplare, 
ut  apud  Ennium  in  Medea  : 

Contempla  et  templum  Cereris  ad  laevam  aspice. 
Contempla  et  conspicare  id(em>i  esse  apparet,  ideo 
dicere  ^um,  cum  te(m>plum2  facit,  augurem  con- 
spicione,  qua  oculorum  conspectum  finiat.  Quod 
cum  dicunt  conspicionem,  addunt  cortumionem, 
dicitur  a  cordis  visu  :   cor  enim  cortumionis  origo. 

10.  Quod  addit  templa  ut  si<n>t^  ^e^ca,^  aiunt 
sancta  esse  qui  glossas  scripserunt.  Id  est  falsum  : 
nam  Curia  Hostilia  templum  est  et  sanctum  non  est  ; 
sed  hoc  ut  putarent  aedem  sacram  esse  templum. 
<eo  videtur)^  esse  factum  quod  in  urbe  Roma  plerae- 
que  aedes  sacrae  sunt  templa,  eadem  sancta,  et  quod 
loca  quaedam  agrestia,  quae*  alicuius  dei  sunt,  di- 
cwntur^  tesca. 

§9.     ^  Bentinus,forid.  ^  Tttrnebus, for cumcontejilum, 

§  10.     ^  Laetns,     for      sit.         *  Turnebus,    for     dextra. 

^  Added  by  OS.         *  L.  Sp.,  for  quod.         *  Bentinus,  for 


§  9.  "As  Varro  derives  templum  from  tueri,  he  must 
insist  on  the  meaning  '  to  gaze,'  because  in  his  time  its  usual 
meaning  was  '  to  protect.'  *  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  244  Rib- 
beck*;  R.O.L.  I.  324-325  Warmington.  The  preceding 
verse  ended  with  Athenas  anticum  opulentum  oppidum, 
which  is  the  object  of  contempla,  but  Varro  obviously  under- 
stood his  shortened  citation  as  it  is  here  translated.  "  He 
means,  from  cor  and  tueri ;  but  the  second  part  is  rather 
from  the  root  tern-  '  to  cut,'  as  in  aestimare  '  to  cut  bronze, 



tueamur  '  are  to  gaze,'  <*  from  which  was  said  templum 
and  contemplare  '  to  contemplate,'  as  in  Ermius,  in  the 
Medea  ^  : 

Contemplate  and  view  Ceres'  temple  on  the  left. 

Contenipla  '  do  thou  contemplate  '  and  conspicare  '  do 
thou  view  '  are  the  same,  it  is  ob\ious,  and  therefore 
the  augur,  when  he  makes  a  temple,  says  conspicione 
'  for  ^•ie^\•ing,'  with  regard  to  where  he  is  to  dehmit 
the  conspectus  '  \-iew  '  of  the  eyes.  As  to  their  adding 
cortumio  when  they  say  conspicio,  this  term  is  derived 
from  the  \"ision  of  the  cor  '  heart  '  ;  for  cor  is  the  basis 
of  cortumio.'^ 

10.  As  to  his  adding  that  the  temples  shall  be  tesca 
'  wild  lands,'  those  who  have  written  glossaries  "  say 
that  this  means  that  the  temples  are  in\iolable.''  This 
is  quite  wrong  :  for  the  Hostilian  Meeting-House  ^  is 
a  temple  and  is  not  in\iolable.''  But  that  people 
should  have  the  idea  that  a  temple  is  a  consecrated 
building,  seems  to  have  come  about  from  the  fact  that 
in  the  city  Rome  most  consecrated  buildings  are 
temples,  and  they  are  hke^^•ise  in\"iolable,  and  that 
certain  places  in  the  country,  which  are  the  property 
of  some  god,  are  called  tesca. 

evaluate,  think,'  and  the  whole  word  means  perhaps 
*  interpreting.' 

§10.     "Page    113    Funaioli.  "That    is,    where    any 

violence,  at  whatever  directed,  is  sacrilege  toward  the  gods. 
'  Temple  '  is  in  this  statement  used  in  the  wide  meaning  of  a 
'  limited  space,'  not  in  the  derived  sense  of  a  building  for  the 
worship  of  the  gods  or  of  a  god,  which  is  an  aedfs  sacra. 
'  In  the  Comitium  ;  traditionally  built  by  Tullus  Hostilius, 
third  king  of  Rome,  as  a  meeting  place  for  the  Senate.  ''  A 
locus  sacer  ('  consecrated  to  a  deity  ')  was  always  sanctus,  but 
a  loeiu  tanctxia  was  not  always  sacer. 



11.     Nam  apud  Accium  in^  Philocteta*  Lemnio 

Quis  tu  es  mortalis,  qui  in  deserta  et  tesca  te 
appor^es'  loca  ? 

<Ea)*  enim  loca  quae  sint  designat,  cum  dicit  : 

Lemnia  praesto 
Litora  rara,*  et  celsa  Cabirum 
Delubra  tenes,*  mysteria  quae 
Pristina  castis'  concepta  sacris. 



Volcania*  <iam>'  templa  sub  ipsis 
Collibus,  in  quos  delatus  locos 
Dicitur  alto  ab  limine^"  caeli. 

Nemus  expirante  vapore  vides, 

Unde  ignis^^  cluet^*  mortalibus  <clam>*' 


Quare  haec  quo<d)  tesca  dixit,  non  erravit,  neque 
ideo  quod  sancta,  sed  quod  ubi  mysteria  fiunt  at- 
tuentur/^  tuesca  dicta. 

12.     Tueri  duo  significat,  unum  ab  aspectu  ut  dixi, 
unde  est  JLnnii^  illud  : 

Tueor  te,  senex  ?     Pro  Jupiter  ! 

§  11.     ^  Laetus,  for  ut.         ^  Aldus,  for  philocto  etatem. 

*  Aldus,  for  appones  (r/.  adportas  Festus,  356  a  26   M.). 

*  Added  by  Mue.         *  Aug.,  with  B,  for  prest  olitor  a  rarat. 

*  For  teues.  '  Aldus,  for  castris.  *  For  uolgania. 
'  Added  by  Ribbeck.  ^"  Aug.,  with  B,  for  lumine. 
^^  Vertranius  {from  Cicero,  Tusc.  ii.  10.  23),  for  ignes. 
^^  Aldus,  for  cl&uet.  ^^  Added  by  Victor ius  {from  Cicero, 
I.e.).  ^*  Turnebus{  from  Cicero,  I.e.),  for  diuis.  ^^  Mue.. 
for  aut  tuentur. 

§  12.     ^  Sciop.ffor  enim. 

§  11.     -  Trag.  Bom.  Frag.  554  Ribbeck*;  R.O.L.  ii.  514- 
515  Warmington.         "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  525-534  Ribbeck' : 



11.     For  there  is  the  following  in  Accius,  in  the 
Philoctetes  of  Lemnos  "■  : 

What  man  are  thou,  who  dost  advance 
To  places  desert,  places  waste  ? 

What  sort  of  places  these  are,  he  indicates  when  he 
says  *  : 

Around  you  you  have  the  Lemnian  shores. 
Apart  from  the  world,  and  the  high-seated  shrines 
Of  Cabirian  Gods,  and  the  mysteries  which 
Of  old  were  expressed  with  sacrifice  pure. 

Then  : 

You  see  now  the  temples  of  Vulcan,  close  by 
Those  very  same  hills,  upon  which  he  is  said 
To  have  fallen  when  thrown  from  the  sky's  lofty  sill." 


The  wood  here  you  see  with  the  smoke  gushing  forth. 
Whence  the  fire — so  they  say — was  secretly  brought 
To  mankind.** 

Therefore  he  made  no  mistake  in  calling  these  lands 
tesca,  and  yet  he  did  not  do  so  because  they  were  con- 
secrated ;  but  because  men  attuentur  '  gaze  at  '  places 
where  mysteries  take  place,  they  were  called  tuesca.^ 
12.  Tueri  has  two  meanings,  one  of '  seeing  '  as  I 
have  said,  whence  that  verse  of  Ennius  "  : 

I  really  see  thee,  sire?    Oh  Jupiter ! 

R.O.L.  ii.  506-507  Warmington ;  anapaestic.  "  He  fell  on 
Lemnos,  as  related  in  Iliad,  i.  590-594.  ^  This  last  portion 
is  quoted  by  Cicero,  Ttisc.  Disp.  ii.  10.  23,  who  continues 
with  a  summary  of  the  story  of  Prometheus.  *  \'arro 
means  that  tesca  is  for  tuesca,  waste  or  wild  land  where  men 
may  look  at  (attueri)  celebrations  of  religious  mysteries  :  an 
incorrect  etymology. 

§  12.     "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  335  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  290- 
291  Warmington. 




Quis  pater  aut  cognatus  volet  ros*  contra  tueri  ? 

Alterum  a  curando  ac  tutela,  ut  cum  dicimus  "  vellet' 
tueri  villain,"  a  quo  etiam  quidam  dicunt  ilium  qui 
curat  aedes  sacras  aedituum,  non  aeditMmum4 ;  sed 
tamen  hoc  ipsum  ab  eadem  est  profectum  origine, 
quod  quem  volumus  domum  curare  dicimus  "  tu  domi 
videbis,"  ut  Plautus  cum  ait : 

Intus  para,  cura,  vide.     Quod  opus<t>^  fiat. 

Sic  dicta  vestis(pi>ca,*  quae  vestem  spiceret,  id  est 
videret   vestem   ac   tueretur.     Quare   a   tuendo   et 
templa  et  tesca  dicta  cum  discrimine  eo  quod  dixi. 
13.     Etiam  indidem  illud  EnmV^  : 

Extemplo  acceptam''  me  necato'  et  filiam.* 
Extemplo  enim  est  continuo,  quod  omne  te(m>plum 
esse  debet  conti<nu)o  septum  nee  plus  unum  in- 
troitum  habere. 

*  Aug.,  with  B,  for  nos.  '  Ellis,  for  bell  .  .  et  {vacant 
space  for  two  letters).  *  For  aeditomum.  *  From 
Plautus,  Men.  ^52,  for  quid  opus.         *  Aldus,  for  vestisca. 

§  13.  ^  Scaliger,  for  enim.  ^  Voss,  for  acceptum. 
^  Scaliger,  for  negate.  *  Bothe,  for  filium  ,■  cf.  Euripides, 
Hecuba,  391. 

*  Ann.    463    Vahlen^;     R.O.L.    i.    172-173    Warmington. 

*  Aeditumus  is  original,  with  the  second  part  of  uncertain 
origin.  ^  Varro  compares  the  two  meanings  of  tueri 
with  the  two  meanings  of  videre,  *  to  see  '  and  '  to  see  after, 
care  for.'         «  Men.  352. 



And  ^  : 

Who  will  now  wish,  though  father  or  kinsman,  to  look 
on  your  faces  ? 

The  other  meaning  is  of  '  caring  for  '  and  tutela 
'  guardianship,'  as  when  we  say  "  I  >nsh  he  were  will- 
ing tueri  '  to  care  for  '  the  farmhouse,"  from  which 
some  indeed  say  that  the  man  who  attends  to  con- 
secrated buildings  is  an  aedituus  and  not  an  aedi- 
tumus  '^  ;  but  still  this  other  form  itself  proceeded  from 
the  same  source,  because  when  we  want  some  one  to 
take  care  of  the  house  we  say  "  You  will  see  to  ^ 
matters  at  home,"  as  Plautus  does  when  he  says  *  : 

Inside  prepare,  take  pains,  see  to  't ; 
Let  that  be  done,  that's  needed. 

In  this  way  the  vestispica  '  wardrobe  maid '  was  named, 
who  was  spicere  '  to  see  '  the  vestis  '  clothing,'  that  is, 
was  to  see  to  the  clothing  and  tueri '  guard '  it.  There- 
fore, both  temples  and  tesca  '  wastes  '  were  named 
from  tueri,  with  that  difference  of  meaning  which  I 
have  mentioned. 

13.  Moreover,  from  the  same  source  comes  the 
word  in  Ennius  "  : 

Extemplo  take  me,  kill  me,  kill  my  daughter  too. 

For  extemplo  ^ '  on  the  spot  '  is  contimio  '  without  in- 
terval,' because  every  templum  ought  to  be  fenced 
in  uninterruptedly  and  have  not  more  than  one 

§  13.  «  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  355  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  i.  380- 
381  Warmington  ;  perhaps  spoken  by  the  captive  Hecuba, 
who  gave  her  name  to  a  tragedy  by  Ennius.  *  Templum 
denotes  a  limited  portion  of  time  as  well  as  of  space  ;  in 
extemplo  the  application  is  to  time. 



14.  Quod  est  apud  Accium  : 

Pervade  polum,  splendida  mundi 
Sidera,  bigis,  <bis>i  continui<s> 
Se<x  ex)pirt«  signis,^ 

polus  Graecum,  id  significat  circum  caeli  :  quare  quod 
est  pervade  polum  valet^  vade  wepl  irokov.  Signa 
dicuntur  eadem  et  sidera.  Signa  quod  aliquid 
significent,  ut  libra  aequinoctium  ;  sidera,  quae 
(qua>si*  insidunt  atque  ita  significant  aliquid  in  terris 
perurendo  aliave^  qua  re  :  ut  signum  candens  in 

15.  Quod  est : 

Terrarum  anfracta  revisam/ 

anfractum  est  flexum,  ab  origine  duplici  dictum,  ab 
ambitu  et  frangendo  :  ab  eo  leges  iubent  in  directo 
pedum  VIII  esse  (viam),*  in  anfracto  XVI,  id  est  in 

16.  Ennius  : 

Ut  tibi 
Titanis  Trivia  dederit  stirpem  liberum. 

Titanis  Trivia  Diana  est,  ab  eo  dicta  Trivia,  quod  in 

§  14.  ^  Added  by  Kent  ;  cf.  GS.,  note.  *  Continui  se 
cepit  spoliis  F  ;  continuis  sex  apti  signis  Scaliger  ;  picti 
Ribbeck,  exceptis  Fay,  expicti  Kent.  '  Victorms,  for 
valde.  *  quae  quasi  GS.  ;  quod  quasi  L.  Sp.  ;  for  quae 
si.         ^  A.  Sp,,for  aliudue. 

§  15.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  anfractare  visum.  ^  Added 
by  GS  ;  following  Sciop.,  who  added  viam  after  iubent. 

§  14.  »  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  678-680  Ribbeck^ ;  R.O.L. 
ii.  572-573  Warmington ;  anapaestic.  Thie  passage  is  appar- 
ently addressed  to  Phaethon,  but  possibly  to  the  Sun-God  or 
to  the  Moon-God.  The  twelve  signs  of  the  zodiac  are  con- 
ceived as  taken  by  the  Universe  and  worn  by  it  as  a  girdle. 
''  Properly  '  white-hot '  ;    the  Roman  poets  often  speak  of 



14.  As  for  what  is  in  Accius," 

With  thy  team  do  thou  go  through  the  sky,  through 

the  bright 
Constellations  aloft,  which  the  universe  holds. 
Adorned  with  its  twice  sLx  continuous  signs, 

the  word  polus  '  sky  '  is  Greek,  it  means  the  circle 
of  the  sky  :  therefore  the  expression  pervade  polum 
'  traverse  the  sky  '  means  '  go  around  the  -oAos.' 
Signa  '  signs  of  the  zodiac  '  means  the  same  as  sidera 
'  constellations.'  Signa  are  so  called  because  they 
significant '  indicate  '  something,  as  the  Balance  marks 
the  equinox  ;  those  are  sidera  which  so  to  speak  in- 
sidunt  '  settle  down  '  and  thus  indicate  something  on 
earth  by  burning  or  otherwise  :  as  for  example  a 
signum  candens  '  scorching  sign,'  *  in  the  matter  of 
the  flocks. 

15.  In  the  phrase 

Again  of  the  land  I  shall  see  the  an/racta," 

anfractum  means  '  bent  or  curved,'  being  formed  from 
a  double  source,  from  ambitus  '  circuit  '  and  frangere 
'  to  break.'  Concerning  this  the  laws  *"  bid  that  a  road 
shall  be  eight  feet  \nde  where  it  is  straight,  and  six- 
teen at  an  anfractum,  that  is,  at  a  curve. 

16.  Ennius  says  "  : 

As  surely  as  to  thee 
Titan's  daughter  Trivia  shall  grant  a  line  of  sons. 

The  Trivian  Titaness  is  Diana,  called  Trivia  from  the 

the  flocks  as  being  burned  by  the  heat  of  Canicttla  '  the 
Dog-star,'  which  is  visible  while  the  sun  is  in  the  sign  of  Leo. 

§  15.  »  Accius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  336  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L. 
ii.  440-441  Warmington.  "  Cf.  XII  Tabulae,  page  138 

§  16.  -  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  362  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  260- 
261  Warmington. 



trivio  ponitur  fere  in  oppidis  Graecis,  vel  quod  luna 
dicitur  esse,  quae  in  caelo  tribus  viis  movetur,  in 
altitudinem  et  latitudinem  et  longitudinem.  Titanis 
dicta,  quod  earn  genuit,  ut  ai(t>^  Plautus,  Lato  ;  ea, 
ut  scribit  Manilius, 

Est  Coe<o>  creata^  Titano. 

Ut  idem  scribit  : 

Latona  pari<e>t^  casta  complexu  lovis 
Deliadas*  geminos, 

id    est    Apollinem    et    Dianam.     Dii,    quod   Titanis 
(Deli  eos  peperit),*  Deliadae. 
17.     E2demi  : 

O  sancte  Apollo,  qui  umbilicum  certum  terrarum 

Umbilicum  dictum  aiunt  ab  umbilico  nostro,  quod  is 
medius  locus  sit  terrarum,  ut  umbilicus  in  nobis  ; 
quod  utrumque  est  falsum  :  neque  hie  locus  est 
terrarum  medius  neque  noster  umbilicus  est  hominis 
medius.  Itaque  pingitur  quae^  vocatur  (dvr)L\doii'^ 
Hvdayopa,  ut  media  caeli  ac  terrae  linea  ducatur  infra 

§  16.  ^  Kent,  after  L.  Sp.,  for  ni.  ^  Mue.,  for  coe- 
creata.  *  Neue,  for  parit.  *  Lachmann,  for  delia  dos. 
^  Added  by  L.  Sp. 

§  17.  ^  A.  Sp.  (nom.  sing,  masc),  for  eadem.  *  3hie., 
for  qui.         ^  G.  Hermann,  for  IXToN. 

^  This  first  etymology  is  better  ;  it  should  be  referred  to 
images  set  up  in  Italian  towns,  not  in  Greek  towns. 
"  Lato,  from  which  the  Romans  made  Latona  (cf.  Plautus, 
Bac.  893),  is  the  Greek  form  in  Doric  and  in  all  other 
dialects  except  Attic-Ionic.  ''  Frag.  Poet.  Lot.,  page  52 
Morel.  '  Deliadae  is  a  word  not  found  elsewhere  ;  but 
it  seems  difficult  not  to  admit  it  in  this  passage. 

§  17.  <•  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  inc.  inc.  19-20  Ribbeck» ; 


fact  that  her  image  is  set  up  quite  generally  in  Greek 
towns  where  three  roads  meet,**  or  else  because  she  is 
said  to  be  the  Moon,  which  moves  in  the  sky  by  tres 
viae  '  three  ways,'  upwards,  sidewise,  and  onwards. 
She  is  called  Titanis  '  daughter  of  Titan,'  because  her 
mother  was,  as  Plautus  says,  Lato  '^  ;  and  she,  as 
ManiUus  WTites,** 

Was  begot  by  the  Titan  Coeus. 

As  the  same  author  \*Tites,'* 

The  chaste  Latona  shall  give  birth,  by  Jove's  embrace. 
To  Deliad  twins, 

that  is,  to  Apollo  and  Diana.  These  gods  were  called 
Deliads  *  because  the  Titaness  gave  birth  to  them  on 
the  island  of  Delos. 

17.     The  same  has  this  "  : 

O  holy  Apollo,  who  dost  hold 
The  true  established  umbilicus  of  the  lands. 

The  umbilicus,  they  say,**  was  so  called  from  our  um- 
bilicus '  navel,'  because  this  is  the  middle  place  of  the 
lands,  as  the  navel  in  us.  But  both  these  are  false 
statements  :  this  place  is  not  the  middle  of  the  lands, 
nor  is  the  navel  the  middle  point  of  a  man.  But  in 
this  fashion  is  indicated  the  so-called  '  counter-earth 
of  Pythagoras,'  '^  so  that  the  line  which  is  midway 
in  sky  and  earth  should  be  drawn  below  the  navel 

R.O.L.  ii,  602-603  Warmington,  who  doubtfully  attributes  it 
to  Ennius,  since  Cicero,  de  Divin.  ii.  56.  115,  citing  this 
passage  more  fully,  had  last  quoted  from  Ennius;  pre- 
ceded by  eidem  (nom.  sing,  masc.),  it  belongs  to  Manilius. 
'Page  117  Funaioli.  '  Pj^thagoras  taught  that  around 
the  fire  in  the  centre  of  the  universe  there  swung  the  earth 
and  a  counter-earth,  each  forming  part  of  a  sphere,  and 
balancing  each  other. 



umbilicum  per  id  quo  discernitur  homo  mas  an  femina 
sit,  ubi  ortus  humanus  similis  ut  in  mundo* :  ?bi* 
enim  omnia  nascuntur  in  medio,  quod  terra  mundi 
media.  Praeterea  si  quod  medium  id  est  umbilicus 
pila(e>*  terrae,  non  Delphi  medium  ;  et  terrae 
medium — non'  hoc,  sed  quod  vocant — Delphis'  in 
aede  ad  latus  est  quiddam  ut  thesauri  specie,  quod 
Graeci  vocant  o/x<^aAoi',*  quem  Pythonos  aiunt  esse 
tumulMwi*  ;  ab  eo  nostri  interpretes  o/x^aAdv  um- 
bilicum dixerunt. 

18.  Pacuius  : 

Caledonia  altrix  terra  ex(s>uperantum  virum. 

Ut  ager  Tusculanus,  sic  Cal^donius  ager  est,  non 
terra  ;  sed  lege  poetica,  quod  terra  Jetolia  in  qua 
Calydon,  a  parte^  totam  accipi  ^etoliam  voluit. 

19.  Acci : 

Mystica  ad  dextram  vada 

M_^stica  a  mysteriis,  quae  ibi  in  propinquis  locis 
nobilia  fiunt. 

*  A  dittography  in  F,  written  ubi  ortus  humanus  situlis  ut  in 
mundo,  is  here  excised.  *  Aug.,  for  ubi.  *  ut  pilae 
Mve.,  for  ut  pila  F  {but  ut  was  deleted  by  F^).  '  The 
dashes  were  inserted  by  Stroux.         *  Aldus,  for  OMOaAVN. 

*  Loheck,  for  tumulos. 

§  18.     1  For  aperte. 

<*  Nonius,  333.  35  M.,  quotes  Varro  as  using  the  expression 
terra  pila  (or  terrae).  '  The  "  treasure-houses  "  at  Delphi 
were  small  buildings  in  which  the  valuable  dedicatory  gifts 
were  kept ;  a  number  of  cities  had  special  treasure-houses 
of  their  own.  '  Slain  here  by  Apollo  after  the  flood  of 
Deucalion  and  Pyrrha. 



through  that  by  which  the  distinction  is  made  whether 
a  human  being  is  male  or  female,  where  human  life 
starts — and  the  like  is  true  in  the  case  of  the  universe : 
for  there  all  things  originate  in  the  centre,  because  the 
earth  is  the  centre  of  the  universe.  Besides,  if  the 
ball  of  the  earth  ^  has  any  centre,  or  umbilicus,  it  is  not 
Delphi  that  is  the  centre  ;  and  the  centre  of  the  earth 
at  Delphi — not  really  the  centre,  but  so  called — is 
something  in  a  temple  building  at  one  side,  something 
that  looks  like  a  treasure-house,*  which  the  Greeks 
call  the  6fi<fia\6<;,  which  they  say  is  the  tomb  of  the 
Python/  From  this  our  interpreters  turned  the 
word  into  umbilicus  '  navel.' 

18.  Pacuvius  has  this  verse  *  : 

Calydonian  terra,  nurse  of  mighty  men. 
But  just  as  Tusculum  has  an  ager  '  field-land,'  so 
Calydon  has  an  ager  and  not  a  terra  '  land  '  *  ;  but  by 
the  pri\-ilege  of  the  poets,  because  Aetolia  in  which 
Calydon  is  located  is  a  terra,  he  wished  all  Aetolia  to 
be  understood  from  the  name  of  the  part. 

19.  In  this  of  Accius," 

Sailing  past  the  mystic  waters  *  on  the  right, 

mystica  '  mystic  '  is  from  the  famous  mysteria  '  mys- 
teries,' M'hich  are  performed  there  in  places  close  at 

§  18.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  404  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  ii.  274- 
275  Warmington.  *  Varro  objects   to   the  use  of  terra 

with  a  city-name  attached,  since  terra  means  the  whole  state, 
and  cannot  belong  to  a  city  :   a  city  owns  onlv  an  ager. 

§19.  "Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  687-688  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L. 
ii.  568-569    Warmington.  '  Probably   those   at   Eleusis, 

where  mysteries  of  Demeter  were  celebrated;  or  possibly 
those  near  Samothrace,  where  the  Cabiri  were  worshipped, 
cf.  vii.  34. 



Ennii  : 

Areopagitae  quia^  dedere  <ae>quam  pi7am.* 
Areopagitae  ab  Areopago  ;  is  Iocms^  Athenis. 

20.  Musae  quae  pedibus  magnum  pulsatis  Olympum. 
Caelum  dicunt  Graeci  Ol^ympum,  montem  in  Mace- 
donia omnes ;  a  quo  potius  puto  Musas  dictas 
Ol^mpiadas  :  ita  enim  ab  terrestribus  locis  aliis 
cognominatae  Libethrides,  Pipleides,  Thespiades,^ 

21.  Ca<s>sii  : 

/fellespontum  et  claustra. 

(Claustra),''  quod  Xerxes'  quondam  eum  locum 
clausit  :  nam,  ut  Ennius  ait, 

Isque  Hellesponto  pontem  contendit  in  alto. 
Nisi  potius  ab  eo  quod  Asia  et  Europa  ibi  co«<c)ludi- 
t(ur>*  mare  ;  inter  angustias  facit  Propontidis  fauces. 

§19.  ^  Ribbeck,  for  quid.  ^  Ribbeck  ;  aequam  Tpugnam 
Mue.  ;  aequom  palam  Bothe  ;  for  quam  pudam.  *  Laehis, 
for  his  locis. 

§  20.  ^  For  pipl^  ide  ( ==  id  est)  espiades,  with  h  above  the 
e  of  esp-. 

§  21.  ^  Mue.  ;  Cassius  Sclop.  ;  for  quasi.  "  Added  by 
Scaliger.  ^  Bentinus,  for  exerses.  *  A.  Sp. ;  con- 
cludit  iMetus  ;  for  colludit. 

•^Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  349  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  272-273 
Warmington.  ■*  At  the  trial  of  Orestes  for  the  murder 
of  his  mother. 

§  20.  « Ennius,  Ann.  1  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  2-3  War- 
mington ;  opening  the  poem.  *  As  home  of  the  gods. 
« That  is,  not   merely  the  Greeks.         ^  Pipleides  or  Pim- 



In  the  verse  of  Ennius,* 

Since  the  Areopagites  have  cast  an  equal  vote,"* 

Areopagitae  '  Areopagites  '  is  from  Areopagus  ;  this  is 
a  place  at  Athens. 

20.     Muses,  ye  who  with  dancing  feet  beat  mighty 

Olympus  is  the  name  which  the  Greeks  give  to  the 
sky,^  and  all  peoples  •=  give  to  a  mountain  in  Mace- 
donia ;  it  is  from  the  latter,  I  am  inclined  to  think, 
that  the  Muses  are  spoken  of  as  the  Olympiads  :  for 
they  are  called  in  the  same  way  from  other  places  on 
earth  the  Libethrids,  the  Pipleids,**  the  Thespiads, 
the  Heliconids.* 

21.     In  this  phrase  of  Cassius," 

The  Hellespont  and  its  barriers, 

claustra  '  barriers  '  is  used  because  once  on  a  time 
Xerxes  clausit  '  closed  '  the  place  by  barriers  *  :  for, 
as  Ennius  says," 

He,  and  none  other,  on  Hellespont  deep  did  fasten 
a  bridgeway. 

Unless  it  is  said  rather  from  the  fact  that  at  this  place 
the  sea  concluditur '  is  hemmed  in '  by  Asia  and  Europe ; 
in  the  narrows  it  forms  the  entrance  to  the  Propontis. 

phides.  '  Respectively  from  Libethra,  a  fountain  sacred 
to  the  Muses,  near  Libethnmi  and  Magnesia,  in  Mace- 
donia ;  Pimpla,  a  place  and  fountain  in  Pieria,  in  Mace- 
donia ;  Thespiae,  a  town  of  Boeotia  at  the  foot  of  Helicon  ; 
and  Helicon,  a  mountain-range  in  Boeotia. 

§21.  '  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  inc.  inc.  106  Ribbeck' ;  with 
the  text  as  here  emended,  it  l)elongs  to  Cassius.  '  C/. 
Herodotus,  vii.  33-36.  'Ann.  378  Vahlen*;  R.O.L.  i. 
136-137  Warmington. 

VOL.  I  U  289 


22.  Pacui  : 

Li<n)qui^  in  ^egeo  fretu.' 

Dictum  fretum  ab  similitudine  ferventis  aquae,  quod 
in  fretum  saepe  eoncurrat  aestus  atque  effervescat. 
^egeum  dictum  ab  insulis,  quod  in  eo  mari  scopuli  in 
pelago  vocantur  ab  sim^ilitudine  caprarum  ceges. 

23.  Ferme  aderant  aequore  in  alto  ratibus  repentibus. 

Mare  appellatum  (aequor),^  quod  a(e>quatum2  cum 
commotum  vento  non  est.  Ratis  navis  longa<s)* 
dixit,  ut  Naevius  cum  ait  : 

<Ut)*  conferre  queant*  ratem  aeratam  qui 

Per  h'quidum*  mare  sudantes         eunt  atque  sedentes.' 

Ratis  dicta  navis  longa  propter  remos,  quod  hi,  cum 
per  aquam  sublati  sunt  dextra  et  sinistra,  duas  rates* 
efficere  videntur  :  ratis  enim,  unde  hoc  tralatum,  illi 
ubi  plures  mali  aut  asseres  (iuncti  aqua  ducuntur. 
Hinc  naviculae  cum  remis  ratariae  dicuntur).^ 

§  22.     ^  Kent,  for  liqui.         ^  A.  Sp.,  for  fretum. 
§  23.     ^  Added  here  by  A.   Sp. ;    added  before  mare  by 
Laetus.         ^  Laetus,  for    aquatum.         '  Miie.,  for    longa. 

*  Added    by    Kent.         *  Turnebus,     for    conferreque     aut. 

*  Scaliger,  for   perit   quidum.  '  Scaliger,   for  sedantes. 

*  M lie.,  for  partes.  *  Added  by  Mue.,  after  Serv.  Dan.  in 
Aen.  i.  43  and  Gellius,  x.  25.  5. 

§  22.  °  Traff.  Rom.  Fray.  420  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  ii.  306- 
.307  Warmington;  perhaps  spoken  by  Ariadne,  deserted 
by  Theseus  on  the  island  of  Naxos.  "  Incorrect  ety- 
mology. "^  Like  goats  on  a  plain  :  a  very  dubious  ety- 
mology, or  worse.         **  That  is,  Greek  alyes  '  goats.' 

§  23.     "  Given  as  Tray.  Rom.  Fray.  inc.  inc.  225  Ribbeck* ; 



22.  In  the  verse  of  Pacu\ius,'' 

To  be  forsaken  in  the  Aegean  strait, 
f return  '  strait  '  is  named  from  the  likeness  to  fervens 
'  boiUng  '  water,^  because  the  tide  often  dashes  into  a 
strait  and  boils  up.  The  Aegean  is  named  from  the 
islands,  because  in  this  sea  the  craggy  islands  in  the 
open  water  are  called  aeges  '  goats,'  "^  from  their 
likeness  to  she-goats."* 

23.  They  had  almost  arrived  ;    on  the  aequor  deep 

the  rates  were  gUding." 

Aequor  '  level  water  '  is  a  name  given  to  the  sea, 
because  it  is  aequatum  '  levelled  '  when  it  is  not  stirred 
up  by  the  wind.**  By  ratis  '  raft '  he  meant  a  war-ship, 
as  does  Nae\ius  when  he  says  "  : 

That  they  may  clash  'gainst  the  foe 

Their  bronze-shod  raft,  in  which 

They  go  o'er  the  liquid  sea. 
Sweating  as  they  sit."* 

A  war-ship  is  called  a  ratis  from  the  oars,  because 
these,  when  they  are  raised  through  the  water  on  the 
right  and  on  the  left,  seem  to  form  two  rafts  *  ;  for  it 
is  a  ratis — from  which  this  word  is  transferred — there 
where  several  poles  or  beams  are  joined  together  and 
floated  on  the  water.  From  this,  the  adjective  ratarius 
is  applied  to  small  boats  with  oars. 

but  more  probably  a  dactylic  hexameter  of  Ennius,  R.O.L. 
i.  458-459  Warmington : 

Fenne  aderant  ratibtu  repetUibus  aequore  in  alto, 
quoted  by  Varro  with  wTong  order  of  the  words,  as  is  shown 
by  his  explanation  of  aequor  before  he  takes  up  ratis 
(cf,  Vahlen,  Ennius-,  p.  xxxvii.).  *  Correct  etymology. 
« Frag.  Poet.  Rom.,  p.  48  Baehrens ;  R.O.L.  ii.  68-69 
Warmington  ;  Saturnian,  but  text  very  dubious.  ''  The 
seated  rowers.  •  The  same  word  ratis  means  '  ship  '  and 
'  raft,'  whether  or  not  this  explanation  is  correct. 




III.  24.  .  .  .  (hostias)^  agrestis  ab  agro  dictas 
apparet  ;  inful<at>as  hostk/s,*  quod  velamenta  his  e 
lana  quae  adduntur,  infulae  :  itaque  turn,  quod  ad 
sepulcrum^  ferunt  frondem  ac  flores,  addidit  : 

Non  lana*  sed  velatas  frondenti  coma.* 

25.  Cornu<t>a  taurum  umbra  <in  piigna)m  ?aci<t>.i 

Dicere  apparet  cornutam  a  cornibus  ;  cornua  a  cur- 
vore  dicta,  quod  pleraque  curva. 

26.  Musa«^  quas  memorant  nosce(s>^  nos  esse 


Ca(s>menarum^  priscum  vocabulum  ita  natum  ac 
scriptum  est  alibi  ;  Carmenae  ad  eadem  origine  sunt 
declinatae.  In  multis  verbis  in  quo*  antiqui  dicebant 
S,  postea  dicunt  R,  ut  in  Carmine  Saliorum  sunt  haec  : 

^"  This  statement  is  in  the  margin  of  F,  opposite  a  blank  space 
which  amounts  to  one  and  one  half  pages. 

§  24.  ^  Added  by  L.  Sp.  and  by  Bergk.  *  Mue.,  for 
infulas  hostiis.  *  For  sepulchrum.  *  L.  Sp.  and  Rib- 
beck,  for  lanas.  ^  L.  Sp.  and  Ribbeck,  for  frondentis 

§  25.  ^  GS,  (cornutam  umbram  L.  Sp.  ;  cornutarum 
umbram  Victorins ;  iacit  Scaliger),  for  cornua  taurum 
umbram  iaci. 

§  26.  ^  Scaliger,  for  curuamus  ac  {which  includes  the  last 
word  of  §  25).  *  Additions  by  Jordan.  ^  Laetus,  for 
camenarum.         *  Later  codd.,  for  quod  F. 

§  24.     «  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  inc.  inc.  220-221  Ribbeck'. 

§  25.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  inc.  inc.  222  Ribbeck'. 
*  Comu  and  curvus  are  not  connected  etymologically. 

§  26.     "  Ennius,  Ann.  2  Vahlen^.  *  Perhaps  of  Etruscan 

origin  ;  at  any  rate,  not  connected  with  canere  '  to  sing.' 
'  A  spelling  caused  by  association  with  carmen  and  Car- 




in.  24..  ...  it  is  clear  that  agresies  '  rural  ' 
sacrificial  victims  were  so  called  from  ager  '  field- 
land  '  ;  that  infulatae '  filleted  '  \-ictims  were  so  called, 
because  the  head-adornments  of  wool  which  are  put 
on  them,  are  infulae  '  fillets  '  :  therefore  then,  with 
reference  to  the  carrying  of  leafy  branches  and  flowers 
to  the  burial-place,  he  added  "  : 

Decked  not  with  wool,  but  with  a  hair-like  shock 
of  leaves. 

25.  The  horned  shadow  lures  the  bull  to  fight." 

It  is  clear  that  comttta  '  horned  '  is  said  from  comua 
'  horns  '  ;  cornua  is  said  from  curvor  '  curvature,' 
because  most  horns  are  curva  '  curved.'  ^ 

26.  Learn  that  we,  the  Camenae,  are  those  whom 

they  tell  of  as  Muses." 

Casmenae  *  is  the  early  form  of  the  name,  when  it 
originated,  and  it  is  so  A^-ritten  in  other  places  ;  the 
name  Carmenae  '^  is  derived  from  the  same  origin.  In 
many  words,  at  the  point  where  the  ancients  said  S, 
the  later  pronunciation  is  R,**  as  the  follo\\ing  in  the 
Hymn  of  the  Saltans  *  : 

menta  ;  though  no  etymological  connexion  with  them  exists. 
■*  The  well-known  phenomenon  of  rhotacism,  the  change  of 
intervocalic  S  to  R.  '  Fragg.  2-3,  pp.  332-335  Mauren- 
brecher  ;  page  1  Morel.  It  is  hazardous  in  the  extreme  to 
attempt  to  restore  and  interpret  the  text  of  the  Hymn.  These 
sentences  seem  to  invoke  Mars  not  as  God  of  War,  but  in  his 
old  Italic  capacity  of  God  of  Agriculture,  spoken  of  in  several 
functions.  It  was  the  view  of  L.  Spengel,  approved  by  A. 
Spengel,  that  this  verbatim  text  of  the  Hymn  was  an  inter- 
polation, and  that  foedesum  foederum  of  §  27  immediately 
followed  in  Carmine  Saliorum  sunt  haec. 



Cozevi  oftorieso.     Omnia   vero   ad   Patulc(ium) 

laneus  mm  es,  duonus  Cerus  es,  du(o>nus  lanus. 
Vew(i>es  po<tissimu>m  melios  eum  recum  .  .  .* 


27.  .  .  .  f(o>edesum  foederum,^  plusima  plu- 
rima,  meliosem  meliorem,  asenam  arenam,  ianitos 
ianitor,  Quare  e^  Casmena  Carmena,  (e>^  Carmena* 
R  extrito  Camena  factum.  Ab  eadem  voce  canite, 
pro  quo  in  Saliari  versu  scriptum  est  cante,  hoc 
versu  : 

Divum  em  pa'  cante,  divum  deo  supplicate.* 

28.  In  Carmine  Priami^  quod  est  : 
Veteres  Casmenas  cascam  rem  volo  profarier,^ 

*  F  has  :  Cozeulodori  eso.  Omnia  uero  adpatula  coemisse. 
ian  cusianes  duonus  ceruses,  dunus  ianusue  uet  pom  melios 
eum  recum.  This  is  here  emended  as  follows  :  Cozev'i  Havet ; 
oborieso  Kent;  Patulcium  Kent,  after  Bergk ;  commissei 
Kent;  laneus  G8.,  cf.  Festus,  103.  II  3/./  iam  es  Kent; 
duonus  Cerus  es,  duonus  lanus  Bergk ;  ueniet  F,  venies 
Kent ;  potissimum,  cf.  Festus,  205  all  M.  ^  At  this  point, 
the  remainder  of  the  line  and  the  next  four  lines  are  vacant  in 
F,  with  traces  of  writing  in  the  last  empty  line,  which  must 
have  given  the  data  for  this  statement,  found  in  II  and  a. 

§27.  ^  For  faederum.  ^  A.  Sp.  ;  ex  Ursinus ;  for  e 
(=est).  ^  Added  by  A.  Sp.  *  A.  Sp.,  for  carmina 
carmen.  *  Bergk,  for  empta.  *  Grotefend,  for  sup- 

§  28.  ^  At  this  point,  the  rest  of  the  page  (three  and  one- 
third  lines)  remains  vacant  in  F,  but  there  is  no  gap  in  the 
text.         ^  Scaliger,  for  profari  et. 

f  Cozevi,  voc.  of  Consivius  (epithet  of  Janus,  in  Macrobius, 
Sat.  i.  9.  15),  with  NS  developing  to  NTS  as  in  Umbrian, 
the  N  not  written  before  the  consonants  (cf.  Latin  cosol  for 
consul),  and  z  having  the  value  of  ts,  as  in  the  Umbrian 



O  Planter  God/  arise.  Everj-thing  indeed  have  I 
committed  unto  (thee  as)  the  Opener."  Now  art 
thou  the  Doorkeeper,  thou  art  the  Good  Creator, 
the  Good  God  of  Beginnings.  Thou'It  come  especi- 
ally, thou  the  superior  of  these  kings  *  .  .  . 


27.  .  .  .  (In  the  Hymn  of  the  Saltans  are  found 
such  old  forms  as)  Jbedesum  ior  foederum  '  of  treaties,' 
phisima  for  plurima  '  most,'  vieliosem  for  meliorem 
'  better,'  asenam  for  arenam  '  sand,'  ianitos  for  ianitor  " 
'  doorkeeper.'  Therefore  from  Casmena  came  Car- 
mena,  and  from  Carmena,  with  loss  of  the  R,  came 
Camena.^  From  the  same  radical  came  canite  '  sing 
ye,'  for  which  in  a  Salian  verse  "^  is  ^\Titten  cante,  and 
this  is  the  verse  : 

Sing  ye  to  the  Father  "^  of  the  Gods,  entreat  the  God 
of  Gods.' 

28.  In  The  Song  oj"  Priam  there  is  the  following  "  : 
I  wish  the  ancient  Muses  to  tell  a  story  old. 

alphabet.  "  Epithet  of  Janus,  in  Macrobius,  Sat.  i.  9.  15. 
*  The  god  is  addressed  as  more  powerful  than  all  earthly 
lords,  whether  kings  or  (perhaps)  priests.  The  gen.  plural 
eum,  equal  to  eorum.  is  elsewhere  attested.  '  The  vacant 
lines  in  the  model  copy  may  have  represented  more  of  the 
text  of  the  Hvmn,  too  illegible  to  copy. 

§  27.  "  Fragg.  4,  7,  20,  26,  27,  pages  335,  339,  347,  349 
Maurenbrecher.  Ianitos  is  an  incorrect  form,  since  the  word 
had  an  original  R  ;  but  all  the  other  words  have  R  from 
earlier  S.  "  Cf.  §  26,  note  6.  « Frag.  1,  page  331 
Maurenbrecher  ;  page  1  Morel.  ■*  Here  em  pa  stands  for 
in  patrem  ;  so  Th.  Bergk,  Zts.  f.  Altertujnswiss.  xiv.  138  = 
Kleine  Philol.  Schriften,  i.  505,  relying  on  Festus,  205  all  M., 
pa  pro  parte  (read  patre)  et  po  pro  potissimum  positum  est  in 
Saliari  Carmine.         '  Equal  to  '  father  of  the  gods.' 

§  28.     "  Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  29  Morel. 



primum  cascum  significat  vetus  ;  secundo  eius  origo 
SaMna,  quae  usque  radices  in  Oscam  linguam  egit. 
Cascum  vetus  esse  significat  Ennius  quod  ait  : 

Quam  Prisci  casci  populi  ^enuere'  Latini. 
Eo  magis  Manilius  quod  ait  : 

Cascum  duxisse  cascam  non  mirabile  est, 
Quoniam  cariosas*  conficiebat  nuptias. 

Item  ostendit  Papini  epigrammation,  quod  in  adole- 
scentem  fecerat  Cascam  : 

Ridiculum  est,  cum  te  Cascam  tiia  dicit  arnica,* 
Fili<a>*  Potoni,  sesquisenex'  puerum. 

Die  tu  illam*  pusam  :  sic  fiet  "  mutua*  muli  "  : 
Nam  vere  pusus  tu,  tua  amica  senex. 

29.  Idem  ostendit  quod  oppidum  vocatur  Casinum 
(hoc  enim  ab  Sabinis  orti  Samnites  tenuerunt)  et* 
nostri  etiam  nunc  Forum  Vetus  appellant.  Item 
significat^  in  Atellanis  aliquot  Pappum,  senem  quod 
Osci*  casnar  appellant. 

'  Columna,  for  genuere.  *  L.  Sp.  and  Lachmann,  for 
carioras.  *  Laetus,  B,  for  amici.  *  Popma,  for  fili. 
'  Turnebus,  for  potonis  es  qui  senex.  *  Turnebus,  for  dicit 
pusum  puellam.         *  Pantagathxis,  for  mutuam. 

§  29.  ^  L.  Sp.  deleted  nunc  after  et.  *  For  significant. 
^  For  ostii. 

*  The  native  Latin  word  was  cdnus  '  grey-haired,'  from 
casnos,  with  the  same  root  as  in  cascus,  but  a  different  suffix. 
'^  Sabine  was  not  a  dialect  of  Oscan,  but  stood  on  an  equal 
footing  with  it.  "^  Ann.  24  Vahlen^;  R.O.L.  i.  12-13 
VVarmington.  *  Frag.     Poet.     Lat.,     page     52     Morel. 

f  Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  42  Morel ;  the  poet's  name  is 
doubtful :  Priscian,  ii.  90.  2  K.,  calls  him  Pomponius,  and 
Bergk,  Opusc.  i.  88,  proposes  Pompilius.  "  Casca  was 
a  male  cognomen  in  the  Servilian  gens  only ;  for  this  reason 
Potonius  is  rather  to  be  taken  as  a  jesting  family  name  of 
the  amica.         "  Pitstim  ptieUam  (see  crit.  note)  was  origin- 



First,  cascum  means  '  old  '  ;  secondly,  it  has  its  origin 
from  the  Sabine  language,*  which  ran  its  roots  back 
into  Oscan.''  That  cascum  is  '  old,'  is  indicated  by  the 
phrase  of  Ennius  **  : 

Land  that  the  Early  Latins  then  held,  the  long-ago 

It  is  even  better  shown  in  Manilius's  utterance  *  : 

That  Whitehead  married  Oldie  is  surely  no  surprise  : 
The  marriage,  when  he  made  it,  was  aged  and  decayed. 

It  is  sho^vn  likewise  in  the  epigram  of  Papinius,^  which 
he  made  with  reference  to  the  youth  Casca  : 

Funny  it  is,  when  your  mistress  tenderly  calls  you  her 
"  Casca  "  '  : 
Daughter  of  Rummy  she,  old  and  a  half — you  a  boy. 
Call  her  your  "  laddie  "  *  ;   for  thus  there  will  be  the 
mule's  trade  of  favours  •  : 
You're  but  a  lad,  to  be  sure  ;  Oldie's  the  name  for 
your  girl. 

29.  The  same  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  there  is  a 
town  named  Casinum,"  which  was  inhabited  by  the 
Samnites,  who  originated  from  the  Sabines,*  and  we 
Romans  even  now  call  it  Old  Market.  Likewise  in 
several  Atellan  farces  "  the  word  denotes  Pappus,  an 
old  man's  character,  because  the  Oscans  call  an  old 
man  casnar. 

ally  a  marginal  gloss  to  piisam,  since  pusus  had  no  normal 
feminine  form ;  c/.  French  la  gar^onne.  But  the  gloss 
crept  into  the  text.  '  Proverbial  phrase,  equal  to  '  tit  for 
tat,'  or  '  an  eye  for  an  eye.' 

§  29.  "  A  town  of  southeastern  Latium,  on  the  borders  of 
Samnium.  *  The  Samnites  and  the  Sabines  were  separate 
peoples,  but  their  names  are  etymologically  related,  and  so 
presumably  were  the  two  peoples.  '  Com.  Rom.  Frag, 
inc.  nom.  vii.  p.  334  Ribbeck'  ;  these  farces  were  named 
from  Atella,  an  Oscan  town  in  Campania  a  few  miles  north 
of  Naples. 



30.  Apud  Lucilium  : 

Quid  tibi  ego  ambages  Ambiv<i>^  scribere  coner  ? 

Profectum  a  verbo  ambe,  quod  inest  in  ambitu  et 

31.  Apud  Valerium  Soranum  : 

Vetus  adagio  est,  O  Publi^  Scipio, 
quod  verbum  usque  eo  evanuit,  ut  Graecum  pro  eo 
positum  magis  sit  apertum  :    nam  id(em>  est"  quod 
irapoLfiiav  voeant  Graeci,  ut  est  : 

Auribus  lupiim  teneo  ; 
Canis  caninam  non  est. 

Adagio  est  littera  commutata  a<m>bagio,'  dicta  ab 
eo  quod  ambit  orationem,  neque  in  aliqua  una  re 
consistit  sola.  <Amb)agio*  dicta  ut  a<m>6ustum,* 
quo(d)*  circum  ustum  est,  ut  ambegna'  bos  apud 
augures,  quam  circum  aliae  hostiae  constituuntur. 

32.  Cum  tria  sint  coniuncta  in  origine  verborum 
quae  sint  animadvertenda,  a  quo  sit  impositum  et  in 
quo  et  quid,  saepe  non  minus  de  tertio  quam  de 
primo  dubitatur,  ut  in  hoc,  utrum  primum  una  canis 

§  30.     ^  Laetus,  for  ambiu. 

§  31.  ^  Abbreviated  to  P  in  F.  ^  idem  est  Mue.  ;  idem 
early  edd.,  with  later  codd. ;  for  id  est  F.  '  Turnebus, 
/orabagio.  *  L.  Sp.  ;  adagio  Laetus  ;  for  agio.  ^  Avg., 
for  adustum.  *  Laetus,  M,  for  quo.  '  Turnebus,  with 
Festus,  4.  16  J/., /or  ambiegna. 

§  30.  »  1281  Marx.  *  If  the  text  is  correctly  restored, 
this  is  L.  Ambivius  Turpio,  famous  stage  director  and  actor 
of  Caecilius  Statius  and  of  Terence  ;  Lucilius  puns  on  his 
name.  '  Equal  to  Greek  oni<j)i,  and  found  in  Latin  only 

as  a  prefix. 

§  31.  "A  little-known  writer  of  the  second  century  b.c.  ; 
Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  40  Morel.         *  Adagio,  gen.  -onis ;  not 



30.  In  Lucilius  °  : 

VChj  should  I  try  to  tell  to  you  Roundway's  *  round- 
about speeches  ? 

The  word  ambages  '  circumlocutions  '  comes  from  the 
word  ambe  '^ '  round  about,'  which  is  present  in  ambitus 
'  circuit  '  and  in  ambitiosus  '  going  around  (for  votes), 

31.  In  ^'ale^ius  of  Sora  "  is  the  following  : 

It  is  an  old  adagio,^  Publius  Scipio. 

This  word  has  gone  out  of  use  to  such  a  point  that  the 
Greek  word  put  for  it  is  more  easily  understood  :  for 
it  is  the  same  as  that  which  the  Greeks  call  rrapoifiia 
'  proverb,'  as  for  example  : 

I'm  holding  a  wolf  by  the  ears," 
Dog  doesn't  eat  dog-flesh. 

Now  adagio  ^  is  only  ambagio  >vith  a  letter  changed, 
which  is  said  because  it  ambit  '  goes  around  '  the  dis- 
course and  does  not  stop  at  some  one  thing  only.* 
Ambagio  resembles  ambustum,  which  is  '  burnt  around,' 
and  an  ambegna  cow  f  in  the  augural  speech,^  which  is 
a  cow  around  which  other  victims  are  arranged. 

32.  Whereas  there  are  three  things  combined 
which  must  be  observed  in  the  origin  of  words,  namelv 
from  what  the  word  is  applied,  and  to  what,  and  what 
it  is,  often  there  is  doubt  about  the  third  no  less  than 
about  the  first,  as  in  this  case,  whether  the  word 
for  dog  in  the  singular  was  at  first  canis  or  canes  : 

the  more  usual  adagium.  '  Terence,  Phor.  506,  etc. 
"*  Really  from  ad  '  thereto '  and  the  root  of  aio  '  I  say.' 
'  That  Is,  it  applies  also  to  other  things  than  that  which  it 
specifically  mentions.  '  '  Having  a  lamb  {agna)  on  each 
side.'        "  Page  17  Regell. 



aut  canes  sit^  appellata  :  dicta  enim  apud  veteres  una 
canes.     Itaque  Ennius  scribit  : 

Tantidem  quasi  feta*  canes  sine  dentibus  latrat. 

Lucilius  : 

Nequam  et  magnus  homo,  laniorum  immanis'  canes  ut. 

Impositio  unius  debuit  esse  canis,  plurium  canes  ;  sed 
neque  Ennius  consuetudinem  illam  sequens  repre- 
hendendus,  nee  is  qui  nunc  dicit  : 

Canis  canina<ni>*  non  est. 

Sed  canes  quod  latratu'^  signum  dant,  ut  signa  canunt, 
canes  appellatae,  et  quod  ea  voce  indicant  noctu  quae 
latent,  latratus  appellatus. 

33.  Sic  dictum  a  quibusdam  ut  una  canes,  una 
trabes  : 

<Trabes)^  remis  rostrata  per  altum. 
Ennius  : 

Utinam  ne  in  nemore  P«lio*  securibus 
Caesa  accidisset  abiegna  ad  terram  trabes, 

cuius  verbi  singularis  casus  rectM**  correptus*  ac  facta 

§  32.  ^  For  sic.  ^  For  facta.  '  Auff.,  with  B,  for 
immanes.  *  Laet us,  for  ca,n\na..  ^  M,  V,  p,  Laetus,  for 

§  33.  ^  Added  by  Colnmna.  ^  For  polio.  '  Sciop., 
for  recte.         *  Laetus,  for  correctus. 

§32.  "Ann.  528  Vahlen^;  R.O.L.  i.  432-433  Warming- 
ton.  ^  Her  bark  is  worse  than  her  bite,  as  a  pregnant 
bitch  was  proverbially  harmless  ;  cf.  Plautus,  Most.  852, 
Tarn  placidast   {ilia   canis)    quam  feta   quaevis.         '  1221 



for  in  the  older  writers  the  expression  is  one  canes. 
Therefore  Ennius  writes  the  following,  using  canes  "  : 

Barks  just  as  loud  as  a  pregnant  bitch  :  but  she's 

Lucilius  also  uses  canes  '^  : 

Worthless  man  and  huge,  like  the  monstrous  dog 
of  the  butchers. 

When  applied  to  one,  the  word  should  have  been 
cams,  and  when  applied  to  several  it  should  have  been 
canes  ;  but  Ennius  ought  not  to  be  blamed  for  follow- 
ing the  earlier  custom,  nor  should  he  who  now  says  : 

Canis  '  dog  '  doesn't  eat  dog-flesh. 

But  because  dogs  by  their  barking  give  the  signal,  as 
it  were,  canunt  '  sound  '  the  signals,  they  are  called 
canes ;  and  because  by  this  noise  they  make  known 
the  things  which  latent '  are  hidden  '  in  the  night,  their 
barking  is  called  latratus.^ 

33.     As  some  have  said  canes  in  the  singular,  so 
others  have  said  trabes  '  beam,  ship  '  in  the  singular  : 

The  beaked  trabes  is  driven  by  oars  through  the  waters." 

Ennius  used  trabes  in  the  following  *  : 

I  would  the  trabes  of  the  fir-tree  ne'er  had  fall'n 
To  earth,  in  Pelion's  forest,  by  the  axes  cut ! 

But  now  the  nominative  singular  of  this  word  has  lost 
a  vowel  and  become  trabs. 

Marx.  **  Cams  is  not  etymologically  connected  with 
canere,  nor  latratus  with  latere. 

§33.     «Ennius,    Ann.    616   Vahlen";    R.O.L.  i.  458-459 
Warmington.  *  Medea    Exul,    Trag.    Rom.    Frag.    205- 

206  Ribbeck^  ;  R.O.L.  i.  312-313  Warmington:  that  is, 
"  would  that  the  ship  Argo  had  never  been  built." 



34.  In  Medo  : 

Caelitum  Camilla,  expectata  advenis  :  salve,  Aospita. 
Camilla(m>i  qui  glos<s>emata  interpretati  dixerunt 
administram  ;  addi  oportet,  in  his  quae  occultiora  : 
itaque  dicitur  nuptiis  camillus^  qui  cumerum*  fert,  in 
quo  quid  sit,  in  ministerio  plerique  extrinsecus 
ne(s>cmn<.*  Hinc  Casmilus^  nominatur  Samo- 
threce<s)  m2/steri(i>s  dius  quidam  amminister  diis 
magnis.  Verbum  esse  Graecum  arbitror,  quod  apud 
Callimachum  in  poematibus  eius  inveni. 

35.  Apud  En<n>i<u>mi  : 

Subulo  quondam  marinas  propter  astabat  plagas.^ 
Subulo  dictus,  quod  ita  dicunt  tibieines  Tusei  :   quo- 
circa  radices  eius  in  Etr<ur)ia,  non  Latio  quaerundae.^ 

36.       Versibus  quo(s>^  olim  Fauni^  vatesque  canebant. 

Fauni  dei  Latinorum,  ita  ut  et  Faunus  et  Fauna  sit  ; 
hos  versibus  quos  vocant  Saturnios  in  silvestribus 
locis  traditum  est  solitos  fari  (futura,^  a>*  quo  fando 

§  34.     ^  Mue.,  for  Camilla.         *  Turnebus,  for  scamillus. 

*  Turnebus,  for  quicum  merum.  *  Turnebus,  for  nectunc. 
^"  For  casmillus. 

§  35.  ^  Laetus,  for  enim.  ^  Mue.,  from  Fest.  309  a  5 
M.,for  aquas.         '  Victor ius,  for  querunda  e. 

§36.  ^  Aldus,  for  quo.  ^  Laetus  deleted  et  after  Fauni, 
following  Cicero,  Div.  i.  50.  114,  Brut.  18.  71,  Orator,  51.  171. 

*  Added  by  Mue.,  from  Serv.  Dan.  in  Georg.  i.  1 1.  *  Added 
by  Aug. 

§  34.  "  Pacuvius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  2S2  Ribbeck^ ; 
B.O.L.   ii.   256-257   Warmington.  "Page   112   Funaioli. 

"  Probably  certain  belongings  of  the  bride.  "*  Identified 
with  Hermes,  the  messenger  of  the  gods,  according  to  Ma- 
crobius.  Sat.  iii.  8.  6.  '  More    probably  Etruscan   than 

Greek :  there  were  Etruscans  on  Lemnos,  not  far  from 
Samothrace,  which  may  explain  the  use  of  the  similar  word 



34.  In  the  Medus  <»  : 

Long  awaited,  Camilla  of  the  gods,  thou  comest ; 
guest,  all  hail  ! 

A  Camilla,  according  to  those  who  have  interpreted  ^ 
difficult  words,  is  a  handmaid  assistant  ;  one  ought  to 
add,  in  matters  of  a  more  secret  nature  :  therefore  at 
a  marriage  he  is  called  a  camillus  who  carries  the  box 
the  contents  of  which  ''  are  unknown  to  most  of  the 
uninitiated  persons  who  perform  the  service.  From 
this,  the  name  Casmilus  is  given,  in  the  Samothracian 
mysteries,  to  a  certain  divine  personage  who  attends 
upon  the  Great  Gods.**  The  word,  I  think,  is  Greek,* 
because  I  have  found  it  in  the  poems  of  Callimachus.^ 

35.  In  Ennius  there  is  the  verse  "  : 

Once  a  subulo  was  standing  by  the  stretches  of  the  sea. 

Suhulo  is  said,  because  that  is  the  name  which  the 
Etruscans  give  to  pipers  ;  therefore  the  roots  of  the 
word  are  to  be  sought  in  Etruria,  not  in  Latium. 

36.  With  those  verses  which  once  the  Fauns  used  to 

sing,  and  the  poets." 

Fauni  '  Fauns  '  are  divinities  of  the  Latins,  of  both 
sexes,  so  that  there  are  both  Faunus  and  Fauna  ;  the 
story  has  come  down  that  they,  in  the  so-called 
Saturnian  verses,  were  accustomed  in  well-wooded 
spots _/fln  '  to  speak  '  those  events  that  were  to  come, 
from  which  speaking  they  were  called  Fauni, ^     As  for 

in  the  mysteries  celebrated  there.  '  Frag.  409  Schneider  ; 
Callimachus  had  occasion  to  mention  the  Samothracian  rites. 

§  35.  "  Sat.  Qo  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  388-389  Warmington; 
perhaps  referring  to  the  story  in  Herodotus,  i.  141. 

§36.  "Ennius,  Ann.  314  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  82-83 
Warmington;  '  sing  '  in  the  sense  of '  prophesy.'  ^  Wrong 

etymologies,  both  for  Faunus  and  for  rates. 



Faunos  dictos.  Antiqu?^  poetas  vates  appellabant  a 
versibus  viendis,  ut  <de>^  poematis  cum  scribam 

37.  Corpore  Tartarino  prognata  Paluda  virago. 
Tartarino  dict?<(m>i  a  Tartaro.  Plato  in  IIII  de 
fluminibus  apud  inferos  quae  sint  in  his  unum  Tar- 
tarum  appellat :  quare  Tartari  origo  Graeca.  Paluda 
a  paludamentis.  Haec  insignia  atque  ornamenta 
militaria  :  ideo  ad  bellum  cum  exit  imperatoi*  ac 
lictores  mutarunt  vestem  et  signa  incinuerunt,  palu- 
datus  dicitur  proficisci  ;  quae  propter  quod  con- 
spiciuntur  qui  ea  habent  ac  fiunt  palam,  paludamenta 

38.  Plautus  : 

Epeum  fumificum,  qui  legioni  nostrae  habet 
Coctum  cibum. 

Epeum  fumificum  cocum,  ab  Epeo  illo  qui  dicitur  ad 
Troiam  fecisse  Equum  Troianum  et  Argivis  cibum 

39.  Apud  Naevium  : 

Atque^  prius  pariet         hicusta^  Lucam  bovem. 

Luca  bos  elepAans  ;    cur  ita  sit  dicta,  duobus  modis 

*  Canal  and  L.  Sp.,  for  antiques.  *  Added  by  L.  Sp.,  cf. 
vi.  52. 

§  37.     ^  Laetus,  for  dicta. 

§  39.     ^  For  at  quae.         ^  For  lucustam. 

"  This  applies  both  to  words  and  to  music.  ■*  Page  213 

§37.  "Ennius,  Ann.  521  Vahlen";  R.O.L.  i.  96-97 
Warmington ;  referring  to  Discordia,  an  incarnation  of  chaos. 
^  Phaedo,  112-113;  in  Thrasyllus'  numbering  of  Plato's 
dialogues,  the  Phaedo  was  the  fourth  in  the  first  tetralogy. 
But  in  Plato's  account,  Tartarus  is  not  a  river  of  Hades,  but 
the  abyss  beneath,  into  which  all  the  rivers  of  Hades  empty. 
"  Of  unknown  etymology  :  not  from  palam. 



vales  *  poets,'  the  old  writers  used  to  give  this  name  to 
poets  from  viere  '  to  plait  *  "  verses,  as  I  shall  show 
when  I  write  about  poems. ** 

37.  Born  of  a  Tartarine  body,  the  warrior  maiden 


Tartarinum  '  Tartarine  '  is  derived  from  Tartarus. 
Plato  in  his  Fourth  Dialogue,^  speaking  of  the  rivers 
which  are  in  the  world  of  the  dead,  gives  Tartarus  as 
the  name  of  one  of  them  ;  therefore  the  origin  of 
Tartarus  is  Greek.  Paluda  '^  is  from  paludamenta, 
which  are  distinguishing  garments  and  adornments 
in  the  army  ;  therefore  when  the  general  goes  forth 
to  war  and  the  lictors  have  changed  their  garb  and 
have  sounded  the  signals,  he  is  said  to  set  forth  palu- 
datus  '  wearing  the  paliidamentum.'  The  reason  why 
these  garments  are  called  paludamenta  is  that  those 
who  wear  them  are  on  account  of  them  conspicuous 
and  are  made  palam  '  plainly  '  visible. 

38.  Plautus  has  this  <» : 

Epeus  the  maker  of  smoke,  who  for  our  army  gets 
The  well-cooked  food. 

Epeus  fumificus  '  the  smoke-maker  '  was  a  cook, 
named  from  that  Epeus  who  is  said  to  have  made  the 
Trojan  Horse  at  Troy  and  to  have  looked  after  the 
food  of  the  Greeks.'' 

39.  In  Naevius  is  the  verse  "  : 

And  sooner  will  a  lobster  give  birth  to  a  Luca  bos. 
Luca  bos  is  an  elephant  ;  why  it  is  thus  called,  I  have 

§  38.  "  Fab.  inc.  frag.  1  Ritschl.  *  Epeus  is  not  else- 
where said  to  have  been  a  cook,  though  he  is  said  to  have 
furnished  the  Atridae  with  their  water  supply. 

§  39.  "  Frag.  Poet.  Txit.,  page  38  Morel ;  R.O.L.  li.  72-73 

VOL.  I  X  305 


inveni  scriptum.  Nam  et  in  Cornelii  Commentario 
erat  ab  Lib^cis  Lucas,  et  in  Vergilij'  ab  Lucanis 
Lucas  ;  ab  eo  quod  nostri,  cum  maximam  quadri- 
pedem  quam  ipsi  haberent  vocarent  bovem  et  in 
Lucanis  Pyrr^i  bello  primum  vidissent  apud  hostis 
elephantos,  id  est*  item  quadripedes  cornutas  (nam 
quos  dentes  multi  dicunt  sunt  cornua),  Lucanam 
bovem  quod  putabant,  Lucam  bovem  appellasse<nt>.* 

40.  Si  ab  Libya  dictae  essent  Lucae,  fortasse  an 
pantherae  quoque  et  leones  non  Africae  bestiae 
dicerentur,  sed  Lucae  ;  neque  ursi  potius  Lucani 
quam  Luci.  Quare  ego^  arbitror  potius  Lucas  ab 
luce,  quod  longe  relucebant  propter  inauratos  regios 
clupeos,  quibus  eorum  tum  ornatae  erant  turres. 

41.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Orator  sine  pace  redit  regique  refert  rem. 
Orator  dictus  ab  oratione  :   qui  enim  verba^  haberet 
publice  adversus  eum  quo  legabatur,*  ab  oratione 
orator  dictus  ;    cum  res  maior  erat  (act>ion^,^  lege- 

^  For  uirgilius.  *  Auff.  deleted  non  after  est.  ^  G,  H, 
Mue.,  for  appellasse. 

§  40.     1  G,  U,  M,  for  ergo. 

§41.  ^  Sciop.  deleted  orationum  after  verba.  ^  Scali- 
ger,  for  legebatur.  *  GS.  (maior  erat  Turn.),  for  maiore 

''  Cf.  v.  150.  "  An  otherwise  unknown  author;  page  106 

FunaioH.  ■*  Varro  is  wrong  ;  elephants'  tusks  are  teeth. 
'  Apparently  correct ;  Jjucanus  was  in  Oscan  Lucans,  pro- 
nounced Lucas  by  the  Romans,  to  which  a  feminine  form 
Luca  was  made. 



found  set  forth  by  the  authors  in  two  ways.  For  in 
the  Commentary  of  Cornelius  *  was  the  statement  that 
Lucas  is  from  Lihyci '  the  Libyans,'  and  in  that  of  \'er- 
gilius,*^  that  Lucas  was  from  Lucani '  the  Lucanians  '  : 
from  the  fact  that  our  compatriots  used  to  call  the 
largest  quadruped  that  they  themselves  had,  a  bos 
'  cow  '  ;  and  so,  when  among  the  Lucanians,  in  the 
war  with  Pyrrhus,  they  first  saw  elephants  in  the 
ranks  of  the  enemy — that  is,  horned  quadrupeds  like- 
wise (for  what  many  call  teeth  are  really  horns  **), 
they  called  the  animal  a  Luca  bos,  because  they 
thought  it  a  Lucana  bos  '  Lucanian  cow.'  * 

40.  If  the  Lucae  botes  were  really  named  from 
Libya,  quite  probably  panthers  also  and  lions  would 
be  called  not  African  beasts,  but  Lucae  '  Lucan  ' ;  and 
bears  are  no  more  Lucanian  than  Lucan,  though  they 
are  called  Lucanian.  Therefore  I  rather  think  that 
Lucas  is  from  lux  '  light, '  "  because  the  elephants 
glistened  afar  on  account  of  the  gilded  royal  shields, 
with  which  their  towers  **  at  that  time  were  adorned. 

41.  In  Ennius  there  is  this  "  : 

Back  without  peace  comes  th'  orator,  hands  back  to 

his  ruler  the  business. 

Orator  '  spokesman  '  is  said  from  oratio  '  speech  ' ;  for 
he  who  was  to  present  a  verbal  plea  before  the  one  to 
whom  *  he  was  sent  as  envoy,  was  called  an  orator, 
from  oratio.     WTien  the  business  was  of  greater  im- 

§  40.  »  See  §  39,  note  e.  '  War-towers  on  the  backs  of 
the  elephants,  too  high  to  be  called  merely  howdahs. 

§  41.  "  Ann.  207  Vahlen* ;  li.O.L.  i.  72-73  Warmington ; 
referring  to  an  embassy  to  another  ruler,  making  demands 
the  refusal  of  which  will  result  in  a  declaration  of  war, 
c/.  Livy,  i.  22.  *  Quo  '  whither  '  is  here  used  with  a 
masculine  antecedent. 



bantur  potissimum  qui  causam  commodiss(im)e  orare 
poterant.     Itaque  Ennius  ait  : 

Oratores  doctiloqui. 

42.  Apud  Ennium  : 

0111  respondit  suavis  sonus  Eg(e>riai.^ 
OUi  valet  dictum  illi  ab  olla  et  olio,  quod  alterum 
comitiis  cum  recitatur  a  praecone  dicitur  olla  centuria, 
non  ilia  ;  alterum  apparet  in  funeribus  indictivis,  quo 

Ollus  leto^  datus  est, 
quod  Graecus  dicit  ^I'lOr],  id  est  oblivioni. 

43.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Mensas  constituit  idemque  ancilia  (primus.^ 
Ancilia)^  dicta  ab  ambecisu,  quod  ea  arma  ab  utraque 
parte  ut  TAracum  incisa. 

44.  Libaque/  fictores,  Argeos  et  tutulatos. 
Liba,  quod  libandi  causa  fiunt.     Fictores  dicti  a  fin- 
gendis  libis.     Argei  ab  Argis  ;     Argei  fiunt  e  scir- 
peis,  simulacra  hominum  XX^^II  ;    ea  quotannis  de 

§  42.     ^  Victorius,  for  egria  i.         ^  For  laeto. 
§  43.     ^  Added  by  Scaliger.         ^  Added  by  B,  Laetus. 
§  44.     ^  Victorius,  for  incisa  saliba  quae  {which  includes 
the  end  of  §  43). 

'  Ann.  582  Vahlen^;    R.O.L.  i.  438-439  Warmington. 

§  42.  »  Ann.  1 19  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  42-43  Warmington ; 
a  conversation  between  Numa  Pompilius  and  his  adviser, 
the  nymph  Egeria.  *  Fest.  254  a  34  M.  inserts  Quiris 
in  this  formula  after  ollus.  "Oi  uncertain  etymology, 
but  not  from  the  Greek. 

§  43.  "  Ann.  120  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  42-43  Warmington ; 
enumerating  the  institutions  of  Numa  Pompilius.  *  Of 
the  priests  ;  cf.  Livy,  i.  20.         "  Cf.  vi.  22. 

§44.     «Ennius,    Ann.    121    Vahlen^ ;    R.O.L.    i.    42-43 



port,  those  were  selected  for  the  pleading  who  could 
plead  the  case  most  skilfully.  Therefore  Ennius 
says  "  : 

Spokesmen,  learnedly  speaking. 

42.  In  Ennius  is  this  "  : 

Olli  answered  Egeria's  voice,  speaking  softly  and  sweetly. 

Olli  '  to  him  '  is  the  same  as  illi,  dative  to  feminine  olla 
and  to  masculine  ollus.  The  one  of  these  is  said  by 
the  herald  when  he  announces  at  the  elections  "  Olla 
'  that  '  century,"  and  not  ilia.  The  other  is  heard  in 
the  case  of  funerals  of  which  announcement  is  made, 
wherein  is  said 

Ollus  ^  '  that  man  '  has  been  given  to  letum  '  '  death,' 
which  the  Greek  calls  Xrjdi],  that  is,  oblivion. 

43.  In  Ennius  this  verse  is  found  "  : 

Banquets  ^  he  first  did  establish,  and  likewise  the 
shields  "  that  are  holy 

The  ancilia  '  shields  '  were  named  from  their  ambe- 
cisus  '  incision  on  both  sides,'  because  these  arms 
were  incised  at  right  and  left  like  those  of  the 

44.  Cakes  and  their  bakers,  Argei  and  priests  with 

conical  topknots." 

Liba  '  cakes,'  so  named  because  they  are  made 
libare  '  to  offer  '  to  the  gods.^  Ficiores  '  bakers  '  were 
so  called  irom  fingere  '  to  shape  '  the  liba.  Argei  from 
the  city  Argos  '^ :  the  Argei  are  made  of  rushes,  human 
figures  twenty-seven  "*  in  number  ;    these  are  each 

Warmington;    continuing  the  list  of   Numa's   institutions. 

*"  Libare  is  derived  from  liba  !  '  Etymology  of  Argei  and 

of  tutulus  quite  uncertain.  "*  On  the  number,  see  v.  45, 
note  a. 



Ponte  Sublicio  a  sacerdotibus  publice  deici^  solent  in 
Tiberim.  Tutulati  dicti  hi,  qui  in  sacris  in  capitibus 
habere  solent  ut  metam  ;  id  tutulus  appellatus  ab  eo 
quod  matres  familias  crines  convolutos  ad  vertieem 
capitis  quos  habent  v/t<ta>^  velatos*  dicebantur  tutuli, 
sive  ab  eo  quod  id  tuendi  causa  capilli  fiebat,  sive  ab 
eo  quod  altissimum  in  urbe  quod  est,  Arcs,*  tutis- 
simum  vocatur. 

45.  Eundem  Pompilium  ait  fecisse  flamines,  qui 
cum  omnes  sunt  a  singulis  deis  cognominati,  in  qui- 
busdam  apparent  €ti'/x«,  ut  cur  sit  Martialis  et  Quiri- 
nalis  ;  sunt  in  quibus  flaminum  cognominibus  latent 
origines,  ut  in  his  qui  sunt  versibus  plerique  : 

Volturnalem,  Palatualem,  Furinalem, 
FloraIemqu«^  Falacrem  et  Pomonalem  fecit 
Hie  idem, 

quae  o<b>scura  sunt  ;  eorum  origo  Volturnus,  diva 
Palatua,  Furrina,  Flora,  Falacer  pater,  Pomona." 

46.  Apud  Ennium  : 

lam  cata  signa  ferae^  sonitum  dare  voce  parabant. 
Cata  acuta  :   hoc  enim  verbo  dicunt  SaMni  :  quare 
Catus  ^lelius  Sextus 

*  RkoL,    for    duci.         *  Mue.  ;     vittis    Popma ;     for    iiti. 

*  Laetus,  for  velatas.         *  For  ares. 

§  45.  ^  Mue.,  for  floralem  qui.  "  Turnebus,  for  porno- 
rum  nam. 

§  46.     ^  So  F ;  but  fera  {agreeing  with  voce)  Miie. 

*  See  §  44  note  c. 

§45.  "Ennius,  Ann.  122-124  Vahlen";  R.O.L.  i.  44-45 
Warmington.         *  The  protecting  spirit  of  the  Palatine. 

§46.  "Ann.  459  Vahlen";  R.O.L.  1.  182-183  Warming- 
ton.         "Ennius,  Ann.  331   Vahlen" ;    R.O.L.  i.    120-121 



year  thro"wTi  into  the  Tiber  from  the  Bridge-on-Piles, 
by  the  priests,  acting  on  behalf  of  the  state.  These 
are  called  tuhdati  '  provided  ^vith  tutuli,'  since  they  at 
the  sacrifices  are  accustomed  to  have  on  their  heads 
something  like  a  conical  marker  ;  this  is  called  a 
tutulus  from  the  fact  "  that  the  t^\•isted  locks  of  hair 
which  the  matrons  wear  on  the  tops  of  their  heads 
MTapped  Anth  a  woollen  band,  used  to  be  called  tutuli. 
whether  named  from  the  fact  that  this  was  done  for 
the  purpose  of  tueri  '  protecting  '  the  hair,  or  because 
that  which  is  highest  in  the  city,  namelv  the  Citadel, 
was  called  tutissimum  '  safest.' 

45.  He  says  "  that  this  same  Pompilius  created 
the  flamens  or  special  priests,  every  one  of  whom  gets 
a  distinguishing  name  from  one  special  god  :  in  cer- 
tain cases  the  sources  are  clear,  for  example,  why  one 
is  called  Martial  and  another  Quirinal  ;  but  there  are 
others  who  have  titles  of  quite  hidden  origin,  as  most 
of  those  in  these  verses  : 

The  Volturnal,  Palatual,  the  Furinal,  and  Floral, 
Falacrine  and  Pomonal  this  ruler  likewise  created  ; 

and  these  are  obscure.  Their  origins  are  \'olturnus, 
the  di\ine  Palatua,*  Furrina,  Flora,  Father  Falacer, 

46.  In  Ennius  is  this  verse  "  : 

Now  the  beasts  were  about  to  give  cry,  their  shrill-toned 

In  this,  cata  '  shrill-toned  '  is  acuta  '  sharp  or  pointed,' 
for  the  Sabines  use  the  word  in  this  meaning  ;  there- 

Keen  Aelius  Sextus  ' 

Warmington ;  Sextus  Aelius  Paetus,  consul  198,  censor 
194,  a  distinguished  writer  on  Roman  law. 



non,  ut  aiunt,  sapiens,  sed  acutus,  et  quod  est  : 

Tunc  c<o>epit  memorare  simul  cata^  dicta, 
accipienda  acuta  dicta. 

47.  Apud  Lucilium  : 

Quid  est  ?^     Thynno  capto  co6ium^  excludunt  foras, 


Occidunt,  Lupe,  saperdoe  te^  et  iura  siluri 

Sumere  te  atque  amian. 

Piscium  nomina  sunt  eorumque  in  Graecia  origo. 

48.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Quae  cava  corpore  caeruleo  <c>ortina  receptat.^ 
Cava  cortina  dicta,  quod  est  inter  terram  et  caelum 
ad  similitudinem  cortinae  Apollinis  ;  ea  a  corde,  quod 
inde  sortes  primae  existimatae. 

49.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Quin  inde  invitis  sumpserwnt^  perduellibus. 

"  Bergk  filled  out  the  verse  by  reading  simul  stulta  et  cata , 
Vahlen,  by  proposing  simul  lacrimans  cata. 

§  47.     ^  L.    Sp.,    for    quidem.  ^  Mue.,    for    corium. 

'  Turnebus,  for  lupes  aper  de  te. 

§  48.  ^  Mue.  {following  Turnebus  in  cava  and  cortina 
receptat,  and  Scaliger  in  deleting  in  and  caelo;  he  himself 
deleted  que  a7id  transposed  corpore  cava),  for  quaeque  in 
corpore  causa  ceruleo  caelo  orta  nare  ceptat. 

§  49.     ^  M,  Laettis,  for  sumpserint. 

«Page  115  Funaioli.  <*  Ennius,  Ann.  529  Vahlen"; 
R.O.L.  i.  458-459  Warmington. 

§  47.  »  Respectively  938,  54,  1304  Marx.  "  Lucilius 
puns  on  iura,  '  sauces '  and  '  rights,  justice,'  and  on  Lupe,  a 
man's  name  and  also  a  kind  of  fish.  "  Respectively  Ovwos 
'  tunny,'  called  horse-mackerel  and  tuna  in  America  ;  kwBios 
'  sand-goby,'  a  worthless  fish  ;  aa-rreph-qs,  perhaps  '  salted 
perch,'  the  word  coming  from  the  region  of  Pontus  ;  aiXovpos 



does  not  mean  '  sage,'  as  they  say,''  but '  sharp  ' ;  and 
in  the  verse  •* 

Then  he  began  to  say  at  the  same  time  words  that 
were  cata, 

the  cata  words  must  be  understood  as  sharp  or 

4-7.     In  LuciHus  are  the  following  °  : 

What  then  ?     A  tunny  caught,  they  throw  the 
gobv  out. 

Sauces  of  salted  perch  and  of  catfish  are  killing 
you.  Lupus.' 

That  you  take  a  .  .  .  and  a  scomber. 

These  words  are  names  of  fishes  ;  they  originated  in 
Greece. "^ 

48.     In  Ennius  we  find  "  : 

What  the  hollow  caldron  takes  back  in  its  sky- 
bluish  belly. 

Cava  cortina  '  hollow  caldron  '  is  thus  said  because 
that  which  is  between  earth  and  sky  is  somewhat  in 
the  shape  of  Apollo's  tripod-caldron  *  ;  cortina  is  de- 
rived from  cor  '  heart,'  because  it  is  from  this  caldron 
that  the  first  fortune-telling  lots  are  believed  to  have 
been  taken. 

49-     In  Ennius  we  find  "  : 

Nay  even,  they  carried  them  off  from  there  despite 
the  foes. 

'  sheatfish,'  a  large  river-fish  of  the  catfish  type  ;  afua,  a 
variety  of  the  tunny  which  ascends  rivers. 

§48.  "Ann.  9  Vahlen^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  432-433  Warming- 
ton  ;  meaning  the  inverted  kettle-shaped  space  between  the 
earth  and  the  skv.         *  At  Delphi. 

§49.  "  Trag.' Rom.  Frag.  385  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  366- 
367  Warmington, 



Perduelles  dicuntur  hostes  ;  ut  perfecit,  sic  per- 
duelk'*,2  (a  per)'  et  duellum  :  id  postea  bellum.  Ab 
eadem  causa  facta  Duellona*  Bellona. 

50.  Apud  Plautum  : 

Neque  lugula,^  neque  Vesperugo,  neque  Vergiliae 

lugula  signum,  quod  Accius  appellat  Oriona,  cum  ait  : 

Citius  Orion  patefit. 

Huius  signi  caput  dicitur  ex  tribus  stellis,  quas  infra 
duae  clarae,  quas  appellant  Umeros  ;  inter  quas  quod 
videtur  iugulum,  lugula  dicta.  Vesperugo  stella 
quae  vespere  oritur,  a  quo  earn  Opillus  scribit  Ves- 
perum  :  itaque  dicitur  alterum  : 

Vesper  adest, 

quem  Graeci  dicunt  di(vum>''  kcnrepiov. 

51.  Naevius  : 

Patrem  suum  supremum         optumum  appellat. 

^  L.  Sp,,  for  perduellum.  ^  Added  by  A.  Sp.  *  For 

§  50.  ^  This  is  certainly  Varro's  text  {so  F ;  cf.  lugula  in 
the  next  line  also) ;  but  Plautus  has  Nee  lugulae,  which  is 
assured  by  the  trochaic  rhythm.         *  Fay,  for  di. 

§  50.  °  Amph.  275.  Varro  quotes  from  memory,  and 
incorrectly  ;  cf.  critical  note.  *  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  693 
Ribbeck' ;    R.O.L.   ii.    576-577    Warmington.  '  Usually 

called  Orion's  Belt.  ^  Properly  not  '  rising '  in  the 
evening,  but  visible  at  that  time.  *  Page  93  Fimaioli. 
Aurelius  Opillus,  a  freedman  of  Oscan  origin,  and  teacher 
at  Rome,  voluntarily  accompanied  Piutilius  liufus  into 
exile  at  Smyrna  about  92  b.c.  ;  the  extant  fragments  of 
his  works  bear  on  the  interpretation  of  difficult  words. 
^  Some  think  that  Opillus  is  mentioned  as  using  the  word 

ox  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  VH.  49-51 

The  enemy  are  called  perduelles  '  foes  '  ;  as  perfecit 
'  accomplished  '  is  formed  from  per  '  through, 
thoroughly  '  and  fecit  '  did,'  so  perduellis  is  formed 
from  per  and  duellum  '  war  '  :  this  word  afterward 
became  belbim.  From  the  same  reason,  Duellona 
'  Goddess  of  War  '  became  Bellona. 

50.  In  Plautus  is  this  "  : 

Not  the  Collar-Bone  nor  Evening-Star  nor  Pleiads 
now  do  set. 

lugula  '  Collar-Bone  '  is  a  constellation,  which  Accius 
calls  Orion  when  he  says  *  : 

More  quicklj'  now  Orion  comes  to  sight. 

The  head  of  this  constellation  is  said  to  consist  of 
three  stars,  below  which  are  two  bright  stars  which 
they  call  the  Shoulders  '=  ;  the  space  between  them 
is  the  neck,  as  it  were,  and  is  called  the  lugula  '  Collar- 
Bone.'  Fesperugo  '  Evening-Star  '  is  the  star  which 
rises  vespere  '  in  the  evening,'  '^  from  which  Opillus  * 
writes  its  name  as  \>sper  ^  :  therefore  the  word  is 
said  in  a  second  meaning  ^  : 

Vesper  is  here,* 

he  whom  the  Greeks  call  the  Evening-time  Deity.* 

51.  Naevius  has  the  folloA\ing  "  : 

She  addresses  her  own  father,  the  best  and  the  supreme. 

as  a  neuter.  Vesper um,  but  this  is  not  a  necessary  inference. 
"  For  the  meaning  of  alterum,  cf.  v.  179.  *  A  phrase 
familiar  in  marriage  hymns,  as  in  Catullus,  62.  1:  Veaper  is 
not  a  mere  star,  but  is  personified  as  a  deity.  » An  explana- 
tion of  Vergil  iae  is  expected  here,  but  is  not  in  the  extant 

§  51.     "  Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  20  Morel ;  R.O.L.  ii.  52-53 
Warmington ;  Saturnian  verse. 



Supremum  ab  superrumo  dictum  :  itaque  Duodecim 
Tabulae^  dicunt  : 

Solis  occasu  diei  suprema  tempestas  esto. 

Libri  Augurum  pro  tempestate  tempestutem  dicunt 
supremum  augurii  tempus. 

52.  In  Cornicula<ria>^  : 

Qui  regi  latrocinatus  decern  annos  Demetrio. 

Latrones  dicti  ab  latere,  qui  circum  latera  erant  regi 
atque  ad  latera  habebant  ferrum,  quos  postea  a 
stipatione  stipatores^  appellarunt,  et  qui  conduce- 
bantur  :  ea  enim  merces  Graece  dicitur  Aarpoi'.'  Ab 
eo  veteres  poetae  nonnunquam  milites  appellant 
latrones.  (At  nunc  viarum  obsessores  dicuntur 
latrones,)*  quod  item  ut  milites  (sunt)*  cum  ferro, 
aut  quod  latent  ad  insidias  faciendas. 

53.  Apud  Naevium  : 

Risi  egomet  mecum  cassabundum  ire  ebrium. 
Cassabundum  a  cadendo.     Idem  : 

Diabathra  in  pedibus^  habebat,  erat  ainictus  epicroco. 
Utrumque  vocabulum  Graecum. 

§  51.     ^  Sciop.,  for  tabulis. 

§  52.  ^  Vertranms,  for  cornicula ;  rf.  v.  153.  ^  For 
stipateres.  *  Victorias,  for  CATPON.  *  Added  by 
Kent,  from  Festus,  118.  16  J/.  /  the  lacuna  was  first  noted  by 
L.  Sp.         *  Added  by  GS.,  from  Serv.  Dan.  in  Aen.  xii.  7. 

§53.     ^  iJAoL, /or  pecudibus. 

*  Page  119  Schoell ;  cf.  vi.  5.  By  Roman  law,  legal  proceed- 
ings could  not  continue  after  sunset.  '  Page  16  Regell. 

§52.  "  Plautus,  Corn.  frag.  II  Ritschl.  ''Derivation 
from  the  Greek,  and  not  from  Latin  latus,  seems  to  be  right. 
'  As  in  Plautus,  Mil.  76,  Poen.  663,  etc. 

§53.     "  Com.  Rom.  Frag.  120  Ribbeck^;  R.O.L.  ii.  144- 



Supretnum  is  derived  from  superrimum,  superlative  of 
superum  '  higher  '  :  therefore  the  Ttvelve  Tables  say  **  : 

Let  the  last  {suprema)  time  of  day  be  at  sunset. 
The  Books  of  the  Augurs  "  call  the  last  time  for  augury 
a  iempestus  and  not  a  tempestas. 

52.  In  The  Story  of  the  Helmet-Horn  is  the  verse  "  : 

Who  for  ten  years  fought  for  wages  {latrocinatus) 
for  the  King  Demetrius. 

Those  were  called  latrones  '  mercenaries  '  from  latus 
'  side,'  who  were  at  the  King's  side  and  had  a  sword  at 
their  own  side  (afterwards  they  called  tliem  stipatores 
'body-guards  '  from  stipatio  '  close  attendance  ')  and 
were  hired  for  pay  :  for  this  pay  is  in  Greek  called 
karpov.^  From  this,  the  old  poets  sometimes  call 
regular  soldiers  latrones.'^  But  now  the  name  latrones 
is  given  to  the  highwaymen  who  block  the  roads, 
because  like  regular  soldiers  they  have  swords,  or 
else  because  they  latent  '  lie  in  hiding  '  to  ambush 
their  victims. 

53.  In  Naevius  "  : 

I  laughed  inside  to  see  a  drunk  go  tottering. 
Cassabundum  '  tottering,'  from  cadere  '  to  fall.'     The 
same  author  has  this  : 

Slippers  on  his  feet  he  wore,  he  was  wrapped  about 
with  a  saffron  robe.* 

Both  words  (diabathra  '  slippers,'  and  epicrocum  '  saf- 
fron robe  ')  are  Greek. 

145  Warmington.  *  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  5-t  Ribbeck'; 
R.O.L.  ii.  130-131  Warmington.  This  and  the  preceding 
quotation  were  formerly  attributed  to  the  Lycurgus,  a  tragedy 
of  Naevius  ;  while  Bergk,  Philol.  xxxiii.  281-282,  joined 
them  (reading  moechum  for  mecum  and  omitting  habebat) 
as  consecutive  lines  in  an  unidentified  comedy. 



54-.     In  Menaechmis  : 

Inter  ancillas  sedere  iubeas,  lanam  carere. 

Idem  hoc  est  verbum  in  Cemetria  Naevii.  Carere 
a  carendo,  quod  earn  turn  purgant  ac  deducunt,  ut 
careat  spurcitia  ;  ex  quo  carminari  dicitur  turn  lana, 
cum  ex  ea  carwnt^  quod  in  ea  haeret  neque  est  lana, 
quae  in  Romulo  Naevius  appellat  asta  ab  Oscis. 

55.  In  Persa  : 

lam  pol  ille  hie  aderit,  credo,  congerro  meus. 

Congerro  a  gerra  ;  hoc^  Graecum  est  et  in  Latina 

56.  In  Menaechmis  : 

Idem  istuc  aliis  ascriptivis  fieri  ad  leglonem  solet. 

Ascriptivi  dicti,  quod  olim  ascribebantur  inermes 
armatis  militibus  qui  succederent,  si  quis  eorum 

57.  In  Trinummo  : 

Nam  ilium  ^ibi^ 
<Ferentarium  esse  amicum  inventum  intellego).* 

Ferentarium  a  ferendo  id  (quod  non)^  est  inane  ac 

§  54.     ^  Neukirch,  for  carent. 

§  55.     ^  L.  Sp.  and  Groth,  for  hie.         ^  For  gratis. 

§57.     ^  Victor ius,  for  \ih\.         ^  Added  by  L.  Sp. 

§  54.  "  Plautus,  Men.  797.  *  Doubtless  a  corrupted 
name  ;  for  which  Commotria  was  proposed  by  Turnebus, 
Cosmetria  by  Mue.,  Demetria  by  GS. ;  R.O.L.  ii.  597 
Warmington.  '  Properly  carrere  ;  not  connected  with 
carere  '  to  lack.'  ■*  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.,  Praet.  I  Rib- 
beck*.  *  Of  uncertain  meaning  ;  possibly  '  nap,  pile,' 
from  ad-sta-  '  stand  on.' 

§  55.     "  Plautus,  Persa,  89.  '  Properly,  one  who  con- 

tributes   his    share    to    a    common    feast,    from    congerere. 



51.     In  The  Menaechmi  "  : 

Why,  you'd  bid  me  sit  among  the  maids  at  work  and 
card  the  wool. 

This  same  word  carere  '  to  card  '  is  in  the  Cemetria  *  of 
Nae\ius.  Cdr^re  '^  is  from  carere  '  to  lack,'  because 
then  they  cleanse  the  wool  and  spin  it  into  thread, 
that  it  may  carere  '  be  free  '  from  dirt  :  from  which  the 
wool  is  said  carminari '  to  be  carded  '  then  when  they 
carunt  '  card  '  out  of  it  that  which  sticks  in  it  and  is 
not  wool,  those  things  which  in  the  Romulus  Naevius  ** 
calls  asta,^  from  the  Oscans. 

55.  In  The  Persian  "  : 

Now  sure  he'll  be  here  at  once,  I  think,  my  jolly  chum. 
Congerro  *  '  chum,'  from  gerra  "  '  wickerwork  '  ;   this 
is  a  Greek  word,**  the  Latin  equivalent  of  which  is 

56.  In  The  Menaechmi  "  : 

The  others  enrolled  as  extras  in  the  army  are  treated 
just  that  way. 

Ascriptivi  '  enrolled  as  extras  '  were  so  called  because 
in  the  past  men  who  did  not  receive  arms  ascrihebantur 
'  used  to  be  enrolled  as  extras,'  to  take  the  place  of  the 
regularly  armed  soldiers  if  anv  of  them  should  be 

57.  In  The  Three  Shillings  "  : 

For  I  clearly  see 
In  him  a.  /erentarius  friend  has  been  found  for  you. 

Ferentarius,  from  ferre  '  to  bring  '  that  which  is  not 

'  Usually  plural,  gerrae  ;  with  derived  meaning  of  '  trifles, 
nonsense.'  "^  ytppov  '  wickerwork  '  or  anything  made  of 
it,  especially  shields. 

§  56.     »  Plautus,  Men.  183. 

§  57.     "  Plautus,  Trin.  455-456. 



sine  fructu  ;    aut  quod  ferentarii  equites  hi  dicti  qui 
ea  modo  habebant  arma  quae  ferrentur,  ut  iaculum. 
Huiuscemodi  equites  pictos  vidi  in  Jesculapii  aede 
vetere  et  ferentarios  ascriptos. 
58.     In  Frivolaria  : 

Ubi  rorar/i^  estis  ?     En^  sunt.     Ubi  sunt  accensi  ? 
Ecce  (sunt).* 

Rorani^  dicti  ab  rore  qui  bellum  committebant,  ideo 
quod  ante  rorat  quam  pluit.*  Accensos*  ministra- 
tores  Cato  esse  scribit  ;  potest  id  (ab  censione,  id 
est)*  ab  arbitrio  :  nam  ide<m)^  ad  arbitrium  eius 
cuius  minister. 

59-     Pacuvius  : 

Cum  deum  triportenta  .  .  .^ 
60.     In  Mercatore  : 
Non  tibi^  istuc  magis  dividiaest^  quam  milii  hodie  fuit. 

(Eadem  (vi>*  hoc  est  in  Corollaria  Naevius  (usus).*) 
Dividia  ab  dividendo  dicta,  quod  divisio  distractio  est 
doloris  :  itaque  idem  in  Curculione  ait  : 

Sed  quid  tibi  est  ? — Lien  enecat,*  renes  dolent, 
Pulmones  distrahuntur. 

§  58.  1  RhoL,  for  rorani.  ^  ^2^  y^^  ^n  F^.  ^  Added 
by  Kent,  to  camplete  verse  metrically.  *  H^  and  p,  for 
plusti.  ^  For  acensos  F^,  adcensos  F'^.  *  Added  by  GS. 
'  Brakmann,  for  inde. 

§  59.     ^  Lacuna  marked  by  Scaliger. 

§  60,  1  L.  Sp.  deleted  in  mercatore  non  tibi,  here  repeated 
in  F.  ^  Aug.,  for  diuidia  est,  from  the  text  of  Plautus. 
*  Added  by  GS.         *  Added  by  L.  Sp.         *  b,for  liene  negat. 

"  That  is,  not  to  be  retained  in  the  hand  during  use. 

§  58,  "  Plautus,  Friv.frag.  IV  Ritschl.  "  Page  81,  14 
Jordan,         "  For  correct  etymology,  see  vi.  89,  note  a. 

§  59.     "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  381  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  ii.  804- 


ON  THE  LATIN  LANGUAGE,  \U.  57-60 

empty  and  profitless  ;  or  because  those  were  called 
ferentarii  cavalrymen  who  had  only  weapons  which 
ferrentur  '  were  to  be  thrown,'  *  such  as  a  javelin. 
Cavalrymen  of  this  kind  I  have  seen  in  a  painting  in 
the  old  temple  of  Aesculapius,  with  the  label  "  feren- 

58.  In  The  Story  of  the  Trifles  "  : 

Where  are  you,  rorarii  ?     Behold,  they're  here. 
Where  are  the  accensi  ?     See,  they're  here, 

Rorarii  '  skirmishers  '  were  those  who  started  the 
battle,  named  from  the  ros  '  dew-drop*!,'  because  it 
rorat  '  sprinkles  '  before  it  really  rains.  The  accensi, 
Cato  writes,*  were  attendants  ;  the  word  may  be 
from  censio  '  opinion,'  that  is,  from  arhitrium  '  de- 
cision,' for  the  accensvs  "  is  present  to  do  the  arhitrium 
of  him  whose  attendant  he  is. 

59.  Pacu\-ius  says  "  : 

When  the  gods'  portents  triply  strong   .    .    . 

60.  In  The  Trader  "  : 

That's  no  more  a  dividia  to  you  than  'twas  to  me  to-day. 
(This  word  was  used  by  Naevius  in  The  Story  of  the 
Garland,^  in  the  same  meaning.)  Dividia  '  vexation  ' 
is  said  from  diiidere  '  to  di\'ide,'  because  the  distractio 
'  pulling  asunder  '  caused  by  pain  is  a  division  ; 
therefore  the  same  author  says  in  the  Curculio  "  : 

But  what's  the  matter  ? — Stitch  in  the  side,  an  aching 

And  my  lungs  are  torn  asunder. 

305  Warmington ;  perhaps  referring  to  portents  of  the  in- 
fernal deities. 

§  60.  «  Plautus,  Merc.  619.  *  Com.  Rom.  Frag.  IX 
Ribbeck».  '  Plautus,  Cure.  236-237  ;  literally,  '  my 
spleen  kills  me,  my  kidneys  hurt  me.' 

VOL.  I  V  321 


61.  In  Pagone  : 

Honos  syncerasto  peri<i>t,*  pernis,  gla<n)dio.* 

S^ncerastum  est  omne  edulium'  antique  vocabulo 

62.  In  Parasite  Pigro  : 

Domum  ire  c<o>epi  tramite  <in>i  dextra  via. 

Tramps*  a  transverse  dictus. 

63.  In  Fugitivis  : 

Age  <e>rgo^  specta,  vide  viiices^  quantas. — lam 
inspexi.     Quid  est  ?^ 

Viftices^  alte*  excitatum  verberibus  corpus. 

64.  In  Cistellaria  : 

Non  quasi  nunc  haec  sunt  hie  limaces,  lividae. 
Limax  ab  limo,  quod  ibi  vivit. 

Dioiolares,  scA<o>enicolae,^  miraculae. 

Dioftolares  a  binis  obolis.^  Sch<o)enicolae*  ab 
sch(o>eno,  nugatorio  ung<u>ento.*  Miraculae  a 
miris,  id  est  monstris  ;  a  quo  Accius  ait  : 

§  61,  ^  L.  Sp.,for  perit.  *  Pius,  for  gladios.  '  Atig., 
for  medullium. 

§  62.     ^  Added  by  Kent.         ^  Laetus,for  tramis. 

§  68.  1  L.  Sp.,  for  agerge.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,for  vivices. 
^  quid  B,  Laetus,  est  Scaliger,  for  quidem  esset.  *  L,  Sp., 
for  alii. 

§  64.  ^  Turnebus,  for  scenicolae.  *  B,  Victorius,  for 
sabini  sobolis.  ^  Turnebus,  for  scenicolas  F^,  -is  F^. 
*  Aldus,  for  nungento. 

§61.  "  Plautus,  Frag.  101  Ritschl ;  the  play's  name  is 
otherwise  unknown  :  Pius  proposed  in  Phagone,  Ladewig 
proposed  in  Phaone  {cf.  Ritschl,  Parerga,  151,  205  ;  Rhein. 
Mus.  X.  447  =  Opusc.  ii.  731).  *■  That  is,  the  speaker  has 

lost  his  appetite. 



61.  In  the  Pagon  <*  : 

Respect  for  hash  is  gone,*  for  haunch  of  ham,  for 


Syncerastum  '  hash  '  is  all  kinds  of  food  mixed  to- 
gether, under  an  old  Greek  name. 

62.  In  The  Lazy  Hanger-on  "  : 

I  started  to  go  home  by  a  side-way  to  the  right. 
Trames  *  *  side-way  '  is  said  from  iransversum  '  turned 

QS.     In  The  Runaways  "  : 

Then  come  and  look,  and  see  what  welts.  — I've  looked 
now  ;  well,  what  next  ? 

Vibices  '  welts,'  the  flesh  of  the  body  raised  high  by 

64.     In  The  Story  of  the  Trinket-Box  <*  : 
As  if  they  aren't  here  now,  the  dark  and  dirty  slugs. 
Limax  ^  '  slug  '  from  li7nus  '  slimy  mud,'  because  it 
lives  there. 

Diobolous  women,  rush-perfumed,  quite  wonder-foul.' 
Diobolares  '  diobolous,'  from  two  obols  '*  apiece. 
Schoenicolae  '  rush-perfumed,' from  ^c^oewM*'  aromatic 
rush,'  an  unpleasant  perfumed  ointment.  Miraculae  * 
'  wonder-foul,'  from  mira  '  wonderful  things,'  that  is, 
monstrosities  ;  from  which  Accius  says  ^  : 

§  6-2.  '  Plautus,  Froff.  108  Ritschl.  "  Probably  from 
trans  and  meare  '  to  go.' 

§  63.     «  Plautus,  Frag.  90  Ritschl. 

§  64.  »  Plautus,  Cist.  405.  "  Probably  from  Greek 
Xeifui^  '  slug,'  though  akin  to  limus.  '  Plautus,  Cist.  407. 

**  One  third  of  a  drachma,  or  franc  of  the  pre-war  standard  ; 
now  somewhat  over  five  pence  British,  or  ten  cents  U.S.A. 
*  Used  of  ugly  things  by  the  early  Romans,  according  to 
Festus,  123.  5  M.  f  Frag.  Poet.  Rom.,  page  271  Baehrens; 
R.O.L.  ii.  582-583  Warmington. 



Personas  distortis*  oribus  deformis  miriones. 

65.  Ibidem : 

Scratiae,  s<c>rup(i>pedae,  s<t>rittabillae,^  tantulae.* 

Ab  excreando  scratiae'  sic<c>as  significat.*  Scrup(i)- 
pedam*  Aurelius  scribit  ab  scauripeda*  ;  luventius 
comicus  dieebat  a  vermieulo  piloso,  qui  solet  esse  in 
fronde  cum  multis  pedibus  ;  \'alerius  a  pede  ac 
scrupea.  Ex  eo  Acci  positum  curiose'  :  itaque  est 
in  Melanippo*  : 

Reicis  abs  te  religionem  ?     Scrupeam^  imponas  (tibi).'" 

Strittabillas  a  strettillando  ;  strittare  ab  eo  qui  sistit 

66.  In  Astrabai  : 

Acsitiosae*  annonam  caram  e  vili  concinnant  viris. 

Ideo  in  Sitellitergo  idem  ait  : 

Mulier  es<t>'  uxorcula  : 
Ut*  ego  novi,  scio  acsitio<s>a  quam*  si<e)<.* 

*  Madvig,  for  distortas. 

§  65.  ^  Mve.  (stritabillae  Bentinus),  for  scraties  ruppae 
ides  rittabillae.  ^  So  F  ;  hit  Gellius,  iii.  3.  6,  and  Nonius, 
169.  9  M.,  have  sordidae.         ^  A.  Sp.,  with  B,  for  scraties. 

*  L.  Sp.  ;   siccam  significat  Turnehus  :  for  sic  assignificat. 

*  A.  Sp.  ;  scrupipedas  Mue.  ;  for  scruppidam.  ^  Bothe  ; 
a  scauro  pede  Turnehus  ;  for  auscauripeda.  '  Ribbeck, 
for  curiosa,  *  Warmington,  for  melanippa.  *  For 
scruppeam.         ^"  Added  by  Mue.,  metri  gratia. 

§66.  ^  Aldus,  for  astriba.  ^  GS.  ;  axitiosae  Aldus  ; 
for  ac  sitiose.  ^  Seyffert ;  mulier  es  Turnehus ;  for 
mulieres.  *  A.  Sp.,  for  uxorculauit.  *  axitiosa  quam 
GS.  ;  axitiosam  Aldus  ;  for  ac  sitio  aquam.  *  Kent, 
metri  gratia  ;  sit  GS.  ;  for  sic. 

§  65.  "  Plautus,  Nervolaria,  Frag.  100  Ritschl ;  describ- 
ing harlots.  The  first  three  words  are  of  very  uncertain 
meaning.         ''  Possibly  '  lean  with  tuberculosis,'  or  '  worthy 



Misshapen  masks  with  twisted  features,  ugly  wonders 
(in  ir  tones). 

65.  In  the  same  writer  "  : 

Just  withered  women,  limping,  tottering,  worthless 

Scratiae  ^  '  withered  women,'  from  excreare  '  to  cough 
and  spit,'  indicates  those  that  are  siccae  '  dried  up.' 
Scrupipeda  <^  '  Umping,'  Aurehus  **  ^vTites,  is  from 
scauripeda  '  ha\"ing  swollen  ankles  '  ;  Juventius  * 
the  writer  of  comedies  said  that  it  was  from  a  hairy 
caterpillar  which  is  found  on  foliage  and  has  many 
pedes  '  feet  '  ;  \'alerius  ^  derived  it  from  pes  '  foot  ' 
and  scrupea  '  difficulty.'  From  this  Accius  has  set  it 
down  in  an  interesting  way  :  thus  there  is  in  the 
Melanippus  "  the  verse  : 

You  throw  your  scruples  off  ?     A  difficulty  you'd  take 
upon  your  back. 

Strittahillae  is  fromi  strettillare,  itself  from  strittare,  said 
of  a  person  who  with  difficulty  keeps  on  his  feet. 

66.  In  The  Riding-Saddle  »  : 

Wives  united  make  their  husbands'  harvest  dear 
instead  of  cheap. 

So  in  The  Bucket-Cleaner  ^  the  same  writer  says  : 

My  darling  wife  a  woman  is  : 
As  I  have  learned,  I  know  how  unionist  she  is. 

of  being  spat  upon.'  '  Most  probably  '  walking  on  sharp 
stones,'  and  therefore  '  limping  ' ;  from  scrupus  '  sharp 
stone  '  and  pes  '  foot.'  ■*  Page  91  Funaioli.  •  Com. 
Rom.  Frag.  V  Ribbeck*.  '  Frag.  Poet.  Lot.,  page  40 
Morel.  0  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  430-431  Ribbeck'  ;  R.O.L. 
ii.  468-469  Warmington  ;  '  your  freedom  from  a  light  burden 
entails  the  carrying  of  a  heavier  one.' 

§66.     "  Plautus,    Astraba,    Frag.    II,   verse    11    Ritschl. 
»  Plautus,  Frag.  116-117  Ritschl, 



Claudius  scribit  axitiosas  demonstrari  consupplica- 
trices.  Ab  agendo  axitiosas  :  ut  ab  una  faciendo 
factiosae,  sic  ab  una  agendo  (axitiosae,  ut>'  actiosae, 

67.  In  Cesistione  : 

Di<s>  stribula^  <a)ut*  de  lumbo  obscena  viscera.' 
Stribula,  ut  Opil/us*  scribit,  circum  coxendices*  sunt 
bovis^  ;  id  Graecum  est  ab  eius  loci  versura. 

68.  In  <N>ervolariai  : 

Scobina^  ego  illun{c>'  actutum  adrasi  <s)en^m.* 
Scobinam  a  scobe  :  lima  enim  materia<e)^  fabrilis  est. 

69.  In  P<o>enulo  : 

Vinceretis  c^rrum  cursw^  vel  gral<l>atorem^  gradu.' 
Gral<l)ator^  a  gradu'  magno  dictus. 

70.  In  Truculento  : 

Sine  virtute  argutum  civem  mihi  habeam  pro  praefica. 
<Praefica)^  dicta,  ut  Aurelius  scribit,  naulier  ab  luco 
quae  conduceretur  quae  ante  domum  mortui  laudis 

'  Added  by  Mue.,  whose  et  was  changed  to  ut  by  GS. 

§  67.  ^  Buecheler,  for  distribula.  ^  Sciop.,  for  ut. 
'  Mue.,  for  obscenabis  cera,  with  o  above  first  e  and  v  above 
second  b,  F^.  *  GS.  (cf.  vii.  50),  for  opilius.  *  Aldus, 
for  coxa  indices.         *  Sciop.,  for  uobis. 

§  68.  ^  Aldus,  for  eruolaria.  *  Sciop.,  for  scobinam. 
'  A.  Sp.,  metri  gratia,  for  ilium.  *  Lachmann,  for  enim. 
*  Canal,  for  materia. 

§69.  ^  Aldus,  from  Plautus,  for  circumcurso.  * -1I-, 
from  Festns,  97.  12  M.        *  Aldus,  from  Plautus,  for  gradum. 

§  70.     1  Added  by  B,  Aldus. 

"  Page  97  Funaioli. 

§  67.     "  Plautus,  Frag.  52  Ritschl.         "  Page  92  Funaioli. 
'  Of  uncertain  etymology ;   Festus,  313  a  34  M.,  has  strebula, 
and  calls  it  an  Umbrian  word.         •*  Varro  periiaps  derived 
it  from  Greek  arpe^Xos  '  twisted.' 


Claudius  <^  -WTites  that  women  who  make  joint  en- 
treaties are  clearly  shown  to  be  axitiosae  '  united, 
unionist.'  Axitiosae  is  from  agere  '  to  act  '  :  as  Jac- 
tiosae  '  partisan  women  '  are  named  from  Jacere 
'  doing  '  something  in  unison,  so  axitiosae  are  named 
from  agere  '  acting  '  together,  as  though  actiosae. 

67.  In  the  Cesistio  "  : 

For  the  gods  the  thigh-meats  or  the  lewd  parts  from 
the  loins. 

Stribula  '  thigh-meats,'  as  Opillus  *  writes,  are  the 
fleshy  parts  of  cattle  around  the  hips  ;  the  word  *  is 
Greek,  derived  from  the  fact  that  in  this  place  there 
is  a  socket-joint.** 

68.  In  The  Stort/  of  the  Prisori  Ropes  "  : 

At  once  I  with  my  rasp  did  scrape  the  old  fellow  clean. 

Scobina '  rasp,'  from  scobis '  sawdust ' ;  for  a  file  belongs 
to  a  carpenter's  equipment. 

69.  In  The  Little  Man  from  Carthage  *  : 

You'd  outdo  the  stag  in  running  or  the  stilt-walker 
in  stride. 

Grallator  '  stilt-walker  '  is  said  from  his  great  gradus 
'  stride.' 

70.  In  The  Rough  Customer  <*  : 

Although  without  a  deed  of  bravery  I  may  have 
A  clear-toned  citizen  as  leader  of  my  praise. 

Praejica  '  praise-leader,'  as  Aurelius  *  ^\Tites,  is  a  name 
applied  to  a  woman  from  the  grove  of  Libitina,"^  who  • 
was  to  be  hired  to  sing  the  praises  of  a  dead  man  in 

§  68.     "  Plautus,  Froff.  94  Ritschl. 

§  69.     "  Plautus,  Poen.  530. 

§  70.     "  Plautus.     True.     4.95.  *  Page     90     Funaioli. 

'  Where  the  wailing-women  had  their  stand  ;  c/.  Dionysius 
Halic.  iv.    15. 



eius  caneret.  Hoc  factitatum  Aristoteles  scribit  in 
libro  qui  (in>scribitur2  No/xt/ia  ftapfSapiKo.,'^  quibus 
testimonium  est,  quod  (in)  Freto  est*  Naevii  : 

Haec  quidem  hercle,  opinor,  praefica  est :  nam 
mortuum  collaudat. 

Claudius  scribit  : 

Quae  praeficeretur  ancillis,  quemadmodum 
lamentarentur,  praefica  est  dicta. 

Utrumque  ostendit  a  praefectione  praeficam  dictam. 
71.     Apud  Ennium  : 

Decern  Coclites  quas  montibus  summis 
Ripaeis  fodere.^ 

Ab  oculo  codes,  ut  ocles,  dictus,  qui  unum  haberet 
oculum  :  quocirca  in  Curculione  est  : 

De  Coclitum  prosapia  <te>^  esse  arbitror  : 
Najn  hi  sunt  unoculi. 

IV.  72.  Nunc  de  temporibus  dicam.  Quod  est 
apud  Cassium  : 

Nocte  intempesta  nostram  devenit  domum, 

intempesta  nox  dicta  ab  tempestate,  tempestas  ab 

*  Aug.,  with  B,  for  scribitur.  '  Turnebus,  for  nomina 
barbarica.         *  GS.  ;  Freto  inest  Canal  ;  for  fretum  est. 

§71.  ^  a,  Turnebus,  for  federe.  ^  Added  by  Aug.,  from 

<*  Frag.  604,  page  367  Rose.  '  Com.  Rom.  Frag.  129 
Ribbeck*;  R.O.L.  ii.  142-143  Warmington.  'Page  98 

§  71.  "  Sat.  67-68  Vahlen^;  R.O.L.  i.  392-393  Warming- 
ton.  The  one-eyed  Arimaspi  of  northern  Scythia  (where  the 
Rhipaean  or  Rhiphaean  mountains  were  located)  were  said 
to  have  taken  much  gold  from  their  neighbours  the  Grypes 
(or  Griffins);  c/.  Herodotus,  iii.  116,  iv.  13,  iv.  27,  who 



front  of  his  house.  That  this  was  regularly  done,  is 
stated  by  Aristotle  in  his  book  entitled  Ctistoms  of 
Foreign  Nations  ^  ;  whereto  there  is  the  testimony 
which  is  in  The  Strait  of  Naevius  *  : 

Dear  me,  I  think,  the  woman's  a  praefica  :  it's  a  dead 
man  she  is  praising. 

Claudius  writes  f  : 

A  Moman  v,\\o praeficeretur '  was  to  be  put  in  charge' 
of  the  maids  as  to  how  they  should  perform  their 
lamentations,  was  called  a  praefica. 

Both  passages  show  that  the  praefica  was  named  from 
praejectio  '  appointment  as  leader.' 
71.     In  Ennius  we  find  "  : 

Treasures  which  ten  of  the  CocUtes  buried. 
High  on  the  tops  of  Rhiphaean  mountains. 

Codes  '  one-eyed  '  Avas  derived  from  oculus  '  eye,'  as 
though  ocles,^  and  denoted  a  person  who  had  only 
one  eye  ;   therefore  in  the  Curculio  "^  there  is  this  : 

I  think  that  you  are  from  the  race  of  Coclites  ; 
For  they  are  one-eyed. 

IV.  72.  Now  I  shall  speak  of  terms  denoting  time. 
In  the  phrase  of  Cassius," 

By  dead  of  night  he  came  unto  our  home, 

intempesta  nox  '  dead  of  night  '  is  derived  from  tem- 
pestas,   and    tempestas  from   tempus   '  time  '  :     a   nox 

quotes  (with  incredulity)  from  a  poem  by  Aristeas  of  Procon- 
nesus.  Fodere  =  infoder€.  *  Varro  means,  from  co-ocles 
'  with  an  eye  ' ;  but  the  word  is  derived  from  Greek  KVK\coi/t, 
through  the  Etruscan.         '  Plautus,  Cure.  393-394. 

§  72.  "  Accius,  Com.  Rom.  Frag.  Praet.  V,  verse  41  Rib- 
beck'  ;  R.O.L.  ii.  562-563  Warniington ;  repeated  from 
vi.  7,  where  see  note  a  on  authorship. 



tempore  ;  nox  intempesta,  quo  tempore  nihili 

73.  Quid  noctis  videtur  ? — In  altisono 
Caeli  clipeo  temo  superat 
Stellas  sublime<n)i  agens  etlam 
Atque  etlam  noctis  iter. 

Hie  multam  noctem  ostendere  volt  a  temonis  motu  ; 
sed  temo  unde  et  cur  dieatur  latet.  Arbitror  antiquos 
rusticos  primum  notasse  quaedam  in  caelo  signa,  quae 
praeter  alia  erant  insignia  atque  ad  aliquem  usum, 
(ut>^  culturae  tempus,  designandum  convenire 

74.  Eius  signa  sunt,  quod  has  septem  stellas 
Graeci  ut  J/omerus  voca(n)t  a.fui^av'^  et  propinquum 
eius  signum  (Soionp',  nostri  eas  septem  stellas 
<t>r<i>o«es^  et  temonem  et  prope  eas  axem  :  triones 
enim  et  boves  appellantur  a  bubulcis  etiam  nunc, 
maxime  cum  arant  terra???*  ;  e  quis  ut  dicti 

Valentes  glebarji, 
qui  facile  proscindunt  glebas,  sic  omnes  qui  terram 
arabant  a  terra  terriones,  unde  triones  ut  dicerentur 
<E>  detrito.* 

75.  Temo   dictus   a  tenendo  :    is   enim  continet 

§  72.  1  For  nichil. 

§73.  ^  Skutsch,  after  Buecheler,  for  sublime.  'Added 
by  Mue. 

§  74.  1  For  AMASAN.           "  L.  Sp.,for  boues.           *  For 

terras.  *  Aug.,  for  de  tritu. 

§73.  «Ennius,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  177-180  Ribbeck' ; 
R.O.L.  i.  ,S00-301  Warmington;  freely  adapted  from  Euri- 
pides, Iphig.  in  Aiil.  6-8;  anapaestic.  Cf.  v.  19,  above. 
*  Signa  in  this  and  the  following  seems  to  vary  in  meaning 
between  '  signs  =  marks  '  and  '  signs  =  constellations.' 

§  74.  «  E.g.,  Od.  v.  272-273.  "  Charles'  Wain,  or  the 
Great  Dipper ;  and  other  parts  of  the  constellation  Ursa 


intempesta  '  un-timely  night  '  is  a  time  at  which  no 
activity  goes  on. 

73.  What  time  of  the  night  doth  it  seem  ? — -In  the  shield 
Of  the  sky,  that  soundeth  aloft,  lo  the  Pole 

Of  the  Wain  outstrippeth  the  stars  as  on  high 
More  and  more  it  driveth  its  journey  of  night." 

Here  the  author  wishes  to  indicate  that  the  night  is 
advanced,  from  tlie  motion  of  the  Teiiio  '  Wagon- 
Pole  '  ;  but  the  origin  of  Temo  and  the  reason  for  its 
use,  are  hidden.  My  opinion  is  that  in  old  times  the 
farmers  first  noticed  certain  signs  **  in  the  sky  which 
were  more  conspicuous  than  the  rest,  and  which  were 
observed  as  suitable  to  indicate  some  profitable  use, 
such  as  the  time  for  tilling  the  fields. 

74.  The  marks  of  this  one  are,  that  the  Greeks,  for 
example  Homer,"  call  these  seven  stars  the  Wagon  ^ 
and  the  sign  that  is  next  to  it  the  Ploughman,  while 
our  countrymen  call  these  seven  stars  the  Triones 
'  Plough-Oxen  '  and  the  Temo  '  Wagon-Pole  '  and  near 
them  the  Axis  '  axle  of  the  earth,  north  pole  '  "  :  for 
indeed  oxen  are  called  triones  by  the  ploughmen  even 
now,  especially  when  they  are  ploughing  the  land  ; 
just  as  those  of  them  which  easily  cleave  the  glebae 
'  clods  of  earth  '  are  called 

Mighty  glebarii '  clod-breakers,' 

so  all  that  ploughed  the  land  were  from  terra  '  land  ' 
called  terriones,  so  that  from  this  they  were  called 
triones,'^  with  loss  of  the  E. 

75.  Temo  is  derived  from  tenere  '  to  hold  '  "  :  for  it 

Major.  '  Or  perhaps  even  the  Pole-Star  itself.  ^  Trio 
is  a  derivative  of  terere  '  to  tread,'  cf.  perf.  trivi  and  ptc. 

§  75.     "  Wrong  etymology. 



iugum  et  plaustrum,  appellatum  a  parte^  totum,  ut 
multa.  Possunt  triones  dicti,  VII  quod  ita  sitae 
stellae,  ut  ternae  trigona  faciant. 

76.  Aliquod  lumen — iubarne  ? — in  caelo  cerno. 

lubar  dicitur  stella  Lucifer,  quae  in  summo  quod 
habet  lumen  difFusum,  ut  leo  in  capite  iubam.  Huius 
ortus  significat  circiter  esse  extremam  noctem. 
Itaque  ait  Pacuius  : 

Exorto  iubare,  noctis  decurso  itinere. 

77.  Apud  Plautum  in  Parasite  Pigro  : 

Inde  hie  6ene  potus^  prim<ul>o*  crepusculo. 

Crepusculum  ab  Saftinis,  et  id  dubium  tempus  noctis 
an  diei  sit.     Itaque  in  Condalio  est  : 

Tam  crepusculo,  ferae'  ut  amant,  lampades  accendite. 

Ideo  <d>ubiae  res*  creperae  dictae. 

78.  In  Trinummo  : 

Concubium  sit  noctis  priusquam  <ad)^  postremum 

Concubium  a  concubitu  dormiendi  causa  dictum. 

§  75.     ^  B,  Laetus,  for  aperte. 

§  77.     ^  Pius,  for  de  nepotus.         *  Scaliger,  for  primo. 
»  Buecheler,  for  fere.         *  Laetus,  for  ubi  heres. 
§  78.     ^  Added  by  Aug.,  from  Plautus. 

"  Wrong  etymology. 

§  76.     "  Ennius, 'Tra^-.  Rom.  Frag.  336  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L. 
i.  226-227  Warmington;  cf.  vi.  6  and  vi.  81.  *  lubar  and 

iuba  are  not  etymologically  connected.         '  That  is,  shortly 
before    sunrise,    when    it    is    visible    in    the    eastern    sky. 
<*  Trag.    Bom.    Frag.    347    Ribbeck» ;    R.O.L.    11.    320-321 
Warmington ;  cf.  vi.  6. 


continet  '  holds  together  '  the  yoke  and  the  cart,  the 
whole  being  named  from  a  part,  as  is  true  of  many 
things.  The  name  triones  may  perhaps  have  been 
given  because  the  seven  stars  are  so  placed  that  the 
sets  of  three  stars  make  triangles.'' 

76.     I  see  some  light  in  the  sky — can  it  be  dawn  ?  " 

The  morning-star  is  called  iubar,  because  it  has  at  the 
top  a  diffused  light,  just  as  a  lion  has  on  his  head  a 
iuba  '  mane.'  ^  Its  rising  '^  indicates  that  it  is  about 
the  end  of  the  night.    Therefore  Pacu\ius  says  **  : 

When  morning-star  appears  and  night  has  run  her 

77.  Plautus  has  this  in  The  Lazy  Hanger-on  "  : 

From  there  to  here,  right  drunk,  he  came,  at  early 


Crepusculum  '  dusk  '  is  a  word  taken  from  the  Sabines, 
and  it  is  the  time  when  there  is  doubt  whether  it 
belongs  to  the  night  or  to  the  day.*  Therefore  in 
The  Finger-Ring  there  is  this  "  : 

So  at  dusk,  the  time  when  wild  beasts  make  their 
love,  light  up  your  lamps. 

Therefore  doubtful  matters  were  called  creperae.^ 

78.  In  The  Three  Shillings  "  : 

General  resting  time  of  night  'twould  be,  before  you 
reached  its  end. 

Concuhium  '  general  rest  '  is  said  fix)m  concuhiitts 
'  general  lying-down  '  for  the  purpose  of  sleeping.* 

§  77.  <•  Frag.  I,  verse  107  Ritschl.  *  Cf.  vi.  5  and  notes. 
«  Plautus,  Frag.  60  Ritschl. 

§  78.  «  Plautus,  Trin.  886  ;  that  is,  "  if  I  should  try  to 
tell  you  my  name."         *  Cf.  vi.  7  and  note  c. 



79-     In  Asinaria  : 

Videbitur,  factum  volo  :  redito^  conticinio.'* 

Putem  a  conticiscendo  conticineMm^  sive,  ut  Opil/us* 
scribit,  ab  eo  cum  conticuerunt  homines. 

V.  80.  Nunc  de  his  rebus  quae  assignificant  ali- 
quod  tempus,  cum  dicuntur  aut  fiunt,  dicam. 

Apud  Accium  : 

Reciproca  tendens  nervo  equino  concita 

Reciproca  est  cum  unde  quid  profectum  redit  eo  ;  ab 
recipere  reciprocare  fictum,  aut  quod  poscere  procare^ 

81.     Apud  Plautum  : 

Ut^  transversu*,^  non  proversus  cedit  quasi  cancer 

<Proversus>^  dicitur  ab  eo  qui  in  id  quod  est  (ante, 
est)*  versus,  et  ideo  qui  exit  in  vestibulum,  quod  est 
ante  domum,  prodire  et  procedere  ;  quod  cum  leno^ 
non  faceret,  sed  secundum  parietem  transversus  iret, 

§  79.  ^  A.  Sp.  ;  redito  hue  Vertranius,  from  Plautus  ;  at 
redito  Rhol.  ;  for  ad  reditum.  *  Laetus,  for  conticinno. 
'  Laetus,  for  conticinnam.  *  GS,,  for  o  pilius  ;  cf.  vii.  50, 
vii.  67. 

§  80.     ^  B,  Aldus,  for  prorogare. 

§81.  ^  H,Bentinus,  for  aut.  ^  Auff.,  for  transuersum  ; 
the  MSS.  of  Plautus  have  non  prorsus  uerum  ex  transuerso 
cedit  ...  ^  Added  by  L.  Sp.  *  Added  by  Christ. 
*  Aldus,  for  lemo. 

§  79.  "  Plautus,  Asin.  685  ;  where  the  text  is  redito  hue. 
Cf.  vi.  7.         *  Page  88  Funaioli. 

§  80.  "  That  is,  words  of  actions,  whether  or  not  they  are 
verbs.  ^  Philoctetes,  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  545-546  Ribbeck^ ; 
R.O.L.  ii.  512-513  Warmington.     Reciproca  tela  is  properly 



79.     In  The  Story  of  the  Ass  there  is  this  verse  '^  : 

I'll  see  to  it,  I  wish  it  done  ;  come  back  at  conticinium. 

I  rather  think  that  conticinium  '  general  silence  '  is 
from  conticiscere  '  to  become  silent,'  or  else,  as  Opillus  ^ 
writes,  from  that  time  when  men  conticuerunt  '  have 
become  silent.' 

V.  80.  Now  I  shall  speak  of  those  things  which 
have  an  added  meaning  of  occurrence  at  some  special 
time,  when  they  are  said  or  done." 

In  Accius  *  : 

The  elastic  weapon  bring  into  action,  bending  it 
With  horse-hair  string. 

Reciproca  '  elastic  '  is  a  condition  which  is  present 
when  a  thing  returns  to  the  position  from  which  it  has 
started.  Reciprocare  '  to  move  to  and  fro  '  is  made  " 
from  recipere  '  to  take  back,'  or  else  because  procare 
was  said  for  poscere  '  to  demand.'  ** 
81.     In  Plautus  <»  : 

How  sidewise,  as  a  crab  is  wont,  he  moves, 
Not  straight  ahead. 

Proversus  '  straight  ahead  '  is  said  of  a  man  who  is 
turned  toward  that  which  is  in  front  of  him  ;  and 
therefore  he  who  is  going  out  into  the  vestibule, 
which  is  at  the  front  of  the  house,  is  said  prodire  '  to 
go  forth  '  or  procedere  '  to  proceed.'  But  since  the 
brothel-keeper  was  not  doing  this,  but  was  going 
sidewise  along  the  wall,  Plautus  said  "  How  sidewise 

only  the  Homeric  {Iliad,  viii.  26Q,  x.  459)  -naXivrova  ro^a 
'  backward-stretched  bow,'  and  not  as  Varro  interprets  it. 
'  Probably  from  reque  proque  '  backward  and  forward  ' ; 
not  as  Varro  interprets  it.         •*  That  is,  '  demand  return.' 

§81.     "^  Pseud.   955;    said   of  the   brothel-keeper  as   he 



dixit  "  ut  transversus  cedit  quasi  cancer,  non  pro- 
versus  ut  homo." 

82.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Andromachae  nomen  qui  indidit,  recte^  indidit. 
Item  : 

Quapropter  Parim  pastores  nunc  Alexandrum  vocant. 

Imitari  dum  volui't^  Euripz'den^  et  ponere  ^rvfiov,  est 
lapsus  ;  nam  Euripides  quod  Graeca  posuit,  eTv/m 
sunt  aperta.  Ille  ait  ideo  nomen  additum  Andro- 
machae, quod  di'Sfji  fxdxiTai*  :  hoc  Enni?/(m)^  quis 
potest  intellegere  in  versu*  significare 

Andromachae  nomen  qui  indidit,  recte  indidit, 
aut  Alexandrum  ab  eo  appellatum  in  Graecia  qui 
Paris  fuisset,  a  quo  Herculem  quoque  cognominatum 
dXe^LKaKov,  ab  eo  quod  defensor  esset  hominum  ? 

83.  Apud  Accium  : 

lamque  Auroram  rutilare  procul 

Aurora  dicitur  ante  solis  ortum,  ab  eo  quod  ab  igni 
solis  turn  aureo  aer  aurescit.  Quod  addit  rutilare,  est 
ab  eodem  colore  :  aurei  enim  rutili,  et  inde  et\{3i)va} 
mulieres  valde  rufae  rutilae  dictae. 

§  82.  ^  Victorius  deleted  ei  after  recte.  ^  Aldus,  for 
uolunt.  ^  i^or  euripeden.  *  ^-lidMs, /ar  andromacliete. 
*  L.  Sp.,  for  ennii.         *  Turnebus,for  inuersum. 

§  83.     ^  Laetus,  for  enim. 

§  82.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  6o  Ribbeck^ ;  R.O.L.  i.  252- 
253  Warmington ;  presumably  from  ttie  Andromocha. 
»  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  38  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  240-24.1  War- 
mington. '  But  not  obvious  in  the  Latin  version. 
<*  Greek  aXd^eiv  and  Latin  defendere  both  mean  '  to  defend  ' 
a  person  from  a  danger  and  '  to  ward  off '  a  danger  from  a 


he  moves  like  a  crab,  not  proversus  '  turned  straight 
ahead  '  like  a  man." 

82.  In  Ennius  ^  : 

Who  gave  Andromache  her  name,  he  gave  aright. 

Likewise  **  : 

Therefore  Paris  now  the  shepherds  as  Alexander  do 

In  \\-ishing  to  imitate  Euripides  and  set  down  the 
radical,  he  fell  into  an  error  ;  for  because  Euripides 
wrote  in  Greek  the  radicals  are  obWous.*^  Euripides 
says  that  Andromache  received  her  name  because  she 
dvSpl  fxd\eTai  '  fights  her  husband  ' :  who  can  under- 
stand that  this  is  what  Ennius  means  in  the  verse 

Who  gave  Andromache  her  name,  he  gave  aright  ? 

Or  that  he  who  had  been  Paris  was  in  Greece  called 
Alexander  from  the  same  source  from  which  Hercules 
also  was  termed  Alexicacos  '  Averter  of  e\-ils  ' — 
namely  from  the  fact  that  he  was  a  defender  of  men  .''  ^* 

83.  In  Accius  "  : 

And  now  afar  off  I  see  that  the  dawn 
Is  red. 

Aurora  '  da>\-n  '  is  said  of  the  phenomenon  before  sun- 
rise, from  the  fact  that  the  air  aurescit '  grows  golden  ' 
from  the  sun's  fire,  which  at  that  time  is  golden.  As 
for  his  addition  of  rutilare '  to  be  red,'  ^  that  is  from  the 
same  colour  ;  for  rutuli  '^  is  an  expression  for  golden 
hair,  and  from  that  also  women  with  extremely  red 
hair  are  called  rutilae  '  Goldilocks.'  •* 

§  83.  »  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  675  Ribbeck»  ;  R.O.L.  ii.  566- 
567  Warmington ;  anapaestic.  *  More  precisely, '  golden- 
red.'       '  With  rutin  understand  eapilli.       ■*  A  politer  term  ! 

VOL.  I  z  337 


84.  Apud  Terentium  : 

Scortatur/  potat,  olet  unguenta  de  meo. 

Scortari  est  saepius  meretriculam  ducere,  quae  dicta 
a  pelle  :  id  enim  non  solum  antiqui  dieebant  scortum, 
sed  etiam  nunc  dicimus  scortea  ea  quae  e  corio  ac 
pellibus  sunt  facta  ;  in  aliquot  sacris  ac  sacellis  scrip- 
turn  habemus  : 

Ne  quod  scorteum  adhibeatur, 
ideo  ne  morticinum  quid  adsit.     In  Atellanis  licet 
animadvertere  rusticos  dicere  se  adduxisse  pro  scorto 

85.  Apud  Accium  : 

Multis  nomen 
Vestrum  numenque'^  ciendo. 

Numen  dicunt  esse  imperium,  dictum  ab  nutu,  (quod 
cuius  nutu)^  omnia  sunt,  eius  imperium  maximum 
esse  videatur  :  itaque  in  love  hoc  et  Homerus  et 
A<c>cius^  aliquotiens. 

86.  Apud  Plautum  : 

<Ni)si^  unum  :  epityrMW*  estur'  insane  bene. 
Epit«/rum  vocabulum  est  cibi,  quo  frequentius  Sicilia     - 

§  84.  1  So  F  ;  hut  the  codd.  of  Terence  have  obsonat. 
See  A.  Spengel,  Bemerkungen  268-270. 

§  85.     ^  For    numerique.  "  Added    by    Lachmann. 

^  Vahlen,  for  alius. 

§86.  ^  From  Plautus,  for  si.  ^  Aldus,  for  epytira. 
*  B,  Laetus,  for  estuer. 

§84.  "  Adelphi  117;  see  critical  note.  *  With  meo 
supply  sumptu.  "  Quia  ut  pelliculae  suhiguntur,  Festus, 
331.  1  M.  ;  the  pelles  were  kneaded  in  the  process  of  making 
them  into  soft  leather.  "*  Page  7  Preibisch.  '  To  pre- 
vent pollution  of  the  sacred  fire.  '  Com.  Rom.  Frag., 
Atell.  inc.  nom.  ix.,  page  335  Ribbeck^.         "  Euphemism. 



84.  In  Terence  "  : 

He  whores,  he  drinks,  he's  scented  up  at  my  expense.* 

Scortari  '  to  whore  '  is  to  consort  quite  frequently  with 
a  harlot,  who  gets  her  name  scortum  from  pellis 
'  skin  '  '^  :  for  not  only  did  the  ancients  call  a  skin 
scortum,  but  even  now  we  say  scortea  for  things  which 
are  made  of  leather  and  skins.  In  some  sacrifices 
and  chapels  we  find  the  prescription  ** : 

Let  nothing  scorteum  '  made  of  hide  '  be  brought  in, 

with  this  intent,  that  nothing  dead  should  be  there.* 
In  the  Atellan  farces  ^  you  may  notice  that  the 
countrymen  say  that  they  have  brought  home  a  pelli- 
cula ^  rather  than  a  scortum. 

85.  In  Accius  '^  : 

By  invoking  your  name 
And  your  numen  with  many  a  prayer. 

Numen  '  divine  will  or  sway,'  they  say,  is  imperium 
'  power,'  and  is  derived  from  nutus  '  nod,'  because  he 
at  whose  nutus  '  nod  '  everything  is,  seems  to  have  the 
greatest  imperium  '  power  '  ;  therefore  Homer  ^  uses 
this  word  in  application  to  Jupiter,  and  so  does  Accius 
a  number  of  times. 

86.  In  Plautus  «  : 

There's  one  thing  I  except : 
The  olive-salad  *  there  is  eaten  just  like  mad. 

Epityrum  '  olive-salad  '  is  the  name  of  a  food  which  was 

§  85.  <•  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  691-692  Ribbeck» ;  R.O.L. 
ii.  576-577  Warmington ;  anapaestic.         *  Iliad,  i.  528,  etc. 

§  86.  "  Miles  Glor.  24,  where  the  text  is  insanum  bene,  as 
also  Most.  761  (cod.  A,  in  both  passages).  *  A  prepara- 

tion of  olives  garnished  with  cheese. 



quam  Italia  usa.  Id  vehementer  cum  vellet  dicere 
<edi>,*  dixit  insane,  quod  insani  omnia  faciunt  vehe- 

87.  Apud  Pacuium  : 

Flexanima  ta<m>quam^  lymphata  <aut  Bacchi  sacris 

Lymphata)^  dicta  a  l_ympha  ;  <lympha>*  a  N^mpha, 
ut  quod  apud  Graecos  Berts,  apud  Ennium  : 

The/is*  illi  mater. 

In  Graecia  commota  mente  quos  vvfjicfjoXyTrrovi^  ap- 
pellant, ab  eo  li/mphatos  dixerunt  nostri.  Bac<c)bi, 
(qui)"  et  Liber,  cuius  comites  a  (Baccho)  Ba(c>chae,' 
et  vinum  in  //ispania  bacca. 

88.  Origo  in  his  omnibus  Graeca,  ut  quod  apud 
Pacuium  : 

Alct/onis  ritu  litus  pervolgans  f^ror.^ 

Haec  enim  avis  nunc  Graece  dicitur  AXki'mv.^  nostri 

*  Added  here  by  GS.  ;  after  id  by  Mue. 

§  87.  ^  Aug.,  for  flex  animat  aquam.  *  Added  by 
Turnebus,   cf.    Cicero,    Die.   i.    80.         '  Added   by   L.    Sp. 

*  Turnebus,  for  thetis  ;  cf.  T  arr.  jR.i?.  iii.  9.  19.  ^  Aldus, 
for  lympholemptus.  *  Added  by  GS.,  cf.  v.  53.  '  a 
Baccho  Bacchae  L.  Sp.,for  abache  F  (a  bacchae  H). 

§88.     ^  Victorias,  for  furor.         ^  Aldus,  for  ahcyon. 

§  87.  «  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  422  Ribbeck^;  R.O.L.  ii.  300- 
301  Warmington.  ''Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  392  Ribbeck': 
R.O.L.  i.   306-307    Warmington.  '  Thelis   for    Thetis    is 

cited  by  Varro,  De  Re  Rust.  iii.  9.  19.  "*  There  is  still  a 
belief  among  the  Greeks  that  the  Njmphs,  now  called 
Nereids,  can  render  men  insane.  '  Such  a  meaning  for 

bacca  is  nowhere  else  attested,  and  is  very  doubtful ;  bacca 
normally  meant '  olive,'  but  occasionally  denoted  other  small 




commoner  in  Sicily  than  in  Italy.  When  he  wanted 
to  say  that  this  was  eaten  impetuously,  he  said  insane 
*  crazily,'  because  the  crazy  do  everything  impetu- 

87.  In  PacuWus  "  : 

Deeply  affected,  as  though  frenzied  by  the  Nymphs 
Or  stirred  by  Bacchus'  ceremonies. 

Lymphata  '  frenzied  by  the  Nymphs  '  is  said  from 
lympha  '  water,  water-goddess,'  and  lympha  is  from 
Nympha  '  water-nymph,'  as  for  example  Thetis  among 
the  Greeks,  mentioned  by  Ennius  ^  : 

Thelis  *  was  his  mother. 

Persons  of  disturbed  (commota)  mind,  whom  in  Greece 
they  call  I'v/xc^dArprot  '  seized  by  the  Nymphs,'  '^  our 
fellow-countrymen  from  this  called  lymphati.  Bacchi 
'  of  Bacchus,'  who  is  called  also  Liber  ;  his  followers 
were  called  Bacchae  '  Bacchantes,'  from  Bacchus  ; 
and  ^\ine  was  in  Spain  called  bacca.^ 

88.  All  these  are  of  Greek  origin,  as  is  also  that 
which  is  in  the  verse  of  Pacu\'ius  "  : 

I  roam,  in  halcyon  fashion  *  frequenting  the  shore. 

For  this  bird  is  now  called  in  Greek  the  halcyon,  and  by 
our  fellow-countrymen  the  alcedo  '  kingfisher  '  ;  be- 

fruits  ;  and  was  therefore  applicable  to  the  grape  and  to  its 
product  wine. 

§  88.  «  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  393  Ribbeck';  R.O.L.  ii.  314- 
315  Warmington.  *  Like  Halcyone,  watching  for  the  ship 
that  might  bring  back  her  husband  Ceyx.  When  his  dead 
body  drifted  ashore  at  her  feet,  the  gods  in  pity  changed 
them  into  kingfishers,  and  imposed  calm  on  the  sea  for  two 
weeks  before  the  winter  solstice,  that  they  might  hatch 
their  brood  unharmed  in  a  floating  nest.  This  period  of 
calm  weather  in  December  is  a  reality  in  Greece. 



alcedo  ;  haec  hieme  quod  pullos  dicitur  tranquillo 
mari  facere,  eos  dies  alc^on(i)a^  appellant.  Quod  est 
in  versu  "  alcyonis  ritu,"  id  est  eius  instituto,  ut  cum 
^aruspex  praecipit,  ut  suo  quique*  ritu  sacrificium 
faciat,  et  nos  dicimus  XVviros  Graeco  ritu  sacra,  non 
Romano  facere.  Quod  enim  fit  rite,  id  ratum  ac 
rectum  est ;  ab  eo  Accius 

r?'te  perfectis  sacris 
(recte)^  volt  accipi. 

89.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Si  voles  advortere  animum,  comiter  monstrabitur. 

Comiter  hilare  ac  lubenter,  cuius  origo  Graeca  kw/xos, 
inde  comis(s>atio  Latine  dicta  et  in  Graecia,  ut 
quidam  scribunt,  KMjuuUa.^ 

90.  Apud  Atilium  : 

Cape,  caede,  Lyde,i  come,  condi.* 

Cape,  unde  accipe  ;  sed  hoc  in  proximo  libro  re- 

^  GS.,  for  alciona  ;  c/.  Serv.  in  Georg.  i.  399.  *  Fay,  for 
quisque  /  but  tmderstand  as  abl.  *  rite  perfectis  sacris 
recte  Tnrnebus,  for  recte  perfectis  sacris. 

§  89.     ^  L.  Sp.  ;  comoedia  Auff.  ;  for  comodiam. 

§  90.     ^  Aug.,  for  lide.         ^  Kent,  for  conde. 

"  Cf.  Plautus,  Poen.  355-356.  ^  In  charge  of  the  Sibyl- 
line Books.  '  No  etymological  connexion.  ^  Trag.  Rom. 
Fraq.  690  Ribbeck»;  ^R.O.L.  ii.  574-575  Warmington. 

§89.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  365  Ribbeck^;  R.O.L.  i.  374- 
375  Warmington.  ''  Not  of  Greek  origin,  but  adverb 
to  the  native  adjective  comis  '  affable.'  *■  Correct  etymo- 
logies ;  but  apparently  not  all  ancient  authorities  agreed 
that  Ku>(j.w8ia  came  from  kco^ios.  It  is  not  a  question  of 
(Latin)  comodia  or  comoedia. 



cause  it  is  said  to  hatch  its  young  in  winter,  at  a  time 
when  the  sea  is  calm,"  they  call  these  days  the  Hal- 
cyonia  '  Halcyon  Days.  As  for  the  expression  alcy- 
onis  ritu  '  in  halcyon  fashion  '  in  the  verse,  this  means 
"  according  to  the  habit  of  that  bird,"  as  when  the 
seer  directs  the  making  of  each  sacrifice  in  its  own 
rittis  '  fashion,'  and  we  say  that  the  Board  of  Fifteen  ^ 
conduct  the  ceremonies  in  the  Greek  ritus  '  fashion,' 
not  in  the  Roman  fashion.  For  what  is  done  rite 
'  duly,'  that  is  ratum  '  valid '  and  rectum  '  right '  * ;  from 
this,  Accius  ^^ishes  { 

^^'hen  the  ceremonies  have  been  rite  '  duly  '  performed 

to  be  understood  as  recte  '  rightly  '  performed. 

89.  In  Ennius  "  : 

If  you'll  give  me  your  attention,  'twill  be  courteously 

Comiter  *  'courteously  '  means  cheerfully  and  will- 
ingly ;  it  is  derived  from  the  Greek  word  km^io'; 
'  merrv-making,'  from  which  come  the  Latin  comis- 
saiio  ^  '  revel  '  and  in  Greek,  as  certain  authorities 
write,  KWjjMSia  '^  '  comedy.' 

90.  In  AtiUus  "  : 

Take  it,  Lydus,  cut  it,  fix  it,  season  it. 

Cape  *  '  take,'  the  same  word  from  which  comes  the 
compound  accipe  '  receive  '  ;  but  this  must  be  taken 
up  again  in  the  next  book."^ 

§  90.  "  Cam.  Rom.  Frag.,  page  38  Ribbeck*.  A  direction 
to  the  cook,  to  prepare  some  dish  :  come  '  bring  together  ' 
the  main  ingredients  ;  condi  '  put  in  the  seasoning,'  more 
probably  than  the  manuscript  concle  '  store  away  '  in  the 
pantry  or  storeroom.  *  This  seems  to  indicate  that  the 
imperative  cape  was  not  in  common  use  unless  compounded 
with  a  prefix.         *  This  promise  is  not  fulfilled. 



91.  Apud  Pacuium  : 

Nulla  res 
Neque  cicurare  neque  mederi  potis  est  neque  (rem>^ 

Cicj/rare^  mansuefacere  :  quod  enim  a  fero  discretum . 
id  dicitur  cicur,  et  ideo  dictum 

cicur  ingenium  optineo 

mansuetum  ;  a  quo  Veturii  quoque  nobiles  cogno- 
minati  Cicuriw?'.  Natum'  a  cicco  cicur  videtur  ; 
ciccum  dicebant  membranam  tenuem,  quae  est  ut  in 
rnalo  Punico  discrimen  ;   a  quo  etiam  Plautus  dicit  : 

Quod  volt  de<me>nsum,*  ciccum  non  interduo. 

92.  Apud  Naevium  : 

Circumveniri  video<r>^  ferme  iniuria. 

Ferme  dicitur  quod  nunc  fere  ;  utrumque  dictum  a 
ferendo,  quod  id  quod  fertur  est  in  motu  atque  ad- 

93.  Apud  Plautum  : 

Euax,  iurgio  uxorem  tandem  abegi  a^  ianua. 

§91.     ^  Added  by  A.   Sp.         ^  For  cicorare.         ^  Groth 
(Cicurini  Aufl.),for  clcuri  innatum.         *  Canal, /or  densum. 
§  92.     ^  Ribbeck,  for  ciccum  venire  uideo. 
§  93.     ^  After  abegi  ab  of  Plautus,  for  ab  regia. 

§91.  "Com.  Rom.  Frag.  388-389  Ribbeck*  ;  R.O.L.  ii. 
312-313  Warmington;  the  double  negative  is  here  intensify- 
ing, as  in  Greek  (^r/.  also  Plautus,  Mil.  Glor.  1141  and  Persa 
535),  instead  of  cancelling  as  is  regular  in  Latin.  *  For 

this  name,  c/.  C.I.L.  1^.  page  630.  ■=  Very  improbable  ety- 

mology. "^  Frag.  inc.  fab.  2  Ritschl:  literally,  '  as  for  the 
fact  that  he  wants  his  rations,  I  do  not  set  even  a  ciccus  as 
the  value  of  the  difference  to  me  whether  he  gets  them  or 



91.  In  Pacuvius  "  : 

There's  no  device 
Which  can  tame  or  cure  the  business  or  remake  it  new, 

Cicurare  '  to  tame  '  is  the  same  as  mansuefacere  '  to 
make  tame  '  ;  for  what  is  distinct  from  the  ferum 
'  wild  '  is  called  cicur  '  tame,'  and  therefore  the  saying 

A  cicur  nature  I  possess 

means  a  tame  or  ci\ilized  nature  ;  from  which  the 
nobles  of  the  Veturian  clan  had  the  added  name 
Cicurinus.^  Cicur  seems  to  be  derived  from  cicais  ; 
ciccus  is  the  name  which  they  gave  to  the  thin  mem- 
brane which  is  the  division  between  the  sections  in, 
for  example,  a  pomegranate  <^  ;  from  which  moreover 
Plautus  says  ^  : 

But  that  he  wants  his  rations,»  I  don't  care  a  whit. 

92.  In  Naevius  "  : 

I  see  I'm  nigh  encircled  by  unrighteousness. 

Ferme  '  nigh  '  is  said  for  that  w^hich  is  now  Jere  ^ 
'  approximately  '  :  both  are  derived  from  Jerre  '  to 
bear,'  because  that  which  Jertur '  is  borne  '  is  in  motion 
and  approaches  some  goal. 

93.  In  Plautus  "  : 

'Ray  !  by  my  wordy  strife  my  wife  at  last  I've  driven 
from  the  door, 

not.'  Cf.  Plautus,  Rudens,  580.  *  The  slave's  food,  which 
was  measured  out  to  him. 

§92.  "  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  56  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  ii.  150- 
151  Warmington.  "  Fere  was  not  derived  irom  f err e  ;  its 
superlative  ferine  was  little  used  in  \'arro's  time,  but  became 
common  again  in  Livy  and  Tacitus. 

§  93.  "  Men.  127,  which  has  :  Euax,  iurgio  herele  tandem 
uxorem,  etc. 



Euax  verbum  nihiP  significat,sed  effutitum  naturaliter 
est,  ut  apud  Ennium  : 

Ipse  clipeus  cecidit ; 

apud  Ennium  : 

Eu,*  mea  puella,  <e>^  spe  quidem  id  successit*  tibi ; 

apud  Pompilium  : 

Heii,  qua  me  causa,  Fortuna,  infeste  premis'  ? 

Quod  ait  iurgio,  id  est  litibus  :  itaque  quibus  res  erat 
in  eontroversia,  ea  vocabatur  lis  :  ideo  in  actionibus 
videmus  dici 

quam  rem  sive  litem®  dicere  oportet. 

Ex  quo  licet  videre  iurgare  esse  ab  iure  dictum,  cum 
quis  iure  litigaret  ;  ab  quo  obiurgat  is  qui  id  facit 

94.     Apud  Luc«7ium^  : 

Atque  aliquo<t>  sibi^  <si>'  ab  rebus  clepsere  foro  qui. 

Clepsere  dixit,  unde  etiam  alii  clepere,  id  est  corri- 
pere,  quorum  origo  a  clam,  ut  sit  dictum  clapere,  unde 
clepere  E  ex  A*  commutato,^  ut  multa.  Potest  vel  a 
Graeco  dictum  KAeTrretv  clepere. 

^  For  nichil.  ^  A.  Sp.,  for  hehae.  *  Ribbeck,  for 
heu.  *  Added     by    Ribbeck.         ®  Mue.,    for    succenset. 

'  For  promis.         '  Aldus,  for  militem. 

§  94.  ^  Vertraniiis,  for  Lucretium.  *  Kent  ;  aliquo 
sibi  GS.  ;  for  aliquos  ibi.  '  Added  by  Marx.  *  L.  Sp.  ; 
ex  E  A  Attff.  ;  for  et  ex  ea.         *  Aug.,  for  commutatio. 

^Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  333-334  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  .368-369 
Wamiington.  '  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  402  Ribbeck' ;  R.O.L. 
i.  380-381  Warmington;  heu  of  the  manuscript  is  an 
error  for  eu,  since  Varro  would  hardly  devote  two  of  his 
four    examples    to    the    same    interjection.     **  Trag.    Rom. 



Euax  '  hurray  !  '  is  a  word  that  in  itself  means  nothing, 
but  is  a  natural  ejaculation,  like  that  in  Ennius  ^  : 

Aha,  his  very  shield  did  fall ! 
Also  in  Ennius  "  : 

Bravo,  ray  chUd  !     That's  happened  better  than  you 

In  PompiUus  '^  : 

Alas  !     O  Fortune,  why  do  you  crush  me  hostilely  ? 

As  for  iurgio  '  by  wordy  strife,'  that  is  liiihus  '  by  con- 
tentions '  :  therefore  men  between  whom  a  matter 
was  in  dispute,  called  this  a  lis  '  suit  '  ;  therefore  in 
legal  actions  we  see  it  said  : 

Matter  or  suit  to  which  one  must  make  a  plea. 

From  this,  you  may  see  that  iurgare  ^  '  to  contend  in 
words  '  is  said  from  ius  '  right,'  when  a  person  litigaret 
'  went  to  law  '  iure  '  with  right  '  ;  from  which  he 
obiurgat  '  rebukes,'  who  does  this  iuste  '  with  justice,' 
94.     In  Lucilius  "  : 

And  if  some  of  the  things  any  stole  for  themselves 
from  the  forum. 

He  said  clepsere  '  stole,'  from  the  same  source  whence 
others  say  clepere,  that  is  '  to  snatch  away  ' ;  they  come 
from  clam''  'secretly,'  giving  clapere  and  then  clepere, 
with  change  of  A  to  E,  as  in  many  words.  But  clepere 
can  quite  well  be  said  from  Greek  KA.€7rT€iv  '  to  steal.' 

Frag.,  page  263  Ribbeck*.  «  From  the  radicals  in  ins 
and  agere,  as  litigare  from  those  in  lis  and  agere. 

§  94..  "1118  Marx;  ab  rebus,  partitive  with  aliquot, 
though  ab  is  rarely  so  used.  For  postponed  indefinite  qui, 
cf,  LuciUus,  263  and  266  Marx.  *  Clepsere  and  clam  are 
both  from  the  root  in  celare  '  to  conceal,'  and  akin  to  (not 
derived  from)  Greek  /cAeWetv. 



95.  Apud  Matium  : 

Corpora  Graiorum  maerebai^  mandier  igni. 
Dictum  mandier  a  mandendo,  unde  manducari,  a  quo 
et"  in  Atellanis  Do^senum^  vocant  Manducum. 

96.  Apud  Matium  : 

Obscaeni^  interpres  funestique  om<i>nis^  auctor. 

Obscaenum  dictum  ab  scaena'  ;  earn,  ut  Graeci,  et* 
Accius  scribit  scena(m).'  In  pluribus  verbis  A  ante 
E  alii  ponunt,  alii  non,  ut  quod  partim  dicunt  (scaep- 
trum,  partim)*  sceptrum,  alii  Plauti  Faeneratricem, 
alii  Feneratricem'  ;  sic  faenisicia  ac  fenisicia,'  ac 
rustic!  pappum  Mesium,*  non  Maesium,*  a  quo 
Lucilius  scribit  : 

Cecilius  (pretor)^"  ne  rusticus  fiat. 

§  95.  ^  Mue.,  for  merebar.  *  a  quo  et  L.  Sp.,  for  et  a 
quo.         '  For  ad  obsenum. 

§  96.  ^  Vertranivs,  for  obsceni.  *  ^4uff.,  for  omnis. 
'  Vertranius,  H,  for  scena.  *  Norisius,  for  aut.  ^  Lach- 
mann,  for  scena.  *  Added  by  B.  '  fen-  Txietus,  for 
foen-.  ^  Laetus,  for  maesium.  ^  L.  Sp.,for  moesium. 
^"  praetor  added  by  Scaliger  {whence  pretor  Mue).,  from 
Diomedes,  i.  452.  18  Keil. 

§  95.  "  Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  48  Morel.  Cn.  Matius,  fl. 
95-80,  translated  the  Iliad  into  Latin,  and  wrote  also  mi- 
miambi.  '  Translating    Iliad,  i.    56.  "  Derivative    of 

dorsum  '  back.'  "*  Why  the  Humpback  should  be  called 
Chewer,  is  not  clear.  Both  were  stock  characters  in  the 
Atellan  Farces  ;  Horace,  Epist.  ii.  1.  173,  has  quantus  sit 
Dossennus  edacibus  in  parasitis  '  how  great  a  Dossennus  he 
is  among  the  greedy  hangers-on,'  which  suggest  that  Dos- 
sennus also  was  a  large  eater. 


95.  In  Matius  <»  : 

Grief  he  felt  that  the  bodies  of  Greeks  were  chewed 
by  the  fire." 

Mandier  '  to  be  chewed  '  is  said  from  mandere  '  to 
chew,'  whence  manducari  '  to  chew,'  from  which  also 
in  the  Atellan  Farces  they  call  Dossennus  "  '  Hump- 
back '  by  the  name  Manducus  '  Chewer.'  <* 

96.  In  Matius  "  : 

He  the  interpreter,  sponsor  of  foul  and  funereal  omen. 

Obscaenum  '  foul  '  is  said  from  scaena  '  stage  '  ^  ;  this 
word  Accius  writes  scena,  like  the  Greeks.*'  In  a  con- 
siderable number  of  words  some  set  A  before  the  E, 
and  others  do  not  **  ;  so  what  some  spell  scaepirum  * 
'  sceptre,'  others  spell  sceptrum,  and  some  spell  the 
name  of  Plautus's  play  Faeneratrix  '  The  Woman 
Money-lender,'  others  FeneratrixJ  Similarly  fae- 
nisicia  f  '  mown  hay  '  and  Jenis^i eta  ;  and  the  country- 
men call  the  old  man's  character  Mesius,^  not  Mae- 
sius,  from  which  peculiarity  Lucihus  is  able  to 
write  ''  : 

Cecilhts  let's  not  elect  to  be  countrified  pretor. 

§  96.  "  Frag.  Poet.  LaL,  page  48  Morel :  apparently 
translating  Iliad,  i.  6-2.  *  Probably  a  correct  etymology, 
and  the  variation  in  the  orthography  of  scena  is  the  basis  for 
that  in  the  adjective.  «  Greek  oktjvt^.         ^  The  country- 

folk pronounced  as  E  what  the  city  Romans  sounded  as 
AE  ;  Greek  t)  in  oktjvtj  and  aK^urpov  was  perhaps  repre- 
sented by  A£  in  the  speech  of  citj'  Romans  trying  to 
avoid     a     country     accent.  '  From     Greek     atcfpnpov. 

'  Originally    with    E,    not    AE.  '  A    stock    character 

in  the  farces;  cf.  vii.  29.  *  1130  Marx;  ridiculing  the 
country  pronunciation  of  the  candidate,  who  sounded  the 
AE  like  E.     Rustkus  instead  of  urbamis. 



Quare  turpe  ideo  ohscaenum,^^  quod  nisi  in  scaena'^ 
palam  dici  non  defect. ^' 

97.  Potest  vel  ab  eo  quod  pueris^  turpicula  res  in 
coUo  quaedam  suspenditur,  ne  quid  obsit,  bonae^ 
scaevae  causa  scaevola  appcllata,  Ea  dicta  ab 
scaeva,  id  est  sinistra,  quod  quae  sinistra  sunt  bona 
auspicia  existimantur ;  a  quo  dicitur  comitia  aliudve 
quid,  si(cu>t*  dixi,  (scaeva  fieri)*  avj,*  sinistra  quae 
nunc  est.  Id  a  Graeco  est,  quod  hi  sinistram  vocant 
o-Kaiav*  ;  quare,  quod  dixi,  <ob>scaewum'  omen  est 
omen  turpe  ;  quod  unde  id  dicitur  <os>,*  osmen,  e 
quo  S'  extritum. 

98.  Apud  Plautum  : 

Quia  ego  antehac  te  amavi  <et  niihi  aniicam  esse 

Crevi>2  valet  constitui  :   itaque  heres  cum  constituit 

se  heredem  esse,  dicitur  cernere,*  et  cum  id  fecit, 


11  Vertranius,    B,   for    obserroum.  ^*  Vertranius,    for 

scaenam.         **  For  dedet. 

§97.  ^  Aug. ,  with  B,  for  Y>^m\'\s,with\  erased.  ^  Aug., 
with  B,  for  ubonae.  "  ^  G'.S.,  for  sit.  *  Added  by  OS. 
*  Txirnebus,  for  aut.  *  Aldus,  for  scean.  ''  Aug.,  for 
sceuuni.        ^  Added  by  L.  Sp.         *  3/««., /or  quod. 

§  98.  1  Added  by  Aug.,  from  Plautus.  *  Added  by  L. 
Sp.         '  Victorius,  for  canere. 

§  97.  "  An  amulet  in  the  shape  of  a  membrum  virile,  as  a 
charm  against  the  evil  eye.  *  In  taking  the  auspices  by 
the  flight  of  birds,  the  Roman  faced  south  and  the  Greek 
faced  north  ;  therefore,  as  the  east  (where  the  sun  rose)  was 
always  the  favourable  part  of  the  templum  {cf.  vii.  7),  the 
Roman  considered  the  left  side  favourable  and  the  Greek 



Wherefore  anything  shameful  is  called  obscaeiium, 
because  it  ought  not  to  be  said  openly  except  on  the 
scaena  '  stage.' 

97.  Perhaps  it  is  from  this  that  a  certain  indecent 
object  "  that  is  hung  on  the  necks  of  boys,  to  prevent 
harm  from  coming  to  them,  is  called  a  scaevola,  on 
account  of  the  fact  that  scaeva  is  '  good.'  *  It  is  named 
from  scaeva,  that  is  sinistra  '  left,'  because  those 
things  which  are  sinistra  '  on  the  left  side  '  are  con- 
sidered to  be  good  auspices  ;  from  which  it  is  said 
that  an  assembly  or  anything  else  takes  place,  as  I 
have  said,  with  scaeva  avi  '  a  bird  on  the  left  side,' 
which  is  now  called  sinistra.  The  word  is  from  the 
Greek,*^  because  they  call  the  left  side  a-Kaid  ;  where- 
fore, as  I  have  said,**  an  obscaenum  omen  is  a  foul  omen  : 
omen  itself,  because  that  by  which  it  is  spoken  is  the 
OS  '  mouth,'  is  by  origin  osmen/  from  which  S  has  been 
worn  away  by  use. 

98.  In  Plautus  «  : 

Since  long  ago  I  loved  you  and  decided  you're  my 

Crevi  *  '  I  decided  '  is  the  same  as  constitui  '  I  estab- 
lished '  :  therefore  when  an  heir  has  established  that 
he  is  the  heir,  he  is  said  cernere  '  to  decide,'  and  when 
he  has  done  this,  he  is  said  crevisse  '  to  have  decided.' 

considered  the  left  unfavourable.  Confusion  with  the  Greek 
method  resulted  in  a  double  meaning  of  sinistra  in  Latin. 
*  Scaeva  is  cognate  to  the  Greek  word,  not  derived  from  it. 
**  vii.  96  ;  apparently  as  though  ob-scaevum,  opposite  of 
scaevum,  though  in  this  Varro  contradicts  his  view  expressed 
in  vii.  96.  '  An  older  form  osmen  is  correct,  but  not  the 
connexion  with  os. 

§  98.  "  Cist.  1,  where  the  codd.  have  cum  ego  ;  metre, 
bacchiac.  *  Not  perfect  of  crescere  '  to  grow,'  but  of 
cernere,  whose  literal  meaning  was  '  to  separate.' 



99.  Apud  eundem  quod  es^  : 

MP  frequentem  operam  dedistis, 
valet  assiduam  :   itaque  qui  adest  assiduus  fere  (e>t 
quom*  oportet,  is*  frequens,  <cui  infrequens)*  opponi 
solet.     Itaque  illud  quod  eaedem  mulierculae  dicunt  : 

<Pol  ist>o*  quidem  nos  pretio  <facile* 

0>ptanti  est^  frequentare : 

Ita  in  prandio  nos  lepide  ac  nitide 


apparet  dicere  :   facile  est  curare  ut  (adsidue)*  adsi- 
mus,  cum  fam'  bene  nos  accipias. 

100.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Decretum  est  stare  <atque  fodari)^  corpora  telis. 

Hoc  verbum  Ennii  dictum  a  fodiendo,  a  quo  fossa. 

101.  Apud  Ennium  : 

Vocibus  concide,  fac  <s>i  mus<s)et^  obrutum. 

§  99.  1  Aug.,  for  quo  desimi.  *  Ellis ;  fere  quom 
Canal;  for  ferret  quern.  ^  Aug.,  with  B,  for  his. 
*  Added  by  L.  Sp.  *  GS.  (pol  istoc  Aug.,  from  Plautus), 
/or  dicunto.  ^  Added  by  Aug.,  from  Plautus.  '' Schoell 
{after  A.  Sp.,  who  proposed  and  rejected  optanti), /or  ptanti 
Jf^,  with  p  deleted  by  cross-lines.  *  Added  by  GS.  *  Aug., 
for  iam. 

§  100.  1  GS.,  after  Fest.  84.  7  M.  ;  est  stare  et  fossari 
Bergk  ;  est  fossare  B,  Vertranius  ;  for  est  stare. 

§  101.  ^  L.  Sp.  ;  fac  is  musset  Mue. ;  face  musset  Turne- 
biis  ;  for  facimus  et. 

§  99  "  Plautus,  Cist.  6.  *  Frequens  usually  means 
'  in  numbers  '  (that  is,  many  at  one  place  at  the  same  time) 



99-     In  the  same  author,"  the  word  frequentem  * 
frequent  '  in 

Frequent  aid  you  gave  me 

means  assiduam  '  busily  present ' :  therefore  he  who  is 
at  hand  as»iduus  '  constantly  present  '  Jere  et  quom 
'  generally  and  when  '  he  ought  to  be,  he  is  frequens, 
as  the  opposite  of  which  infrequens  "  is  wont  to  be  used. 
Therefore  that  which  these  same  girls  say  •*  : 

Dear  me,  at  that  price  that  you  say  it  is  easy 
For  one  who  desires  it  to  be  frequently  with  us  ; 
So  nicely  and  elegantly  you  received  us 
At  luncheon, 

clearly  means  :  it  is  easy  to  get  us  to  be  constantly 
present  at  your  house,  since  you  entertain  us  so  well. 

100.  In  Ennius  «  : 

Resolved  are  they  to  stand  and  be  dug  through  their 
bodies  with  javelins. 

This  verhjbdare  '  to  dig  '  which  Ennius  used,  was  made 
from  Jbdere  '  to  dig,'  from  which  comes  Jhssa  '  ditch.' 

101.  In  Ennius  "  : 

With  words  destroy  him,  crush  him  if  he  make  a  sound. 

and  not  '  frequent '  (that  is,  one  in  the  same  place  at  many 
diflFerent  times),  which  is  why  the  word  here  needs  explana- 
tion. Varro  takes  it  as  a  shortening  of  the  phrase  /ere  et 
quom  —  rr^e^quom+s,  which  needs  no  refutation.  '  Used 
especially  of  a  soldier  qui  abest  afuitve  a  signis  '  who  is  or  has 
been  absent  from  his  place  in  the  ranks  '  (Festus,  112.  7  M.). 
**  Cist.  8-11,  with  omissions  ;  anapaestic  and  bacchiac  verses 

§100.     » Ann.   571    Vahlen*;   R.O.L.  i.   190-191   Warm- 

§  101.     •  Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  393  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  i.  378- 
379   Warniington. 

VOL.  I  2  A  353 


Mussare  dictum,  quod  muti  non  amplius  quam  fxv 
dicunt  ;   a  quo  idem  dicit  id  quod  minimum  est  : 

Neque,  ut  aiunt,  fiC  facere  audent. 

102.  Apud  Pacuium  : 

Di^  monerint  meliora  atque  amentiam  averruncassint 

Ab>*  avertendo  averruncare,  ut  deus  qui  in  eis  rebus 
praeest  Averruncus.  Itaque  ab  eo  precari  solent,  ut 
pericula  avertat. 

103.  In  Aulularia  : 

Pipulo  te^  difFeram  ante  aedis, 
id  est  convicio,   declinatum   a  pi(p>atu*  pullorum. 
Multa   ab   animalium   vocibus   tralata   in   homines, 
partim  quae  sunt  aperta,  partim  obscura  ;  perspicua, 
ut  Ennii  : 

Animus  cum  pectore  latrat. 

Plauti  : 

Gannit  odiosus  omni  totae  familiae. 

<Cae>cilii=' : 

Tantum  rem  dibalare  ut  pro  nilo  habuerit. 

§  102.  1  For  dim.  «  jidded  from  Festus,  373.  4  M. 
^  Added  by  Turnebus. 

§  103.  ^  So  F  ;  but  pipulo  te  hie  Nonius^  152.  5  M.,  pipulo 
hie  Plautus.         *  Aldus,  for  piatu.         '  Laetus,  for  cilii. 

''  Onomatopoeic,  as  Varro  indicates.  "  Ennius,  In,c.  10 
Vahlen^;  R.O.L.  i.  438-439  Warmington. 

§102.  "Trag.  Rom.  Frag.  112  Ribbeck» ;  R.O.L.  ii. 
206-207  Warmington;  quoted  by  Festus,  373.  4  M.,  with 
ttiam,  and  by  Nonius,  74.  22  M.  (who  assigns  it  to  Lucilius, 
Bk.  XXVI.)  with  meam.  *  Monerint  is  perf.  subj.  of 
monere,  a  form  known  from  other  sources  also.  '  The 
word  combines  averrere  '  to  sweep  away  '  with  runcare 
*  to  remove  weeds.'  ^  Mentioned  elsewhere  only  by 


Mussare  *  '  to  make  a  sound  '  is  said  because  the  miiti 
'  mute  '  say  nothing  more  than  mu  ;   from  which  the 
same  poet  uses  this  for  that  which  is  least  "^  : 
And,  as  they  say,  not  even  a  mu  dare  they  utter. 

102.  In  Pacu\-ius  "  : 

May  the  gods  advise  *  thee  of  better  things  to 
do,  and  thy  madness  sweep  away  ! 

Averruncare  *'  '  to  sweep  away  '  is  from  avertere  '  to 
avert,'  just  as  the  god  who  presides  over  such  matters 
is  called  Averruncus.**  Therefore  men  are  wont  to 
pray  of  him  that  he  avert  dangers. 

103.  In  The  Story  of  the  Money- Jar  «  : 

By  my  cheeping  I'll  bring  you  into  disrepute  before 
the  house. 

This  pipulus  '  cheeping  '  is  convicium  '  reviUng,'  derived 
from  the  pipatus  '  cheeping  '  of  chicks.  Many  terms 
are  transferred  from  the  cries  of  animals  to  men,*  of 
which  some  are  obvious  and  others  are  obscure. 
Among  the  clear  terms  are  the  follo^ving  :  Ennius's  " 

For  it  his  mind  and  his  heart  both  are  barking. 
Plautus's  ** 

The  odious  fellow  yelps  at  all  his  household,  every  one. 
Caecilius's  * 
To  bleat  the  thing  abroad,  so  that  he  thought  it  nought. 

Gellius,  V.  12.  14,  as  a  god  who  may  avert  ills  from  men  if 
his  favour  be  won. 

§  103.  "  Plautus,  Aul.  446.  *  The  special  words  in  this 
and  the  next  section  are  properly  used  of  animal  cries  and 
noises,  but  in  these  citations  are  applied  to  sounds  made  by 
human  beings.  'Ann.  584  Vahlen*  ;  R.O.L.  i.  174-175 
Warmington ;  cf.  Odys.  xx.  13,  ''Fab.  inc.,  frag.  Ill 
Ritschl.  'Com.  Rom.  Frag.  249  Ribbeck';  R.O.L.  i. 
554-555  Warmington. 



Lucilii  : 

Haec,  inquam,  rudet  ex  rostris  atque  hei<u>htabit.* 
Eiusdem  : 

Quantum  hinnitum  atque  equitatum. 

104.     Minus  aper^a,  wt^  Porcii  ab  lupo  : 
Volitare  ululantis. 
En(n>ii*  a  vitulo  : 

Tibicina  maximo  labore  mugit. 
Eiusdem  a  bove  : 

Clamore'  bovantes. 
.  Eiusdem  a  leone  : 

Pausam  fecere*  fremendi. 
Eiusdem  ab  haedo^  : 

Clamor  ad  caelum  volvendus  per  aethera  vagit. 
Suei  a*  (merula)'  : 

Frendi^  e  fronde  et  fritinni<t>®  suaviter. 

*  From  Nonius,  21.  20,  for  heilitabit. 

§  104.  ^  L.  Sp.  ;  aperta  Aug.  ;  for  aperiant.  ^  For 
enii.  '  Aldus,  for  clamorem.  *  Rhol.,  for  facere. 
'  Aug.,  for  edo.  *  Luc.  Mueller,  for  sueta.  '  Added  by 
OS.,  after  Heraeus.  *  Stowasser,  for  frendice  frunde  et 
fritinni  F  ;  fronde  Kent. 

'261  Marx  ;  said  of  a  man  seeking  the  support  of  the 
voters,  according  to  Nonius,  21.  18  M.         "  1275  Marx. 

§  104.  "  Cf.  page  46  Morel.  » Inc.  7  Vahlen*:  R.O.L. 
\.   438-439    Warmington.  "  Ann.   585   Vahlen^ ;    R.O.L. 

i.  174-175  Warmington;  hoare  from  Greek  jSodi' '  to  shout,' 
with  assimilation  to  bov-em  'ox.'  ''Ann.  586  Vahlen^: 
R.O.L.    i.    174-175   Warmington.         'Ann.   531    Vahien^ ; 



Lucilius's  ^ 

This,  I  say,  he'll  bray  from  the  stand  and  lament 
to  the  public. 

The  same  poet's  ^ 

How  much  neighing  and  prancing  like  horses. 

104.     Less  clear  are  the  follo^\"ing,  such  as  that  of 
Porcius,  an  expression  derived  from  wolves  °  : 

To  flutter  while  howling. 

That  of  Ennius,  from  calves  ^  : 

The  piper-girl  doth  bleat  with  great  to-do. 

That  of  the  same  poet,  from  oxen  «^  : 

Bellowing  with  uproar. 

That  of  the  same  poet,  from  lions  **  : 

A  stop  they  made  of  the  roaring. 

That  of  the  same  poet,  from  young  goats  *  : 

Shouting  rolls  to  the  sky  and  wails  through  the 

That  of  Sueius,  from  blackbirds  ^  : 

From  'midst  the  leaves  he  '  snaps  his  bill  *  and 
sweetly  chirps.' 

R.O.L.  i.  156-157  Warmington ;  perhaps  clamos  or  clamorque 
should  be  read,  or  the  word  order  changed,  to  give  a  long 
syllable  in  the  second  place.  '  Sueius,  page  54  Morel ; 
writer  of  idylls  and  on  the  habits  and  breeding  of  birds ; 
perhaps  identical  with  the  eques  M.  Sueius,  aedile  in  74, 
friend  of  \'arro  and  Cicero  and  owner  of  a  profitable  bird- 
breeding  establishment.  "  Denoting  a  man,  not  a  bird. 
"  Frendere,  often  meaning  '  to  gnash  the  teeth,'  here  means 
'  to  make  a  harsh  note,'  as  certain  birds  do.  *  Cf. 
Corpus  Gloss.  Ixit.  vi.-vii.,  on  fritamentum  {vox  merulae) 
and  fritinniunt. 



Macci'  in  Casina,  a  fringuilla  : 

Quid  fringuttis  ?     Quid  istuc  tarn  cupide  cupis  ? 

Suet^'  a  volucribus^^  : 

Ita  traded  aeque  in  re<m>  neque^*  in 
Judicium  ^esopi  nee  theatri  trittiles. 

105.     In  Colace  : 

Nexum   .    .    . 

<Nexum>^  Mawilius*  scribit  omne  quod  per  libram  et 
aes  geritur,  in  quo  sint  mancipia  ;  Mucius,  quae  per 
aes  et  libram  fiant  ut  obligentur,  praeter  quom* 
mancipio  detur.  Hoc  verius  esse  ipsum  verbum 
ostendit,  de  quo  quaerit<ur>*  :  nam  id  aes*  quod 
obligatur  per  libram  neque  suum  fit,  inde  nexum 
dictum.  Liber  qui  suas  operas  in  servitutem  pro 
pecunia  quam  debebat  (nectebat),*  dum  solveret, 
nexus  vocatur,  ut  ab  aere  obaeratus.     Hoc  C.  Poetelio 

*  GS.,  after  Mati  Mue.,  for  Maccius.  ^"  Baehrens,  for 
sues.  ^^  Mue.  ;  a  volucri  L.  Sp.  ;  for  auoluerat. 
^^  Kent,  for  tradedeque  inreneque. 

§  105.  ^  Added  by  L.  Sp.,  who  recognized  the  lacuna. 
^  Laettis,  for  mamilius.  '  Huschke,  for  quam.  *  Aug., 
for  querit.  *  Mommsen,  for  est.  *  debebat  nectebat 
Kent  ;  debeat  dat  Aug.  ;  for  debebat. 

'  Plautus,  Cas.  267 ;  the  more  common  orthography  is 
fringilla  and  friguttis.  *  Frag.  Poet.  Lat.,  page  54 
Morel ;  wrongly  listed  by  Ribbeck'  as  Juventius,  Com. 
Rom.  Frag.  IV.  '  Trit,  the  sound  made  by  the  crushing 
or  breaking  of  a  hard  grain  or  seed,  as  by  the  strong-beaked 
birds.  If  the  text  is  correctly  restored,  the  passage  refers 
to  a  complaint  against  trittiles,  that  is,  persons  who  made 
similar  noises  and  thereby  disturbed  a  theatrical  perform- 
ance ;  the  poet  says  that  he  will  refer  the  complaint  to  a 
regular  law-court,  and  not  to  the  prejudiced  decision  of  the 



That  of  Maccius  in  the  Casina,  from  finches  '  : 

What  do  you  twitter  for  ?     What's  that  you  wish  so 
eagerly  ? 

That  of  Sueius,  from  birds  *  : 

So  he'll  bring  the  snappers  '  fairly  into  court  and  not 
To  the  judgement  of  Aesopus  "•  and  the  audience. 

105.     In  The  Flatterer  "  : 

A  bound  obligation  .    .    . 

Xexum  '  bound  obligation,'  Manilius  ^  writes,  is  every- 
thing which  is  transacted  by  cash  and  balance-scale,*' 
including  rights  of  ownership  ;  but  Mucins  **  defines 
it  as  those  things  which  are  done  by  copper  ingot  and 
balance-scale  in  such  a  way  that  they  rest  under 
formal  obligation,  except  when  deUvery  of  property  is 
made  under  formal  taking  of  possession.  That  the 
latter  is  the  truer  interpretation,  is  shown  by  the  very 
word  about  which  the  inquiry  is  made  :  for  that  copper 
which  is  placed  under  obligation  according  to  the 
balance-scale  and  does  not  again  become  independent 
(nee  suum)  of  this  obligation,  is  from  that  fact  said  to 
be  nexum  '  bound.'  A  free  man  who,  for  money  which 
he  owed,  nectebat  '  bound  '  his  labour  in  slaver}"  until 
he  should  pay,  is  called  a  nexus  '  bondslave,'  just  as  a 
man  is  called  obaeratus  '  indebted,'  from  aes  '  money- 
debt.'     When   Gains   Poetelius   Libo  Visulus  *  was 

offended  actor  and  of  the  annoyed  fellow  -  spectators. 
"*  Famous  tragic  actor  of  Cicero's  time. 

§  105.  "•  Plautus,  Frag.  IV  Ritschl ;  but  possibly  from 
the  Colax  of  Naevius.  ^  Page  6  Huschke.  '  That  is, 
by  agreement  to  pav  a  sum  of  money,  measured  by  weight. 
<*  Page  18  Huschke."  '  Consul  in  346,  333  (?),  326  (Liyy, 
viii.  23.  17),  and  dictator  in  313  (Livy,  ix.  28.  2),  in  which 
Varro  sets  the  alx)lition  of  slavery  for  debt,  though  Livy, 
viii.  28,  sets  it  in  his  third  consulship. 



(Liybone  Visolo''  dictatore  sublatum  ne  fieret,  et 
omnes  qui  Bonam  Copiam  iurarunt,  ne  essent  nexi 

106.     In  Ca<sina>  : 

Sine  ame^^  sine  quod  lubet  id  facial,* 
Quando  tibi  domi  nihiP  delicuum  est. 

Dictum  ab  eo,  quod  <ad)  deliquandum  non  sunt,  ut 
turbida  quae  sunt  deliquantur,  ut  liquida  fiant. 
Aurelius  seribit  delicuum  es*e*  ab  liquido  ;  Cla(u>dius 
ab  eliquato.  Si  quis  alterutrum  sequi  malet,*  habebit 

Apud  Atilium  : 

Per  laetitiam  liquitur 
Ab  liquando  liquitur  fictum. 

VI.  107.  Multa  apud  poetas  reliqua  esse  verba 
quorum  origines  possint  dici,  non  dubito,  ut  apud 
Naevium  in  y^esiona  mucro^  gladii  "  lingula  "  a 
lingua  ;  in  Clastidio  "  vitulantes  "  a  Vitula  ;  in  Dolo 

'  Poetelio  Libone  Visolo  Lachmann  ;  Poetelio  Visolo  Aug.  ; 
for  popillio  vocare  sillo. 

§  106.  ^  In  Casina  Laetus,  sine  amet  Aldus  {from  Plaittus), 
for  in  casineam  esses.  ^  Aug.  {from  Plautus),  for  facias. 
'  Plautus  has  nihil  domi.  *  For  est.  *  Laetus,  for 

§  107.  ^  Aesiona  Buecheler,  mucro  Groth,  for  esionam 

f  That  is,  swore  that  they  were  not  regular  slaves,  but  were 
held  in  slavery  for  debt  only,  "  Mentioned  also  by  Ovid, 
Met.  ix.  88. 

§  106.  "  Plautus,  Cas.  206-207  ;  anapaestic.  *  Appar- 
ently meant  by  Plautus  as  '  lacking,'  from  delinquere  '  to 
lack,'  and  so  understood  by  Festus,  73. 10  M.,  who  glosses  it 
with  minus.  Varro  has  taken  it  as  '  strainable,  subject  to 
straining  (for  purification),'  and  has  connected  it  with  liquare 
and  liquere  '  to  strain,  purify,'  also  '  to  melt.'         '  Page 



dictator,  this  method  of  dealing  ^vith  debtors  was 
done  away  with,  and  all  who  took  oath  ^  by  the  Good 
Goddess  of  Plenty  ^  were  freed  from  being  bond- 

106.     In  the  Casina  "  : 

Let  him  go  and  make  love,  let  him  do  what  he  will. 
As  long  as  at  home  you  have  nothing  amiss. 

Nihil  delicuum  *  '  nothing  amiss  '  is  said  from  this,  that 
things  are  not  ad  deliquandum  '  in  need  of  straining 
out  '  the  admixtures,  as  those  which  are  turbid  are 
strained,  that  they  may  become  liqvida  '  clear.' 
Aurelius  "  writes  that  delicuum  is  from  liquidum  '  clear ' ; 
Claudius,**  that  it  is  from  eliquatum  '  strained.'  Any- 
one who  prefers  to  follow  either  of  them  \n\\  have  an 
authority  to  back  him  up. 

In  AtiUus  *  : 

With  joy  his  mind  is  melted. 
Uquitur  '  is  melted  '  is  formed  from  liquare  '  to  melt.' 

VI.  107.  I  am  quite  aware  "  that  there  are  many 
words  still  remaining  in  the  poets,  whose  origins 
could  be  set  forth  ;  as  in  Naevius,^  in  the  Hesione," 
the  tip  of  a  sword  is  called  lingula,  from  lingua 
'  tongue  ' ;  in  the  Clastidium,^  vitulantes  '  singing  songs 

89  Funaioli.  ^  Page  97  Funaioli.  *  Com.  Rom.  Frag., 
inc.  fab.  frag.  II,  page  37  Ribbeck*. 

§  107.  »  Cf.  the  beginning  of  §  109.  *  All  the  citations 
in  §  107  and  §  108  are  from  Naevius;  R.O.L.  ii.  88-89,  92-93, 
96-97,  104-105,  136-137,  597-598  Warmington.  '  Trag. 
Rom.  Frag.  1  Ribbeck'  ;  for  the  spelling  of  the  title,  cf. 
Buecheler,  Rh.  Mus.  xxvii.  475.  **  Trag.  Rom.  Frag., 
Praet.  I  Ribbeck' ;  vitulari  was  glossed  by  Varro  with  Traiavi- 
Cfiv,  according  to  Macrobius,  Sat.  iii,  2.  11.  It  is  difficult 
to  connect  the  two  words  with  Latin  rictus  and  victoria,  so 
that  the  resemblance  may  be  fortuitous — unless  Vitula  be  a 
dialectal  word,  with  CT  reduced  to  T. 



"  caperrata  fronte  "  a  caprae  fronte  ;  in  Demetrio 
"  persibus  "  a  perite  :  itaque  sub  hoc  glossema 
'  callide  '  subscribunt  ;  in  Lampadione  "  protinam  " 
a  protinus,  continuitatem  significans  ;  in  Nagidone 
"  c/u(ci>da<us  "*  suavis,  tametsi  a  magistris  accepi- 
mus  mansuetum  ;  in  Romulo  "  <con)sponsus  "^contra 
sponsum  rogatus  ;  in  Stigmatia  "  praebia  "  a  prae- 
bendo,  ut  sit  tutus,  quod  si(n>t*  remedia  in  collo 
pueris  ;  in  Technico^  "  conficiant"*  a  conficto  con- 
venire  dictum  ; 

108.  In  Tarentilla  "  p<r)ae<(l>u(c>idum  "^  a  luce, 
illustre  ;  in  Tunicularia  : 

ecbol<ic>as*  aulas  quassant 

quae  eiciuntur,  a  Graeco  verbo  €Kf3o\Ti'f  dictum  ;  in 
Bello  Punico  : 

nee  satis  sardare* 

*  Scaliger,  for  caudacus.  *  Neukirch,  with  Popma,  for 
sponsus.  *  Laetus,  for  sit.  *  For  thechnico.  *  Turne- 
bus,  for  conficiant. 

§  108.  ^  Mue.,  for  pacui  dum.  *  Kent,  for  exbolas, 
metri  gratia.  '  Aldus,  for  exbole.  *  A.  Sp.  (from 
Festus,  323.  6  M.),  for  sarrare. 

*  Com.  Mom.  Frag,  after  49  Ribbeck';  caperrata  may  be 
related  to  capra  only  by  popular  etymology.  ^  Com.  Rom. 
Frag,  after  49  Ribbeck*  ;  persibus  is  seemingly  an  Oscan 
perfect  participle  active,  cf.  Oscan  sipus,  from  which  perhaps 
it  is  to  be  corrected  to  persipus,  "Page  113  Funaioli. 
''  Com.  Rom.  Frag,  after  60  Ribbeck*.  *  Com.  Rom. 
Frag,  after  60  Ribbeck'  ;  clucidatus  is  a  participle  to  a  Latin 
verb  borrowed  from  Greek  yXvKii,€iv  '  to  sweeten.'  ^  Trag. 
Rom.  Frag.,  Praet.  IT  Ribbeck' ;  for  consponsus,  cf.  vi.  70. 

*  Com.  Rom.  Frag.  71  Ribbeck^.  '  Com.  Rom.  Frag,  after 
93  Ribbeck^ ;  confictant,  derived  from  confingere. 



of  victory,'  from  Vitula  'Goddess  of  Joy  and  Victory  ' ; 

in  The  Artifice,'  caperrata  fronte  '  with  wrinkled  fore- 
head,' from  the  forehead  of  a  capra  '  she-goat  '  ;  in 
the  Demetrius,^  persibus  '  very  kno\ving,'  from  perite 
*  learnedly  '  :  therefore  under  this  rare  word  they 
write  ^collide'  shrewdly  '  ;  in  the  Lampadio,'^  protinam 
'  forthwith  '  from  protinus  (of  the  same  meaning), 
indicating  lack  of  interruption  in  time  or  place  ;  in 
the  Nagido,*  clucidatus  '  sweetened,'  although  we  have 
been  told  by  the  teachers  that  it  means  '  tame  '  ;  in 
the  Romulus,^  consponsus,  meaning  a  person  who  has 
been  asked  to  make  a  counter-promise  ;  in  The 
Branded  Slave, ^  praehia  '  amulets,'  from  praebere  '  pro- 
viding '  that  he  may  be  safe,  because  they  are  prophy- 
lactics to  be  hung  on  boys'  necks  ;  in  The  Craftsman,^ 
corifictant '  they  unite  on  a  tale,'  said  from  agreeing  on 
a  confictum  '  fabrication.' 

108.  Also,  in  The  Girl  of  Tarenium,'^  praelucidum 
'  ver}'  brilliant,'  from  lux  '  light,'  meaning  '  shining  ' ; 
in  The  Story  of  the  Shirt, ^ 

They  shake  the  jars  that  make  the  lots  jump  out, 

ecbolicas'  causing  to  jump  out,'  because  of  the  lots 
which  are  cast  out,  is  said  from  the  Greek  word 
eKJSoXy'j  ;  and  in  The  Punic  War  <= 

Not  even  quite  sardare  '  to  understand  like  a  Sardinian,' 

§  108.  «  Cam.  Rom.  Frag,  after  93  Ribbeck'.  *  C<m. 
Rom.  Frag.  103  Ribbeck»;  R.O.L.  ii.  106-107  Warming- 
ton  (with  different  interpretation).  '  Frag.  Poet.  Rom. 
53-54  Baehrens;  R.O.L.  ii.  72-73  Warmington.  According 
to  Festus,  322  a  24  and  323.  6  M.,  sardare  means  intel- 
legere,  perhaps  '  to  understand  like  a  Sardinian,'  that  is, 
very  poorly,  for  the  Sardinians  had  in  antiquity  a  bad  re- 
putation in  various  lines.  The  verse  of  Naevius  runs : 
Quod  tyruti  nee  satis  sardare  queunt. 


ab  serare  dictum,  id  est  aperire  ;  hinc  etiam  sera,* 
qua  remota  fores  panduntur. 

VII.  109.  Sed  quod  vereor  ne  plures  sint  futuri 
qui  de  hoc  genere  me  quod  nimium  multa  scripseriwi^ 
reprehendant  quam  quod^  reliqueriw^  quaedam 
accusent,  ideo  potius  iam  reprimendum  quam  pro- 
cudendum  puto  esse  volumen  :  nemo  reprensus  qui  e 
segete  ad  spicilegium  reliquit  stipulam.  Quare  in- 
stitutis  sex  libris,  quemadmodum  rebus  Latina 
nomina  essent  imposita  ad  usum  nostrum  :  e  quis  trt's* 
scripsi  Po.*  Septumio  qui  mihifuit  quaestor,  tris  tibi, 
quorum  hie  est  tertius,  priores  de  disciplina  verborum 
originis,  posteriores  de  verborum  originibus.  In  illis, 
qui  ante  sunt,  in  primo  volumine  est  quae  dicantur, 
cur  iTv/xoXoytKif  neque  ar(s)  sit'  neque  ea  utiUs  sit, 
in  secundo  quae  sint,  cur  et  ars  ea  sit  et  (ut>ilis*  sit, 
in  tertio  quae  forma  et^mologiae.* 

110.  In  secundis  tribus  quos  ad  te  misi  item 
generatim  discretis,  primum  in  quo  sunt  origines 
verborum^  locorum  et  earum  rerum  quae  in  locis 
esse  Solent,  secundum  quibus  vocabulis  te(m)pora 
sint  notata  et  eae  res  quae  in  temporibus  fiunt,  tertius 

®  Ed.  Veneta,  for  serae. 

§  109.  ^  Laetus,for  rescripserint.  ^  quam  quod  Aldus, 
for  quamquam.         '  For  reliquerint.         *  Laetus,  for  tres. 

*  po  stands  here  in  F,  but  \cith  lines  drawn  through  the  letters. 

*  L.  Sp.,for  ethimologice.         '  ars  sit  V,  p,  L.  Sp.,for  ansit. 

*  et  utilis  Turnebus;  et  illis  utilis  V;  for  et  illis  F.  *  For 

§  110.     ^  Crossed  out  by  F^,  but  required  by  the  meaning. 

■*  In  such  an  etymology,  Varro  is  operating  on  the  basis  that 
things  may  be  named  from  their  opposites;  cf.  Festus,  122. 
16  M.,  hidum  dicimus,  in  qtio  minime  luditur. 
§  109.     "  A  liber  or  '  book  '  was  calculated  to  fill  a  volumen 



where  sardare  is  said  from  serare  '  to  bolt,'  ^  that  is, 
sardare  means  '  to  open  '  ;  from  this  also  sera  '  bolt,' 
on  the  removal  of  which  the  doors  are  opened. 

Vn.  109.  But  because  I  fear  that  there  wiW  be 
more  who  will  blame  me  for  ^^"Titing  too  much  of  this 
sort  than  will  accuse  me  of  omitting  certain  items,  I 
think  that  this  roll  must  now  rather  be  compressed 
than  hammered  out  to  greater  length  "  :  no  one  is 
blamed  who  in  the  cornfield  has  left  the  stems  for  the 
gleaning. **  Therefore  as  I  had  arranged  six  books  '^  on 
how  Latin  names  were  set  upon  things  for  our  use  ^ : 
of  these  I  dedicated  three  to  Pubhus  Septumius  who 
was  my  quaestor,*  and  three  to  you,  of  which  this  is 
the  third — the  first  three  on  the  doctrine  of  the 
origin  of  words,  the  second  three  ^  on  the  origins  of 
words.  Of  those  which  precede,  the  first  roll  con- 
tains the  arguments  which  are  offered  as  to  why 
Etymology  is  not  a  branch  of  learning  and  is  not 
useful  ;  the  second  contains  the  arguments  why  it  is 
a  branch  of  learning  and  is  useful  ;  the  third  states 
what  the  nature  of  etymology  is. 

110.  In  the  second  three  which  I  sent  to  you,  the 
subjects  are  likewise  di\ided  off :  first,  that  in  which 
the  origins  of  words  for  places  are  set  forth,  and  for 
those  things  which  are  wont  to  be  in  places  ;  second, 
with  what  words  times  are  designated  and  those 
things  which  are  done  in  times  ;   third,  the  present 

or  '  roll  '  of  convenient  size  for  handling.  "  That  is,  who 
has  cut  oflF  the  ears  of  standing  grain  and  left  the  stalks. 
•  Books  II.-VII.  ;  cf.  V.  1.  ^  This  sentence  is  resumed  at 
Quocirca,  in  the  middle  of  §  110.  '  Varro  held  office  in  the 
war  against  the  pirates  and  Mithridates  in  67-66,  under 
Pompey,  and  again  in  Pompey's  forces  in  Spain  in  49  and 
at  Pharsalus  in  48  ;  but  it  is  unknown  in  which  of  these  he 
had  Septumius  as  quaestor.         ^  Books  V.-VII. 



hie,  in  quo  a  poetis  item  sumpta  ut  ilZa^  quae  dixi  in 
duobus  libris  solwta'  oratione.  Quocirca  quoniam 
omnis  operis  de  Lingua  Latina  tris  feci  partis,  primo 
quemadmodum  vocabula  imposita  essent  rebus, 
secundo  quemadmodum  ea  in  casus  declinarentur, 
tertio  quemadmodum  coniungerentur,  prima  parte 
perpetrata,  ut  secundam  ordiri  possim,  huic  libro 
faciam  finem. 

*  Victorius,  for  utilia.         *  Sciop.,  for  solita. 




book,  in  which  words  are  taken  from  the  poets  in 
the  same  way  as  those  which  I  have  mentioned  in 
the  other  two  books  were  taken  from  prose  writings. 
Therefore,**  since  I  have  made  three  parts  of  the 
whole  work  On  the  Latin  Language,  first  how  names 
were  set  upon  things,  second  how  the  words  are 
declined  in  cases,  third  how  they  are  combined  into 
sentences — as  the  first  part  is  now  finished,  I  shall 
make  an  end  to  this  book,  that  I  may  be  able  to 
commence  the  second  part. 

§110.     "This  resumes  the  sentence   interrupted  at  the 
middle  of  §  109. 


PHnted  in  Great  Britain  by  R.  &  R.  Clark,  Limiied,  Edinburgh 




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COLA  AND  GERMANIA.     Maurice  Hutton.     (Uh  Imp.) 
TACITUS  :    HISTORIES  and  ANNALS.     C.  H.  Moore 

and  J.  Jackson.     4  V^ols.      (Vol.  I.  2nd /mp.) 
TERENCE.     John  Sargeaunt.     2  Vols.     {5th  Imp.) 

T.  R.  Glover.     MINUCIUS  FELIX.     G.  H.  RendalL 
VALERIUS  FLACCUS.  J.  H.  Mozley.   {2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
VARRO:  DE  LINGUA  LATINA.     R.G.Kent.     3  Vols. 

AUGUSTI.     F.  W.  Shipley. 
VIRGIL.     H.  R.  Fairclough.    2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  I2th  Imp., 

Vol.  II.  \Oth  Imp.  revised.) 
VITRUVIUS :  DE  ARCHITECTURA.  F.  Grangei .  2  Vols. 



ACHILLES  TATIUS.     S.  Gaselee. 

SANDER.     The  Illinois  Greek  Club. 

AESCHINES.     C.  D.  Adams. 

AESCHYLUS.     H.  Weir  Smyth.     2  Vols.     {Srd  Imp.) 

APOLLODORUS.     Sir  James  G.  Frazer.     2  Vols. 

APOLLONIUS  RHODIUS.     R.  C.  Seaton.     (Uh  Imp.) 

THE  APOSTOLIC  FATHERS.  Kirsopp  Lake.  2  Vols. 
(Vol.  I.  5th  Imp.,  Vol.  II.  4<A  Imp.) 

APPIAN'S  ROMAN  HISTORY.  Horace  White.  4  Vols. 
(Vol.  I.  3rd  Imp.,  Vols.  II.,  III.  and  IV.  2nd  Imp.) 


ARISTOPHANES.  Benjamin  Bickiey  Rogers.  3  Vols. 
(Vols.  I.  and  II.  4^th  Imp.,  Vol.  III.  3rd  hnpA    Verse  trans. 

ARISTOTLE  :    ART  OF  RHETORIC.     J,  H.  Freese. 

MIAN  ETHICS,  VIRTUES  and  VICES.  H.  Rackham. 
{2nd  Imp.) 

ARISTOTLE:  METAPHYSICS.  H.  Tredennick.  2  Vols. 
(2nd  Imp.) 

Colours,  On  Things  Heahd,  Physiognomics,  On 
Plants,  On  Marvellous  Things  Heard,  Mechanical 
Problems,  On  Indivisible  Lines,  Situations  and  Names 
OF  Winds,  On  Melissus,  Xenophanes,  and  Gorgias. 

ham.     (2nd  Imp.  revised.) 

ALIA.  G.  C.  Armstrong ;  with  Vol.  II.  Metaphysics. 
(2nd  Imp.) 

ARISTOTLE:  ORGANON.  H.  P.  Cooke  and  H.  Tre- 
dennick.    3  Vols.    Vol.  I. 

ON  BREATH.     W.  S.  Hett. 

E     J    J  orstcr 

ARISTOTLE  :'  PHYSICS.  Rev.  P.  Wicksteed  and  F.  M. 
Cornford.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  II.  2nd  Imp.) 

ton Fyfe;  DEMETRIUS  ON  STYLE.  W.  Rhys 
Roberts.     {2nd  Imp.  revised.) 

ARISTOTLE  :  POLITICS.     H.  Rackham. 


ARISTOTLE:  PROBLEMS.    W.  S.  Hett.     2  Vols. 

H.  Rackham.     (With  Problems,  Vol.  II.) 

Rev.  E.  Iliffe  Robson.     2  Vols. 

7  Vols.     Vols.  I. -VI. 
ST.  BASIL:  LETTERS.  R.  J.  Deferrari.  4Vols. 
CALLIMACHUS    and    LYCOPHRON.     A.    \V.    Mair ; 

ARATUS.     G.  R.  Mair. 
CLEMENT  OF  ALEXANDRIA.    Rev.  G.  W.  Butterworth. 
DAPHNIS  and   CHLOE.     Thornley's  Translation  revised 

by  J.  M.  Edmonds;  and  PARTHENIUS.     S.  Gaselee. 

(3rd  Imp.) 
DEMOSTHENES:     DE    CORONA    and    DE    FALSA 

LEGATIONE.     C.  a.  Vince  and  J.  H.  Vince. 



MINOR  ORATIONS  :   I-XVII  and  XX.     J.  H.  Vince. 
ray.    4  Vols.     Vol.  I. 
DIOCASSIUS:  ROMAN  HISTORY.     E.  Cary.     9  Vols. 

(Vol.  II.  2nd  Imp.) 
DIO  CHRYSOSTOM.     J.  W.  Cohoon.     6  Vols.     Vol.  I. 
DIODORUS    SICULUS.     C.    H.    Oldfather.      12    Vols. 

Vols.  I.  and  II. 
DIOGENES  LAERTIUS.     R.  D.  Hicks.     2  Vols.     (Vol. 

I.  2rd  Imp.) 
QUITIES.    Spelman's  translation  revised  by  E.  Cary. 

7  Vols.      Vol.  I. 
EPICTETUS.    W.  A.  Oldfather.     2  Vols. 
EURIPIDES.     A.   S.  Way.     4  Vols.     (Vols.   I.,  II.,  IV. 

tth  Imp.,  Vol.  III.  3rd  Imp.)     Verse  trans. 

Lake  and  J.  E.  L.  Oulton.     2  Vols. 

Brock.     {2nd  Imp.) 
THE  GREEK  ANTHOLOGY.     W.    R.   Paton.     5   Vols. 

(Vol.  I.  3rd  Imp.,  Vols.  II.  and  HI.  2nd  Imp.) 

ONTEA.     J.  M.  Edmonds.     2  Vols. 



BION,  iMOSCHUS).  J.  M.  Edmonds.  {6th  Imp.  revised.) 
GREEK    MATHEMATICAL    WORKS.       Ivor    Thomas. 

2  Vols.     Vol.  I. 
HERODOTUS.     A.    D.    Godley.     4   Vols.     (Vol.    I.   Srd 

Imp.,  Vols.  II.-IV.  2nd  Imp.) 

White.     {5th  Imp.  revised  and  enlarged.) 

CLEITUS.    W.  H.  S.  Jones  and  E.  T.  Withington.    4  Vols. 
HOMER  :   ILIAD.     A.  T.  Murray.     2  \'ols.     (Vol.  I.  4^A 

Imp.,  Vol.  II.  3rd  Imp.) 
HOMER :  ODYSSEY.    A.T.Murray.    2  Vols.    {Uh  Imp.) 
ISAEUS.     E.  S.  Forster. 

ISOCRATES.     George  Norlin.     3  Vols.     Vols.  I.  and  II. 

Rev.  G.  R.  Woodward  and  Harold  Mattingly.     {2nd  Imp. 

JOSEPHUS.      H.   St.  J.  Thackeray  and   Ralph  Marcus. 

9  Vols.     Vols.  I.-VI.     (Vol.  V.  2nd  Imp,) 
JULIAN.    Wilmer  Cave  Wright.    8  Vols.    (Vols.  I.  and  II. 

2nd  Imp.) 
LUCIAN.     A.M.Harmon.      8  Vols.     Vols.  I.- V.      (Vols. 

I.  and  II.  3rd  Imp.) 
LYRA   GRAECA.     J.    M.    Edmonds.     3   Vols.     (Vol.    1. 

3rd  Imp,,  Vol.  II.  2nd  Ed.  revised  and  enlarged.) 
LYSIAS.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 

MARCUS  AURELIUS.   C.  R.  Haines.    {3rd  Imp, revised.) 
MENANDER.     F.  G.  Allinson.     i2nd  Imp.  revised.) 


Maidment.     2  Vols.  Vol.  I. 
PAPYRI  (SELECTIONS).     A.  S.  Hunt  and  C.  C.  Edgar. 

4  Vols.     Vols.  I.  and  II. 

Jones.     5  Vols,  and  Companion  Vol.     (Vol.  I.  2nd  Imp.) 
PHILO.     10  Vols.     Vols.  I.-V.    F.  H.  Colson  and  Rev.  G. 

H.  Whitaker;  \'ols.  VI.  and  VII.    F.  H.  Colson. 

TYANA.     F.  C.  Conybeare.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  3rd  Imp., 

Vol.  II.  2nd  Imp.) 



DESCRIPTIONS.     A.  Fairbanks. 

SOPHISTS.     Wilmer  Cave  Wright. 
PINDAR.     Sir  J.  E.  Sandys.     (6th  Imp.  revised.) 


W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 

HIPPIAS,  LESSER  HIPPIAS.     H.  N.  Fowler. 

DO,  PHAEDRUS.     H.  N.  Fowler.     {Tlth  Imp.) 

DEMUS.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb.     {2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO  :  LAWS.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.     2  Vols. 

Lamb.     {2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO:  REPUBLIC.      Paul  Shorey.    2  Vols.      (Vol.1. 

2nd  Imp.  revised.) 
PLATO:    STATESMAN,  PHILEBUS.     H.  N    Fowler; 

ION.     W.  R.  M.  Lamb. 

{2nd  Imp.) 

NUS,  EPISTULAE.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury. 
PLUTARCH  :     MORALIA.     14  Vols.    Vols.  I.-V.    F.  C. 

Babbitt ;  Vol.  X.     H.  N.  Fowler. 
PLUTARCH:     THE    PARALLEL    LIVES.     B.    Perrin. 

11  Vols.     (Vols.  I.,  II.,  III.  and  VII.  2nd  Imp.) 
POLYBIUS.     W.  R.  Paton.     6  Vols. 
PROCOPIUS:     HISTORY    OF    THE    WARS.     H.    B. 

Dewing.     7  Vols.     Vols.  I.-VI.     (Vol.  I.  2nd  Imp.) 
QUINTUS  SMYRNAEUS.     A.  S.  Way.     Verse  trans. 
SEXTUS  EMPIRICUS.     Rev.  R.  G.  Bury.      3  Vols. 
SOPHOCLES.     F.  Storr.     2  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  6th  Imp.,  Vol. 

II.  4th  Imp.)     Verse  trans. 
STRABO:    GEOGRAPHY.     Horace  L.  Jones.     8  Vols. 

(Vols.  I  and  VIII.  2nd  Imp.) 
THEOPHRASTUS  :    CHARACTERS.     J.  M.  Edmonds  ; 

HERODES.  etc.     A.  D.  Knox. 

Arthur  Hort,  Bart     2  Vols. 
THUCYDIDES.     C.  F.  Smith.     4  Vols.     (Vol.  I.  3rd  Imp., 

Vols.  II.,  III.  and  IV.  2nd  Imp.  revised.) 


XENOPHON  :   CYROPAEDIA.     Walter  MUler.     2  Vols. 

{2nd  Imp.) 

AND  SYMPOSIUM.     C.  L.  Brownson  and  O.  J.  Todd. 

3  Vols.     {2nd  Imp.) 

E.  C.  Marchant.     {2nd  Imp.) 
XENOPHON  :  SCRIPTA  MINORA.     E.  C.  Marchant. 



ARISTOTLE :  DE  CAELO.    W.  K.  C.  Guthrie. 

ANIMALS.     A.  L.  Peck. 


MANETHO.    W.  G.  Waddell. 

NONNUS.     W.  H.  D.  Rouse. 

PAPYRI:  LITERARY  PAPYRI.  Selected  and  trans- 
lated by  C.  H.  Roberts. 

PTOLEMY:  TETRABIBLUS.     F.  C.  Robbins. 


S.  AUGUSTINE  :  CITY  OF  GOD.     J.  H.  Baxter. 

CICERO  :  AD  HERENNIUM.     H.  Caplan. 

CICERO  :  DE  ORATORE.     Charles  Stuttaford  and  W.  E. 

CICERO  :  BRUTUS,  ORATOR.     G.  L.  Hendrickson  and 

H.  M.  Hubbell. 
CICERO:      PRO     SESTIO,     IN     VATINIUM,     PRO 


BALBO.     J.  H.  Freese. 
COLUMELLA  :  DE  RE  RUSTICA.     H.  B.  Ash. 
PRUDENTIUS.     J.  H.  Baxter. 

J.  C.  Rolfe. 



Cambridge,  Mass.    .  HARVARD  UNIVERSITY  PRESS